Open Access Original Research Article

Yield Response of African Rice Genotypes to Mycorrhizal Fungi and Rhizobium Inoculation

Segun Oladele, Moses Awodun, Alex Odiyi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v27i430080

Aims: A short term field study was conducted to investigate the yield performance of selected African rice genotypes inoculated with biofertilizers.  

Study Design: A randomized complete block design laid out in a split-plot arrangement was used to evaluate response of yield components and grain yield of some selected African rice genotypes will be to mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobium inoculation.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Teaching and Research farm of the Federal university of technology, Akure Ondo state, Nigeria during the 2013 planting season.

Methodology: The study was laid out in a split plot arrangement in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD), with mycorrhizal fungi, rhizobium inoculation and control in the main plot, while genotypes (N-U-1, N-U-8, WAB 56-104, OFADA GR and MOROBEREKAN) were in the sub-plot and treatments were replicated thrice. There were three main blocks, each block consist of 15 sub-plots with a size measurement of 2m x 1m and inter sub-plot spacing of 0.5m in between plots. A total of 50 plants were raised per sub plot. Transplanted seedlings were planted with the soil slurry containing rhizobium and mycorrhizal fungi inoculum into planting holes in the field at two seedlings per stand, according to their respective plot at a spacing of 25cm x 25cm. Yield component data collected include; number of days to 90% maturity, number of days to 50% flowering; plant height at maturity, number of primary tillers per plot, number of grains per panicle, number of panicles, number of filled and unfilled spikelet, weight of 1000 filled grains and grain yield per plot. 

Results: Result showed significant (P<0.05) single and interactive effect of rhizobium and mycorrhizal fungi inoculation on rice yield and yield components. 61.4% increase in grain yield was observed in rhizobium inoculated genotypes when compared to 37.4% increase in mycorrhized genotypes and the un-inoculated control. WAB56–104 and N-U-8 had the best interactive response amongst genotypes inoculated with rhizobium while genotypes WAB56-104 and MOROBEREKAN responded better amongst mycorrhized genotypes in relation to yield components.

Conclusion: The results from this study indicate that African rice genotypes differ in grain yield response and host specifity when inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobium inoculums. However, inoculating specific African rice genotypes with mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobium can positively influence their grain yield and yield component development and this could play an important role in improving African rice productivity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of NPK Blended Fertilizer Application on Chlorophyll Content and Tissue Mineral Contents of Two Finger Millet Varieties Grown in Acid Soils of Kakamega, Western Kenya

Dennis Simiyu Wamalwa, Phoebe Anyango Sikuku, Godfrey Wafula Netondo, Buyela Daniel Khasabulli

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v27i430082

Acidic soils with high exchangeable aluminium ions occur in most parts of Kenya, western Kenya inclusive. Aluminium toxicity is a serious environmental problem that affects crop productivity in Western Kenya region. The county governments of Kakamega, Bungoma, Vihiga, Busia and Trans-Nzoia are promoting the application of NPK blended fertilizer to ameliorate the soil acidity to increase maize production. Finger millet (Eleusine coracana L) is one of the important cereal crops in Kenya and has the ability to grow under unfavorable environmental conditions much better than other cereal crops.  It is for this reason that it is currently being popularized in efforts to address food security in the region, however, the effects of NPK blended fertilizer application on the selected physiological parameters of the crop is little known, hence prompting the study. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of NPK blended fertilizer application on chlorophyll content index and plant tissue mineral analysis. Randomized Complete Block Design with 0,25,50,75,100 kg application rates per acre of NPK blended fertilizer as the treatments were applied in two equal split applications. The measured parameters were chlorophyll content index using CCM-200 spectrophotometer, (Opti- Sciences Inc., Hudson, USA) from the plant leaves at 50% plot maturity. Motsara and Roy Procedures were used to determine plant tissue analysis for nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and magnesium at physiological maturity from the leaves. Data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using GenStat statistical package version 15.1. Means were separated by Least Significant Difference (LSD) test at 0.05 probability level. Regression analysis was used to estimate the relationship between variables. At the 75 kg/acre rate, the leaves showed the significant P<0.05 chlorophyll content, calcium, and potassium in both varieties for the two seasons, short rain, and long rain respectively. Control had the lowest physiological activities for both seasons regarding chlorophyll content, tissue calcium, magnesium, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Significant nitrogen content was observed on Gulu-E variety for both seasons on the highest rate whereas the same trend was observed on P-224 variety and during the short rainy season, a linear increase was observed with increasing NPK blended fertilizer rates. No conclusive pattern was observed during the short rainy season but with the control exhibiting the lowest phosphorus content for both varieties. A significant response to physiology (chlorophyll and plant leaf tissue mineral) might have been due to increased uptake of mineral nutrients present in the NPK blended fertilizer and increased soil pH caused by the liming action of the NPK blended fertilizer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Agro-morphological Variation in 71 Traditional Rice Cultivars in Sri Lanka

A. L. Ranawake, M. J. Hewage, N. G. J. Pradeepika, G. W. D. K. Jayasinghe

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v27i430083

Traditional rice cultivars in Sri Lanka have diverse characteristics that prove the excellent potential for utilizing them for varietal improvement. Seventy-one Sri Lankan traditional rice cultivars obtained from Plant Genetic Resources Center, Gannoruwa, Sri Lanka were used for diversity analysis. Data were collected in the middle-row-plants of each replicate and altogether 80 plants were evaluated in four replicates of each cultivar. Data were collected on 11 parameters in two consecutive Maha seasons in 2012-2014. According to the standard evaluation system of international rice research institute, 67% rice cultivars were tall, and 66% were low tillering. There was no any rice cultivar with high and good reproductive tillers/plant. Around 55% rice cultivars were partially sterile and 43% were fertile. The shortest days to maturity was recorded in Gonabaru (62 days) and the longest days to maturity was recorded in Vellainellu (105 days).

The variation of agro-morphological characteristics was broad in studied rice cultivars: The recorded highest yield was 22.74 g/plant while the lowest was 1.55 g/plant. The hundred-grain-weight ranged from 3.49-1.27 g and the plant height ranged from 95-192 cm. The recorded highest number of total tillers per plant was 10 and the lowest was 3. Panicle length and panicle weight were ranged from 13-32 cm and 0.36-4.69 g consecutively. The smallest grains were in Herath and the largest grains were in Mudaliwi. The heaviest above ground biomass was achieved by Kallurundoivellai and its harvest index was the least (0.09). The highest filled grain percentage (91.48%) was recorded by Galpa Wee.

The correlation analysis revealed that the yield per plant was significantly correlated with panicle weight, the total number of spikelets/panicle and number of fertile spikelets/panicle. There was no correlation between panicle length and the final yield of rice though panicle length was correlated with plant height and panicle weight. Total number of spikelets/panicle, the number of fertile spikelets/panicle, and plant height were significantly correlated with panicle weight. None of the parameters were correlated with hundred grain weight. Total biomass was correlated with plant height, the total number of spikelets, and fertile spikelets per panicle. There was no significant correlation between the biomass of rice with the final yield, however, a number of fertile tillers were correlated with a number of total tillers.

Eleven parameters were sorted into four principal components that explained 87.44% of total variance and cluster analysis categorized the rice cultivars into six clusters at rescaled cluster distance 10 in Ward's linkage analysis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Levels of Nitrogen & Phosphorus Fertilizer and Roguing on Seed Production of Rice in Bangladesh

Afia Sultana, Mohammad Salim, Md Abdul Kader, Md. Babul Akter, M. Kamruzzaman, Md. Imdadul Hoque

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v27i430084

An experiment was conducted at the Farmer’s Field, Boyra village, Mymensingh, Bangladesh during the period from February to May 2016 to study the yield performance of boro rice for seed production as influenced by nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization with different levels of roguing. The experiment comprised three levels of roguing viz. no roguing (R0), roguing one time (R1) and roguing two times (R2) and five doses of N and P fertilizers viz. Farmer practice (F1: 250 kg urea and 260 kg TSP), Optimum/recommended (F2: 187 kg urea and 200 kg TSP), High N (F3: 200 kg urea and 200 kg TSP), High P (F4: 187 kg urea and 240 kg TSP) and High N + High P (F5: 200 kg urea and 240 kg TSP). The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results revealed that the Optimum doses of fertilizer applications significantly produced the highest grain yield among the treatments. All the yield contributing characters showed the best performance in this treatment. Though roguing did not produce significant yield variation but the interaction effects did. Here, The Optimum doses of fertilizer without roguing (F2R0) produced highest grain yield but it was at per with F3R1, F2R2, F2R1, F4R1 and F5R2 treatments. Among the five statistically alike treatments F2R2 i.e. optimum fertilizer dose with two rougings produced the highest number of filled grains per panicle and highest seed germination and appreciably higher percentage of pure seed. Based on this experimental result, it appears that optimum fertilizer dose with two times rouging treatment performed the best for seed production in BRRI dhan29.

Open Access Review Article

Diseases of Major Bulbous Vegetable Crops and Their Management

Farahanaz Rasool, Nighat Mushtaq, Divya Slathia, Sharafat Hussain

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v27i430081

Onion and garlic are the major bulbous vegetable crops grown throughout the world. They are commercially used in the form of spice, vegetable or medicine. India ranks second in world production of both onion and garlic. These are mostly grown in states of Maharastra, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa, Gujrat, Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir and Karnataka. These bulbous crops are attacked by various pests and diseases at different growth stages causing considerable losses in yield, besides reducing the export potential. The continuous use of chemicals and pesticides pose severe threats to both environment and mankind, besides enhancing insect resistance to chemicals. It also disturbs microbial diversity which is an essential part of an ecosystem. This has created a new dimension in research for biological control and integrated approach for insect pest and disease control. Essential diseases and pests affecting major bulbous vegetable crops and their management are summarised in this manuscript.