Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of Sesame Seeds Produced from Plants Subjected to Water Stress for Early Selection of Tolerant Genotypes

D. C. Tinak Ekom, K. N. A. Guidjinga, O. Memena, A. Tchiwa Nome

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v28i130096

Intra-seasonal drought episodes during the life cycle of plant growth of sesame affect physiological quality of seeds harvested. For this purpose, in this study, we explored the following water treatments: W1 (Irrigation throughout the cycle, non-stress treatment), W2 (water stress at the vegetative growth phase), W3 (water stress at the flowering to early pod formation), W4 (water stress at the fruit maturation phase) and W5 (water stress in all phases); for their effect on germination capacity and seedling from the produced seeds of four sesame varieties (“SN 203”, “SN 403”, “SN 01-06” and “Ngong”). Such studies allowed evaluating the performance of the seeds harvested from the plants subjected to water stress availability during the different phenological phases of each variety. The produced seeds were evaluated by reduction rate (%) of germination percentage, first germination count, germination speed index, mean germination time, coefficient of velocity of germination, seedling emergence, seedling length, seedling fresh weight and seedling dry weight. In general, sesame seeds from plants grown under water deficit display reduction in performance. In water stress at the fruit maturation phase (W4) and water stress in all phases (W5), the sesame varieties tested are more sensitive for both germination capacity and seedling and for seedling respectively; so that water limitation during these periods results in the production of seeds with reduction in performance more intense. Among the varieties tested, “SN 01-06” and “Ngong” were the most tolerant genotypes. These results will be used for extension of sesame and for genetic improvement program.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Legume Extracts on Germination, Seedling Health of Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and Soil Microorganisms

Oliver Otieno Okumu, James Wanjohi Muthomi, John Ojiem, Rama Narla, John Huria Nderitu

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v28i130097

Application of undecomposed green manure has been reported to cause poor emergence and establishment of common beans in the field. Therefore, to understand the mechanisms’ contributing to the poor crop establishment, the effect of extracts from fresh and decomposed legume green manures on bean seed germination, fungal mycelial growth, spore germination and germ tube elongation were evaluated. The extracts were prepared in either ethanol or distilled water. Data was collected on percentage seed germination, seedling length, mycelial radial growth, spore germination and germ tube elongation. Ethanol extracts from fresh lablab inhibited bean germination by 56%, increased mean germination time to 8 days, and decreased germination index while ethanol extracts of groundnut and beans caused highest inhibition in bean shoot length and reduced biomass. Ethanol extracts from fresh green manures significantly inhibited fungal mycelial growth while the aqueous extracts from beans, groundnuts and soybean had significant level of antifungal activity while aqueous lablab extracts stimulated mycelial. Aqueous extract of lablab and soybean enhanced spore germination by over 70% with more pronounced effect on germ tube length and number of germ tubes by 8.0% and 13% respectively. The study comparatively reveals that the extract of lablab was inhibitory to common bean germination compared to other legume extracts and also stimulated the growth of root rot pathogens that may have resulted in poor establishment of beans.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Gibberellic Acid, Spacing and Nutrient Sprays on Growth and Flowering in Snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus L.) cv. Rocket Pink

Sajid Ali Malik, Neelofar ., Z. A. Qadri, Imtiyaz Tahir Nazki, Shakeel Ahmad Mir, F. A. Khan, M. S. Pukhta

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v28i130098

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of different concentrations of gibberellic acid, spacing and nutrient sprays on vegetative and floral parameters of snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus cv. Rocket Pink) at Urban Technological Park, Habak, Srinagar, J&K, India during two successive years in 2017and 2018. Eighteen different treatments with 3 concentrations of gibberellic acid (0 ppm, 100 ppm and 200 ppm), 2 spacings (15 cm x 15 cm and 15 cm x 20 cm) and nutrient sprays (3 sprays, 4 sprays and 5 sprays) were replicated thrice in Completely Randomized Block Design. The investigation revealed that gibberellic acid at 200 ppm proved best among all in vegetative including height (91.07 cm), number of primary branches (4.11) and number of leaves (174.60) as well as in floral parameters including days to first inflorescence initiation (47.77), days to first inflorescence opening (50.81), days to 50% flowering (54.30), length of flower stalk (45.91 cm), length of inflorescence (38.80 cm), number of spikes per plant (7.72), number of florets per spike (22.35), number of fully developed florets (5.17), duration of flowering (52.62 days) and vase life (13.00 days).  Spacing of 15 cm x 15 cm proved better in terms of height (85.23 cm) in vegetative parameters and length of flower stalk (43.81 cm) and length of inflorescence (37.65 cm) in floral parameters while spacing of 15 cm x 20 cm proved better in number of primary branches (3.64) and number of leaves (170.68) as well as days to first inflorescence initiation (49.49), days to first inflorescence opening (52.33), days to 50% flowering (55.42), number of florets per spike (17.64), number of fully developed florets (4.47), duration of flowering (50.75 days) and vase life (10.71 days). Among different nutrient sprays application of 5 sprays proved best in all vegetative including height (87.06 cm), number of primary branches (4.26) and number of leaves (182.92) and floral parameters including length of flower stalk (42.88 cm), length of inflorescence (36.18 cm), number of spikes per plant (7.80), number of florets per spike (19.21), number of fully developed florets (4.67), duration of flowering (52.26 days) and vase life (10.92 days). While minimum days to first inflorescence initiation (49.05), first inflorescence opening (51.89) and 50% flowering were obtained by 3 nutrient sprays.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Munch) and Chemical Characteristics of Soil to Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers on Kenyan Lower Midlands Acid Soil

P. O. Kisinyo, P. A. Opala, S. O. Gudu

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v28i130099

Soil acidity, low level of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and soil organic matter are major constraints to sorghum production in Kenya. We investigated the effect of farmyard manure (FYM) and combined application of inorganic nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers applied as calcium ammonium nitrate and triple superphosphate respectively, on soil pH, available P, total N, organic carbon and sorghum grain yield, on a smallholder farm in Siaya County, Kenya. The experiment was a randomized complete block design consisting of four treatments i.e., FYM applied at 0 and 4 t ha-1 in a factorial arrangement with inorganic fertilizers applied to provide 0 and 26 kg P ha-1 + 75 kg N ha-1, replicated three times. The study was conducted during the long rains of March to June and short rains September to December, 2017. Farmyard manure was applied only during the long rains season of 2017, while P and N fertilizers were applied in both cropping seasons. Soil sampling was done before treatment applications and at harvest time. Soil analysis revealed that the soil was acidic (pH = 4.9) with low available P (5.3 mg kg-1 and N (0.08%) but moderate amounts of C (2.0%) and Ca (3.4 cmol kg-1). The effect of sole application of FYM on soil P, N and grain yield were lower than those of the inorganic fertilizers. Farmyard manure increased soil pH because of its alkalinity (pH = 7.1) while triple superphosphate reduced it due to release of phosphoric acid into the soil. The mean annual (average of two seasons) grain yield increments, above the control with no nutrient inputs, due to 4.0 t FYM, 26 kg P ha-1 + 75 kg N ha-1 and 4.0 FYM + 26 kg P ha-1 + 75 kg N ha-1 were 64, 191 and 259%, respectively. Therefore combined applications of FYM and N and P fertilizers have the potential to increase sorghum grain yield on Kenyan acid soils.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preservation of the Moringa oleifera Constituents by Freeze-drying

Semirames do N. Silva, Francisco A. C. Almeida, Josivanda P. Gomes, Newton C. Santos, Damião J. Gomes, Sâmela L. Barros, Raphael L. J. Almeida, Roberta S. O. Wanderley, Victor H. A. Ribeiro, Virgínia M. A. Silva

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v28i130100

Aims: Moringa oleifera is an edible plant. A wide variety of nutritional and medicinal virtues have been attributed to its roots, barks, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds. The objective of this research was to evaluate the preservation of the constituents of the powder obtained from the moringa seeds by freeze-drying comparing it with the in natura (natural extract).

Place and Duration of Study: The work was conducted at the Laboratory of Processing and Storage of Agricultural Products, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Campina Grande, Brazil, in the period from August to November 2018.

Methodology: The seeds were peeled and macerated manually. Freeze-drying was done in a Liotop® L101 benchtop freeze drier. After dehydration the samples were disintegrated and the physical and physico-chemical constituents were evaluated before and after freeze-drying in terms of apparent density, real density, porosity, compacted density, compressibility index, Hausner factor, solubility, moisture content and activity, ash, titratable total acidity, pH, protein, lipids and carbohydrates.

Results: The in natura powder presented better results for the physical analyzes of the densities: apparent, real and compacted, however, it was observed that for the other physical parameters and physicochemical constituents the freeze-drying promoted the preservation of these in front of the in natura. Freeze-drying caused a significant reduction in moisture content, pH and lipid activity, making the powders more stable and contributing to the maintenance of their physico-chemical qualities. The inverse was observed for the ash, protein and carbohydrate contents, where freeze-drying promoted increases in their contents.

Conclusion: Freeze-drying presents as an appropriate method in the preservation of moringa constituents, with emphasis on physicochemical.