Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Genetic Diversity of Seven Species of Solanum in Nigeria Using SDS-PAGE

Busirat Odunayo Ogundairo, Muyiwa Segun Ayodele

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v27i530085

Seed protein profile of 12 accessions belonging to 7 species of the genus Solanum of the family solanaceae were investigated through poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis. The accessions were selected based on their overlapping morphological associations observed on the field. Occurrence of two protein bands of molecular weights 100 kda and 20 kda in all accession showed interspecific relationships and could be used as generic bands among the genus Solanum. All morphologically similar accessions manifested similarities in their protein bands except S. melongena. Dendrogram based on upgma also revealed the generic status and intraspecific relationships of the accession of S. aethiopicum and S. macrocarpon.

Open Access Original Research Article

Potentiality of Some Egyptan Cotton Varieties under Drought Stress Conditions

M. D. H. Dewdar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v27i530086

This study aimed to investigate the performance of three cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) genotypes as affected by drought stress at three irrigation regimes; 14 (S-0), 21(S-1) and 28 (S-2) days that were started after the first irrigation. To achieve this goal, a field experiment was conducted as split block design at the Experimental Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, El-Fayoum Univ. The results indicated that the irrigation regimes mean squares of combined data were highly significant for earliness traits, also as well as yield and yield components.  Most of fiber properties were not affected by water stress conditions. Significant differences were found among the non- stress (S-0) and the stress treatments (S-1 and S-2) for mean performances of the three earliness traits. Treatment S-2 led to significant decrease in yield and yield components compared to S-0. The results showed that Giza 85 variety gave the highest fiber length, fiber strength and was finer cultivars having the lower micronaire values. The interaction between genotypes and stress treatments was significant for most traits.G1,G2 and G3 cotton varieties  exhibited highest seed cotton yield kg ha-1 (yield potential) in the non- stress treatment (S-0).  Giza 90 variety outyielded the other two varieties under stress treatment (S-2) compared to those of Giza 85 and Giza 83. The superiority of Giza 90 variety could be attributed to its high yield components., while Giza 90 was relatively stress susceptible and similar trend of those obtained using data of relative productivity (%) which confirm that the genotype Giza 83 and Giza 85 are more drought tolerance and could be used as sources of drought stress tolerance in breeding programs and tolerance to water stress conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Breeding Potential and Multivariate Analyses of Morphological and Yield Traits in Industrial Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) Accessions in a Humid Tropical Agroecology

Macauley Asim Ittah, Ekemini Edet Obok

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v27i530087

Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is propagated mostly by vegetative method. Although vegetative propagation conserves plant germplasm; it poses challenges in crop breeding. This field study assessed the breeding potential of twelve industrial sugarcane accessions in a humid tropical agroecology of Nigeria. The experiment was laid-out in a randomised complete block design with three replications. Accessions AKWA-005, B70607, C01001, CP65-357, DB37/45 and F141 produced flowers; an indicative trait of their suitability as prospective materials for hybridization. Accession DB37/45 had the highest Brix value of 16.3%, followed by B61208 with 15.7%, accession C01001 had the highest cane yield (58.9 t ha-1) and longest stalks (150 cm); these further highlighted the potentials of C01001, DB37/45, CP65-357, B61208 and AKWA-005 for yield improvement in sugarcane through selection. Whereas principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses (Ward’s method) grouped HAT4, F141 and IMO-002 together, the other accessions formed a separate but distinct grouping. These groupings provided a background information as an aid to selection of similar accessions. Cluster analysis and linear correlation identified significant (P = .05) positive associations between the following traits: stalk girth, stalk length and cane yield. Thus, these traits can be simultaneously selected for and improved in sugarcane. Overall, accession C01001, DB37/45, CP65-357, B61208 and AKWA-005 are recommended for inclusion in the breeding for adaptable lines of sugarcane in the humid tropical agroecology.

Open Access Original Research Article

Use of Software for Image Analysis and Calibration of Automated Rain Simulator

Edna Maria Bonfim-Silva, Tonny José Araújo da Silva, Rackel Danielly de Souza Alves, Jefferson Vieira José

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v27i530088

Aims: To calibrate and evaluate a rain simulator, with automatic operation, as well as determine the average size, the effect of the height of the equipment (2.12; 2.42 and 2.72 m) and of the oscillations of the spray nozzle of the rain simulator (21, 29 and 40 oscillations min-1). Finally, to test and to compare the results of the count of drops by the software of analysis and processing of images Able Image Analyser, ImageJ and Safira.

Study Design: The experimental design was completely randomized, with 3 x 3 x 3 factorial scheme, with three repetitions (81 units).

Place and Duration of Study: The research was conducted in a greenhouse, in the municipality of Rondonópolis, Mato Grosso, located geographically at latitude 16°27'49 "S, longitude       550°34'47" W.

Methodology: For the calibration tests, the rainfall simulator was adjusted according to the heights (2.12; 2.42 and 2.72 m) and oscillations (21, 29 and 40 oscillations min-1), followed by trays with a uniform layer of wheat flour, 2 cm thick, where the simulated raindrops were sprayed for a period of 4 seconds. From this procedure, the drops were dried, sifted, weighed and counted. Droplet analysis was performed using three image analysis software Able Image Analyser, ImageJ and Safira.

Results: The softwares Able Image Analyzer, ImageJ and Safira did not show any significant difference in counting of the number of drops. It was observed that in the oscillation factor in setting that if gets drops of larger size (21 oscillations min-1) the terminal velocity is also greater. In the height factor of the equipment, the drops presented larger sizes at the lower height (2.12 m). There are larger drops, higher terminal velocity as the height of the spray nozzle decreases, and higher kinetic energy value per unit area as the height of the spray nozzle increases. The range of drop sizes observed was 1.2 mm to 3.1 mm.

Conclusion: Although the software does not present significant differences, the ImageJ software proved to be more suitable as a research tool, since it has the license of free use and greater ease of use. Satisfactory results were obtained compared to natural rains in more than one combination of height and swings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Mulch Application on Growth Performance and Pod Yields of Hot Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under Irrigated Condition

Temesgen Molla, Girma Abera, Sheleme Beyene

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v27i530089

Hot pepper is an important vegetable and spice crop in Ethiopia. However, the productivity of hot pepper is limited by poor soil fertility and lack of proper soil and water conservation measures under irrigated condition. Therefore, hot pepper crop response to nitrogen (N) fertilizer and mulching experiment was conducted at Alage ATVET College. The treatments consisted of three mulch types (no mulch, transparent plastic mulch, and dry banana leaves mulch) and four levels of N (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N ha-1) factorial arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. A hot pepper cultivar commonly known as “MarekoFana” was used for the study. Days to 50% flowering, 50% fruit set, maturity and harvest were significantly prolonged in response to increasing N application. The delays were about 7, 19, 23 and 12 days at the N levels of 50, 100 and 150 kg N ha-1respectively compared to the control. The analysis of variance revealed that plant height, number of branches per plant, number of pods per plant, dry weight of seeds per pod, total weight of dried pods per plant, weight of individual dry pods and width were significantly (P = .001) increased by the main effect of mulching. Generally, the results revealed that nitrogen application significantly (P = .001) influenced all growth parameters, pod yield, and yield components of the crop. Nitrogen application at 100 kg ha-1 resulted in the highest total dried pod yield (4.5 tha-1), marketable yield (3.76 t ha- 1), pod length (13.3 cm), pod width (3.2 cm), mean dry weight of pod (3.85 g), and seed number per pod (108.4). The interaction of N and mulching also significantly (P = .05) affected marketable and total pod yields. In conclusion, based on agronomic performance and partial budget analyses results we recommend a combined application of dry banana leaves mulch and 100 kg N ha-1 for economically feasible and sustainable hot pepper production in Alage areas of Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia.