Open Access Original Research Article

Allelopathic Influence of Aqueous Extract of Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich.) Vahl on Seed Germination and Initial Seedling Growth of Cucumis sativus L.

Teli Cristiane Briekowiec Kremer, Oscar Mitsuo Yamashita, Ivone Vieira da Silva, Alan Carlos Batistão, Mayara Peron Pereira, Marco Antonio Camillo de Carvalho, Adriano Maltezo da Rocha

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/46525

Allelopathy studies investigate the positive and negative effects that secondary metabolites of plants, microorganisms or fungi on the development of neighboring individuals. This study aimed to evaluate the allelopathic potential of aqueous extracts of Stachytarpheta cayennensis on germination and initial development of Cucumis sativus L. seedlings variety. For this, the experiment was performed in the laboratory, using 5 concentrations (0, 5, 10, 20 and 40%) of the extracts, with 4 replicates each. The cucumber seeds were distributed in gerbox boxes lined with germitest paper, totaling 25 seeds per replicate. Subsequently, they were moistened with the extracts and kept inside the BOD-type germination chamber, regulated to 26°C and 12 hours brightness, following the completely randomized design for 7 days, and the control, for comparison purposes, was used distilled water. Comparing the zero dose to the other concentrations, the interferences in the GVI (germination velocity index) occurred in a greater proportion in the macerated stem concentrates diluted from 20%. Regarding MGT (mean germination time), the results point to interferences in this variable, in stem and leaf concentrates. Differential behaviors were observed when analyzing root and shoot length of seedlings, where macerated root extracts caused reduction as the doses increased. Extracts of stem showed increase of these variables as the doses increased. In leaf concentrates the result remained stable at shoot length and in smaller proportions regarding the root length of C. sativus seedlings. For dry matter, the leaf and stem concentrates increased this variable, while the root extracts had a reducing effect, remaining stable at 20%. The survey of the allelopathic potential of S. cayennensis contributes significantly with information of these plants considered as spontaneous and improve studies of the biological properties in the scientific community.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Vermicompost and Tuber Size on Processing Quality of Potato during Ambient Storage Condition

Maruf Mostofa, Tuhin Suvra Roy, Rajesh Chakraborty, Sourav Modak, Papon Kumar Kundu, Md. Sakif Zaman, Mafijur Rahman, Md. Shamsuzzoha

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/46554

Aims: The experiment was conducted to assess the effect of vermicompost and tuber size on processing quality of potato during ambient storage condition.

Study Design: Experiment was conducted in a split-plot design, where vermicompost levels were assigned to main plots and tuber size to subplots.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted at the agronomy research field of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, during the period from November 1, 2014 to April 30, 2015 and November 1, 2015 to April 30, 2016 in Rabi season.

Methodology: The experiment was consisted of two factors, i.e., factor A:- Vermicompost level (Vm-4): Vm1: 0 t ha-1 (Control), Vm2: 3 t ha-1, Vm3: 6 t ha-1 and Vm4: 9 t ha-1; factor B:- Tuber size (T-5): T1: 5-10 g, T2: 10-20 g, T3: 20-30 g, T4: 30-40 g and T5: >40 g. After harvesting, the potato was collected and stored at ambient condition for laboratory analysis.

Results: The research showed that vermicompost had a significant effect on most of the storage parameters. Results also showed that storage quality parameters increased with increasing vermicompost level irrespective of tuber size. Among the twenty (20) treatment combinations, vermicompost at the rate of 9 t ha-1 with tuber size >40 g showed the highest firmness (44.349 N), specific gravity (1.084 g cm-3), dry matter (22.77%), flesh color (L*- 75.60; a*- 11.76; b*- 24.96). In respect of ambient storage condition; weight loss increased with increasing storage time, while firmness, specific gravity, dry matter, flesh color decreased with increasing storage time. Quality parameters slowly decreased with increasing storage time up to 40 days after storage (DAS) and thereafter sharply decreased and finally became non-suitable both for table and processing purpose.

Conclusion: Therefore, the experiment showed that potato growers may use a higher dose of vermicompost for improving processing quality of potato and can store potato up to 40 DAS at ambient condition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Variation in Canopy Temperature and Its Relationship with Drought Tolerance in Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] Recombinant Inbred Lines

M. S. Alidu, F. K. Padi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/47090

Aim: The objective of the study was to develop drought tolerant cowpea inbred lines using leaf canopy temperature and grain yield under contrasting soil moisture conditions in the field.

Study Design: Split plot design was used for the experiment.

Place and Duration of the Study: The study was carried out in February and December 2016 and 2017 at Golinga and Libga irrigation sites respectively in the Guinea Savanna ecology of Ghana.

Methodology: The watering regimes at two levels were the main plots and the 22 recombinant inbred lines, with 2 parental checks, were the subplot factor. Treatment was completely randomized and in 3 replications given a total of 144 plots. Various agronomic data were taken and statistical analysis was done using Genstat edition 12. Leaf canopy temperature was used to calculate stress susceptibility index during the period of stress imposition.

Results: The genotypic and phenotypic correlations between yield and chlorophyll were r = -0.69 and r = -0.528 respectively. Negative correlations indicate that moisture stress delayed the onset and time to flowering and consequently reduction in yield. Under well-watered conditions, the susceptible lines had yields of 1.69t ha-1 whereas the low temperature inbred lines had mean yields of 1.9 t ha-1.  The mean yields of drought susceptible inbred lines (high temperature) lines had 1.1t ha-1, while that of the drought tolerant (low temperature) lines had mean yields of 1.24t ha-1.

Conclusion: The study revealed that genotypes exhibited variation in mean canopy temperature across the two watering regimes. Watering regimes for canopy temperature were significant for days 39, 45, 48 and 54 days after planting. Leaf canopy temperature has proven to be a useful physiological index for selecting drought tolerant cowpea under field conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potash on Yield Attributes and Quality of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris)

Kumar D. Lamani, S. I. Halikatti

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/46784

Field experiment was undertaken during 2005-06 to 2006-07 to study the various agro-techniques for sugar beet cultivation for Northern Karnataka at Agricultural Research Station, Bailhongal, Belgaum district (Karnataka) under irrigated condition. The experiment consisted of 28 treatment combinations comprising of graded levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Design of the experiment was randamized block design with factorial concept. Among the graded levels of nitrogen fertilization, application of 180 kg N ha-1 recorded significantly higher yield and quality parameters than other treatments. Within graded levels of phosphorus, both phosphorus 60 and 90 kg ha-1 were at par with each other. However, 30 kg phosphorus recorded lower yield attributes. Potassium application at 120 kg was significantly superior over rest of the treatments. The NPK at 180, 90 and 120 kg ha-1, respectively were found optimum for getting higher yield and quality attributes of sugar beet.

Open Access Review Article

Soil Quality Attributes and Their Role in Sustainable Agriculture: A Review

Weldemariam Seifu, Eyasu Elias

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-26
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2018/41589

Soil quality is the capacity of a specific kind of soil to function, within natural or managed ecosystem boundaries, to sustain plant and animal productivity, maintain or enhance water and air quality, and support human health and habitation. This definition of soil quality encompasses physical, chemical and biological characteristics, and it is related to fertility and soil health.  Soil quality, which can be viewed in two ways [1] as inherent properties of a soil and [2] as the dynamic nature of soils as influenced by climate, and human use and management, often is related to soil degradation, which can be defined as the time rate of change in soil quality. Soil quality should not be limited to soil productivity but should encompass environmental quality, human and animal health, and food safety and quality. In characterizing soil quality, biological properties have received less emphasis than chemical and physical properties, because their effects are difficult to measure, predict, or quantify particularly in developing countries like Ethiopia is totally ignored science of the soil department but is very important than the physical and chemical indicators. Improved soil quality often is indicated by increased infiltration, aeration, macropores, aggregate size, aggregate stability, and soil organic matter, and by decreased bulk density, soil resistance, erosion, and nutrient runoff. Ethiopia faces a wider set of soil fertility issues beyond chemical fertilizer use, which has historically been the major focus for extension workers, researchers, policymakers, and donors. The key soil level bottlenecks identified in various parts of Ethiopia are: Nutrient depletion (-122 (N), -13 (P) and  -82 (K) kgha-1yr-1, the highest in Sub-Saharan Africa), OM depletion(crop residue removal, intensive tillage, dung burning and  deforestation) , Biological deterioration (Loss of SOM and  decline in the biotic activity of soil fauna but the ignored part due to measurement facility), Chemical degradation (Salinity, sodicity, and  Acidity) and Physical land degradation (deterioration of soil structure, crusting, compaction, erosion, and desertification). Thus, in the way forward, ways of soil monitoring are in need on a reasonably regular basis, the quality of soils at all levels from global, through to continental, national, regional and landscape/ catchment areas is getting due attention through the SDG framework; SDG 15 specifically calls for halting and reversing land degradation by 2030. It is only in this way which shall be able to evaluate the sustainability of the use to which people are putting the land. In line with this in Ethiopia, responsible governmental bodies and stakeholders are working on priority areas for action to improve soil fertility.