Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Eggplant (Solanum spp) Genotypes for Proline Accumulation in Drought Conditions of Ghana

J. K. Laary, K. Ofori, F. Kusi, D. Oppong-Sekyere

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2018/v26i530053

Sixteen (16) genotypes of eggplant (Solanum spp) were grown over two years in the Coastal and Sudan Savannah areas of Ghana to identify proline accumulation response patterns of the genotypes under dry season and drought-stressed conditions of Ghana. The experiment was conducted at Savanna Agricultural Research Institute (SARI) experimental farm, Manga, Bawku (Sudan Savannah Agro-ecology), and University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, experimental farm (Coastal Savannah Agro-ecology). At each agro-ecology, leaf samples of the genotypes were collected at the flowering stages of growth, dried, milled and assayed for their proline levels. The proline data for each location and season for the two year period were separately analyzed by general analysis of variance (ANOVA), for the estimation of the variation among the genotypes in proline accumulation. Proline which confers tolerance of the crop to variable seasonal and drought-stressed conditions varied significantly, due to the genotype and genotype x environment interaction effects on its accumulation. The eggplant genotypes were observed to develop internal complementary drought survival mechanisms, by lowering leaf relative water contents (LRWC) and increasing proline content, thereby enabling plants to withstand periodic drought better. The genotypes A3, A4, A8, A9F, A10 and Bawku1 accumulated higher levels of proline under dry season and drought-stressed conditions of the Coastal and Sudan savannahs, with the associated high temperatures across locations. These genotypes could be selected on the basis of proline accumulation, for improved drought tolerance of the crop, and should be incorporated in eggplant drought tolerant improvement programmes in Ghana.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Sugar Beet to Graded Levels of Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potash on Nutrient Uptake and Economics

Kumar D. Lamani, S. I. Halikatti

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2018/v26i530054

Field experiment was undertaken during 2005-06 to 2006-07 to study the various agro-techniques for sugar beet cultivation for Northern Karnataka at Agricultural Research Station, Bailhongal, Belgaum district (Karnataka) under irrigated condition. The experiment consisted of 28 treatment combinations comprising of graded levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Design of the experiment was randamized block design with factorial concept. Application of 180, 90 and 120 kg ha-1 of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, respectively registered significantly higher nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake by sugar beet compared to other levels of nutrient. The same dose of nutrient application also improved gross returns and net returns. Farmers can adopt application of 180, 90 and 120 kg ha-1 of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, respectively for getting higher yield and quality of the crop.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biological Attributes of the Soil with Intercaled Crops and Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.): Sustainable Management in the Amazon

S. A. Saravia Maldonado, A. C. Centeno Cordeiro, V. Ferreira Melo, R. H. da Silva. Siqueira, I. Montero Fernández, S. C. Pereira Uchôa, A. Alves de Melo Filho

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2018/v26i530055

Aims: In the Brazilian Amazon, the practices and use of agroforestry systems (SAF) are increasingly used, the proper management of them helps to improve soil properties and also to prevent their degradation. In this context, the objective of this work was to evaluate the biological attributes of the soil in the oil palm cultivation systems with intercropping.

Study Design: The experimental design used was completely randomized with four repetitions and six treatments: Oil palm (Elaeis guineense Jacq.) interspersed with pineapple (OPi), bean (OBe), banana (OBa), yucca (OYu) and Brachiaria humidicola (OPa), as well as adjacent area only with Brachiaria humidicola as a witness (Pa). The Tukey test was used at a level of 5% probability in samples analyzed at a depth of 0-0.0 m, to compare the means of the variables evaluated.

Place and Duration of Study: The experimental area is located of São João da Baliza, vicinal 26, km 12, with geographic coordinates of reference 00º.51'13.3''N and 60º00'19.8''W, the altitude of 100 msnm and, distant to 352 km from the capital Boa Vista, state of Roraima realized in 2016.

Results: The TOC presented values between 4.70 and 9.45 g kg-1, being the highest values found in the interim systems OYu, Pa, OBa, highlighting the intermediate system OPi that presented the lowest levels. The highest basal respiration values ​​of the soil (RBS) (23.50 mg C-CO2 kg-1 soil h-1) and carbon from microbial biomass (C-BMS) (116.0 mg C microbiano kg-1 soil) were verified in the pasture system. Likewise, for the urease and acid phosphatase activity, the grass system stands out as a control with values of (148.42 g NH4+ g-1 soil 2 h-1) y (230 μg de p-nitrofenol g-1 soil h-1) followed by palm with grass and yucca systems. However, the β-glucosidase activity (51.22 μg p-nitrofenol g-1 h-1) it was positively influenced by the oil palm system with yucca. On the other hand, the system interspersed with pineapple showed a higher metabolic coefficient (qCO2) (0.36 mg C-CO2 g-1 C-BMS h-1). It can be concluded that the pasture system (Pa) is presented as a more stable environment, followed by interspersed systems of oil palm with grass (OPa) and yucca (OYu).

Open Access Original Research Article

Allelic Diversity in Apple Germplasm for Fruit Quality and Scab Resistance Using SSR Markers

Atifa Rasool, K. M. Bhat, H. U. Rehman, M. A. Mir, Shafia Zaffar, Arifa Jan, Ashiq Pandit, Z. A. Dar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2018/v26i530056

The present investigation entitled “Allelic diversity in apple germplasm for fruit quality and scab resistance using SSR markers” was conducted in division of plant biotechnology, SKUAST-K, Shalimar during the year 2018. In the present study, four SSR markers namely Md-ACS-1, Md-ACO-1, ALO-7 and AM-19 were used for screening of 40 apple cultivars presently under cultivation in SKUAST-K for quality and scab resistance. The results revealed that out of 40 cultivars evaluated, 3 were found homozygous (ACS-1-2/2), 17 were heterozygous (ACS-1-1/2) and 10 were homozygous (ACS-1-1/1), while as no amplification of ACS-1 was found for 10 cultivars. Similarly, for Md-ACO-1, 3 cultivars were found homozygous, 35 as heterozygous and 2 did not show any amplification. As far as presence of Vf gene conferring resistance against scab disease, ALO-7 amplified at 820bp and 570bp alleles, 570 bp fragment was observed in resistant genotypes and was absent in susceptible genotypes, while the 820 amplicon was observed in both resistant and susceptible genotypes. The markers AM19 led to the amplification of 520 bp fragment in few cultivars.

Open Access Review Article

Effect of Salicyclic Acid and Indole Acetic Acid on Tomato Crop under Induced Salinity and Cadmium Stressed Environment: A Review

Zahid Ahmad Malik, Eugenia. P. Lal, Zahoor Ahmad Mir, Ashiq Hussain Lone

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2018/v26i530052

Tomato is one of the common garden fruits in India and is cultivated worldwide because of its edible fruits that are rich in antioxidants, such as lycopene and carotenoid etc. Although densities of ascorbic acid and B-carotene in tomato are modest compared to some other vegetables, tomato ranks high as a source of vitamins A and C in human diets because of high consumption in many countries of the world. Cadmium (Cd) is probably one of the most toxic heavy metals, particularly at high concentrations, inhibiting plant growth and development, whereas at low concentrations Cadmium may also stimulate growth depending on the plant species. Cadmium can also negatively interfere with important plant processes such as water transport, oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria, photosynthesis and chlorophyll contents. Salinity reduces plant productivity first by reducing plant growth during the phase of osmotic stress and subsequently by inducing leaf senescence during the phase of toxicity. Salicyclic Acid (SA) and Indole acetic acid (IAA) are involved in the protection of plants against multiple stresses, Such as salinity, water stress, drought stress, and herbicides. Indeed, this may be also reported that Salicyclic acid and Indole acetic acide can ameliorate the injurious effects of heavy metals on plants.