Open Access Original Research Article

Plug Cell Volume, Growing Media Quality and Benzyl Aminopurine (BAP) Spray Effects for Nursery Growth of Impatiens walleriana

J. De Lojo, E. Gandolfo, E. Giardina, C. Boschi, A. Di Benedetto

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v27i630091

Plant propagators must take two technological critical decisions: the plug-cell size and the growing medium, both of which have been mentioned as abiotic stress sources for bedding pot plants. However, only a few recent reports on bedding pot plants have simultaneously included limiting and non-limiting plug cell volumes and growing medium during nursery. The aim of this work was to assess the nursery performance of Impatiens walleriana seedlings grown in four plug cell volumes and four growing media with significant differences in both physical and chemical properties. Plants were sprayed or not with an early and single benzyl aminopurine (BAP) dose, aiming to understand how they interact on determining biomass accumulation at the pot transplant stage. The hypothesis tested was that, both plug cell volume and growing medium, must be seen as additive abiotic stress sources, which can be partially overridden by exogenous cytokinin supply. The main result was that, in I. walleriana seedlings, the abiotic stress imposed by the growing medium quality during nursery had a higher effect on biomass accumulation (on both fresh and dry base), leaf area expansion and photo assimilates partitioning than plug cell volume and constitute an interactive process associated with cytokinin synthesis. From a grower´s point of view, one expensive option to avoid root restriction is to use high quality growing media and increase the plug cell volume. In contrast, a single 100 mg L-1 BAP spray can partially override the root restriction symptoms related to abiotic stresses. The novelty of this work is related to the fact that growing media quality would be a more limited factor than plug cell volume for I. walleriana seedlings during nursery.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mechanical Damage in the Tillering, Development and Productivity of Wheat

Marcio Paulo Czepak, Valmor Sornberger, Weslley do Rosário Santana, Luã Víthor Chíxaro Almeida Falcão Rosa, Vinicius de Souza Oliveira, Karina Tiemi Hassuda dos Santos, Omar Schmildt, Edilson Romais Schmildt

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v27i630092

Wheat has great economic importance, especially in the Southern states of Brazil, is a good option for winter cultivation period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of mechanical damages in the induction of tillering, development and productivity of wheat. Treatments were two methods of mechanical damages (kneading and cutting) combined with five induction time of damages (seedling emergence, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after emergence) and one control (no mechanical damages). Variables evaluated were: tillering, final height of plant, final length of spikes, final number of spikes per m2, number of spikelets per spike and grain yield. The mechanical damages caused by the cutting method did not have positive effects on tillering, development and productivity of the wheat grain at any time of the cut. The kneading method did not increase tillers and productivity, nor did it reduce the number of tillers and productivity. The results, despite not being conclusive, demonstrate to be of the potential of cultivating wheat in an integrated crop-livestock system.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Different Doses of Fertiliser and Crop Geometry on Growth, Seed and Oil Quality, Consumptive Water Use, Water Use Efficiency and Soil Moisture Extraction in Late Sown Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea L.) Crop

Naveen Rathi, Bikram Singh, V. S. Hooda, Harender ., Mohammed Mohsin

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v27i630093

A field experiment was conducted at regional research station, Bawal, CCS HAU, Hisar during Rabi 2015-16 to study the response of late sown Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) to different dose of fertilizer and crop geometry. The experiment was conducted in split-plot design with four fertilizer dose viz. 70% of the recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF), 85% RDF, 100% RDF, 115% RDF in main plot and six crop geometry, viz. 30 cm x 10 cm, 25 cm x 15 cm, 30 cm x 15 cm, 25 cm x 20 cm, 30 cm x 20 cm and 25 cm x 25 cm in sub plots. The results revealed that numbers of primary and secondary branches per plant were significantly higher 115% RDF than 70% RDF, but it was at par with 85% and 100% RDF at all stages of crop growth. Wider crop geometry of 25 cm x 25 cm recorded significantly higher number of primary and secondary branches than narrow crop geometry (30 cm x 10 cm) at all growth stages of crop. Highest oil content was obtained in crop geometry of 30 cm x 10 cm along with application of 70% RDF, whereas, highest protein content was recorded in crop geometry of 25 cm x 25 cm along with application of 115% RDF. Late sown Indian mustard at crop geometry of 25 cm x 15 cm along with application of 85% RDF recorded highest water use efficiency however, highest consumptive use of water was recorded in 25 cm x 25 cm crop geometry along with application of 115% RDF.

Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Compaction and Soil Amendments on the Growth and Biomass Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.) and Soybean (Glycine max L.)

Seidu Iddrisu Bawa, Charles Quansah, Henry Oppong Tuffour, Awudu Abubakari, Caleb Melenya

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v27i630094

Two factorial pot experiments arranged in a Completely Randomised Design (CRD) with three replications were carried out to assess the impact of different levels of soil compaction and fertilizer amendments on root growth and biomass yield of maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) plants. The treatments were different rates of bulk densities – 1.3, 1.5 and 1.7 Mg m-3 and fertilizer amendments comprising 100% poultry manure (applied at 15 g/plant), 100% 15:15:15 NPK fertilizer (applied at 2.89 g/plant) and 50% rate each of poultry manure and NPK fertilizer (applied at 7.5 g poultry manure + 1.45 g NPK/plant), and control (no fertilizer amendments). Soil compaction reduced the heights of maize and soybean plants. Increasing soil compaction resulted in the accumulation of most of the root biomass in the uncompacted soil above the compacted layer. Application of soil amendments increased the relative root biomass of maize plants in the uncompacted soil, while that in the compacted soil was reduced. In the case of soybean plants, although the relative root biomass in the uncompacted soil was relatively greater than that of maize plants, application of soil amendments tended to slightly decrease the relative root biomass to that of the control. The shoot biomass of both crops decreased with increasing soil bulk density. All the applied soil amendments significantly increased the shoot biomass of maize and soybean plants over the control. The magnitude of response of the crops to the soil amendments was greater in soybean than in maize plants. Soil compaction and amendments significantly influenced root/shoot ratio of both crops. The root/shoot ratio decreased with increasing compaction from 1.3 to 1.5 Mg m-3, however, at 1.7 Mg m-3, the root/shoot ratio increased. The fertilizer amendments significantly influenced the root/shoot ratio of maize but not soybean plants. The fertilizer amendments increased the biomass of both roots and shoots, being higher in the former than in the latter. The fertilizer amendments x compaction interactions showed that the root/shoot ratio was influenced by the type of crop, and the confounding effects of factor interactions on the relative increases/decreases in shoot and root growth. Overall, soil compaction accounted for 52 to 100% of the variations in the magnitude of the measured parameters of maize plants, and 62 to 98% for soybean plants. The ideal bulk density for shoot biomass production of both crops should, therefore, be within the range of 1.3 – 1.5 Mg m-3. At soil bulk density of 1.5 Mg m-3 and above, soil amendment should be added to ameliorate the negative impact of soil compaction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Differential Biomass Accumulation among African Leafy Vegetables as Affected by Wastewater Irrigation in Kitui County, Kenya

Judy Mwende Wambua, Shadrack Ngene, Nicholas K. Korir, Winnie Ntinyari, Joseph P. Gweyi-Onyango

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v27i630095

Water scarcity of fresh water in Sub-Saharan has led to utilization of the wastewater in home gardening and also in commercial production of vegetables. Wastewater is associated with various substances including nutrients and heavy metals hence it is pertinent to evaluate its effects on growth and yield of vegetables. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of waste water released from the municipal council on the biomass accumulation in African leafy vegetables. Field experiments were carried out in two seasons and one greenhouse experiment. The field trial was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) and in the greenhouse the treatments were arranged in Complete Randomized Design (RCD) replicated three times. Four leafy vegetables were the treatments replicated three times. The vegetables were irrigated with waste water. Plant samples were collected at 6 WAP and 12 WAP, partitioned and dried in an oven and later weighed using electronic weighing balance. The findings revealed differences in biomass accumulation into various organs. Black nightshade depicted the highest leaf dry matter in the greenhouse at both 6 weeks after plant (WAP) and 12 WAP (24.62 g and 81.12 g respectively). Cowpea showed the highest increment (7 folds) in leaf weight between 6 to 12 WAP as compared to was paltry 3.6 folds. The highest stem dry weight was obtained in the amaranth species at 6 WAP and 12 WAP both in the greenhouse; recording 32.59 g and 90.12 g respectively. A similar trend was noted in root dry weight and root: shoot ratio. Cowpea had the least biomass accumulation potential across all the parameters in both seasons and in the greenhouse. The increased biomass growth is an indication sufficient availability of nutrient that promoted vibrant plant growth and also less toxicity from the heavy metals. Therefore, waste water can be put into use to enhance improved productivity of African leafy vegetables.