Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Maize (Zea mays L.) Density on Morpho-Physiological and Yield Parameters in Bali, North West Region of Cameroon

Tange Denis Achiri, Teba Ivo Ketu, Dominic K. Njualem

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v27i130063

The aim of this study was to investigate the morpho-physiological and yield response of maize (Zea mays L.) variety as influenced by different plant density in Bali Nyonga, North West Region of Cameroon. The fives treatments (intra-row spacing) were: Treatment 1 (T1 = 15 cm ≈ 95200 plants/ha), Treatment 2 (T2 = 20 cm ≈ 71400 plants/ha), Treatment 3 (T3 = 25 cm ≈ 57100 plants/ha), Treatment 4 (T4 = 30 cm ≈ 47600 plants/ha) and Treatment 5 (T5 = 35 cm ≈ 40100 plants/ha). The treatments were arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design. Commercial NPK (20:10:10) fertilizer was used twice in the course of the study. This experiment was done in Bali Nyonga, a village located in Bali sub- Division, North West Region of Cameroon. This research was conducted in 2014 from March to July. There were four blocks, each with a surface area of 38.2 m2. Each block was divided into five raised beds. Each bed measured 300 cm x 40 cm. The peak of each bed was separated from the adjacent bed by 70 cm. The blocks were separated by a gap of 1.5 m. Each bed contained a treatment (intra-row spacing). Maize seed were sown per the intra-row spacing on the 20th on March 2014 after two consecutive heavy rain falls. Two fertilizer applications were made in the experiment; on the day of sowing and four weeks after emergence. Data was collected on physiological, morphological and yield parameters. SPSS ver. 23 was used for all analysis. Results indicated that different intra-row spacing influenced morpho-physiological (plant emergence, plant height, stem diameter, senescence, lodging leaf area index, plant vigour), and yield (number and weight of cobs at harvest) parameters of maize. The highest plant emergence and plant height was recorded from treatment 1 (P = .05). There was an inverse proportion between plant density stem diameter, plant vigour and leaf area index (P = .05). The number of cobs increased with plant density. The highest mean number of cobs at harvest was 12.8 for treatment 1 (P = .05). The highest mean weight of cobs harvested was from treatment 3 and treatment 2 (P = .05). There was also a strong regression (R2 = 0.792, P < .043). From the findings of this experiment maize density significantly influenced agronomic and yield parameters of maize. Farmers are recommended to use treatment 3 and treatment 2 for optimal growth and yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Disturbed and Intact Tropical Coastal Forest Sites in Tanzania

Elly Josephat Ligate, Can Chen

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v27i130065

This study investigated and established the variation of soil nitrogen, total carbon and phosphorus across closed forest; crop-agriculture and livestock disturbed sites. The study provides useful information for local management strategies. It sets initial basic data on the soil status of Uzigua Forest Reserve after 50 years of crop-agriculture and livestock grazing pressure. Forty-seven (50 m × 50 m) quadrats were established on each land uses for soil samples collection. Total nitrogen was analyzed by Kjeldahl acid-digestion, total carbon by the Walkley-Black procedures and phosphorus by Bray-II method. The mean values (percentage) were nitrogen = 16.07 ± 0.34, 1.75 ± 0.25, 6.5 ± 0.20; carbon =14.48 ± 0.23, 11.81 ± 0.13, 12.24 ± 0.30; phosphorus =14.12 ± 6.57, 17.74 ± 3.96, and 13.31± 2.86 for closed forest; agriculture disturbed and grazed sites respectively. There was a slightly lower amount of total carbon on crop agriculture disturbed sites than on the livestock grazed land uses. Carbon-nitrogen ratio was higher in closed forests than in the disturbed sites. The relationship between forest degradation and soil nutrient status is an indication that the below-ground nutrient pools are mainly determined by activities, which disturb the above-ground components mainly vegetation. To restore soil fertility status, it is important to establish the management of the disturbed sites through restoration of vegetation and minimization of disturbances.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biostimulation Potentials of Cow Dung on a Crude Oil Polluted Soil

Okunwaye, Iris, Ogboghodo, Ikponmwosa, Ewansiha, Sylvester, Oriakpono, Obemeata

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v27i130066

This field study was conducted to investigate the biostimulation effect of the application of cow dung to crude oil polluted soils. Four rates of crude oil (0, 100, 200 and 300 mL) and four rates of cow dung (0, 20, 40 and 60 g) were used respectively. It comprised of sixteen (16) treatment combinations replicated thrice, for a total of forty eight (48) plots with each plot measuring 1m x 1m. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design. Bacteria, fungi and Physico-chemical properties of the soils were determined before pollution, two weeks after pollution and at the end of the experiment. The results for the physicochemical properties of soil indicate an increase in pH, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C:N), total organic carbon (TOC) and nitrogen (N) while Phosphorus (P) decreased as the level of crude oil increased despite remediation with cow dung. There was an increase in the bacterial count for both the control and the treatment groups. The result range from 1.3 X104 to 77.2 X104. The genus of bacteria identified were Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Micrococcus, Proteus, Clostridium and Nocardia species. Four isolates were gram-positive while 2 were gram negative. Five were rod-shaped while one was coccus in form, while the fungal isolates are Cladosporium, Pichia, Aspergillus, Fusarium species. Soil analysis during the experiment revealed a general negative correlation coefficient implying enhanced remediation during the trial periods.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of Sugar Beet (Beeta vulgaris) to Different Dates of Sowing under Temperature Regime

Kumar D. Lamani, S. I. Halikatti

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v27i130067

Field experiment was undertaken during 2005-06 to 2006-07 to study the various agro-techniques for sugar beet cultivation for Northern Karnataka at Agricultural Research Station, Bailhongal, Belgaum district (Karnataka) under irrigated condition. The experiment consisted of 24 treatment combinations comprising of sugar beet dates of sowing and cultivars. Design of the experiment was split plot having date of sowing as main plot and genotypes as subplots. Among the 12 different dates of sowing, higher yield and yield attributes were observed in sowing at October I fortnight compared to the rest of the treatments and between the two sugar beet genotypes, Cauvery recorded significantly higher yield and yield attributes than Indus. Similar trend was followed for quality parameters also. Sowing of sugar beet crop either in winter season or monsoon gave higher yield and sowing in April month was not suitable as it gave very low yields.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Indole Acetic Acid and Boron on the Nutrient Contents of Summer Tomato Cultivar Bina Tomato-3

Munmun Saha, Md. Abul Khair Chowdhury, Md. Akhter Hossain Chowdhury

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v27i130068

A pot experiment was carried out with tomato variety BINA Tomato-3 in the net house of the Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), Mymensingh from March to August, 2010 to study the effect of Indole Acetic Acid(IAA) and Boron(B) on the nutrient contents of BINA Tomato-3. There were four doses of IAA viz. 0, 20, 40 and 60 ppm and B viz. 0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 kg ha-1. The experiment was laid out in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 3 replications. The result revealed that nutrient contents of tomato fruits and plants such as N, P, Ca, Mg and B were significantly influenced by the application of IAA and B. The highest N (0.70%), Ca (0.69%), Mg (0.80%) in tomato fruits and highest N (0.40%), Ca (0.93%), Mg (0.90%) in tomato plants  were obtained in 60 ppm IAA along with 2.0 kg B ha-1 and the lowest was obtained in the control treatment. In tomato fruits the highest P (0.41%) was found in IAA40B2.0 treatment, while the lowest P (0.18%) was recorded in IAA0B0.0. The lowest B (4.55µgg-1) was recorded in control, while the highest B (15.72µgg-1) was found in IAA20B2.0in tomato fruits. In tomato plants the highest P (0.34%) was recorded in IAA60B1.5 and the lowest P (0.20%) was found in control. The lowest B (4.15µgg-1) was recorded in IAA0B0.0, while the highest B(13.33µgg-1) was found in IAA40B2.0 in tomato plants. The overall results suggest that treatment IAA60B2.0 was the best from other treatments.