Open Access Original Research Article

The Suppressive Effects of Selected Plants Species for the Management of P. hysterophorus

Neema Mtenga, Thadeo Mokiti, Patrick Ndakidemi, Ernest Mbega

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v28i230101

Aims: The present study investigated the suppressive effects of Sorghum bicolor, Sorghum arundinaceum, Amaranthus spinous, Tagetes erictus and Cassia tora on the management of Parthenium hysterophorus.

Study Design: A randomized block design was used to assess the suppressive effects of Sorghum bicolor, Tagetes erictus, Amaranthas spinous, Sorghum arundinaceum and C. tora in laboratory and pot experiments. The treatments were replicated four times.

Place and Duration of Study: Experiments were conducted at the Tropical Pesticides Research Institute (TPRI) and Nelson Mandela Institution of Science and Technology (NM-AIST) for three months from March to June, 2018.

Methodology: Plant to plant and seed to seed interactions were used to study the growth parameters behavior of tested plants both in pots and in laboratory settings. The germination of each plants in both laboratory and screen house was recorded soon after germination for 14 days at the interval of two days. Additionally, for pot studies, plant height, root length and biomass yield were assessed after a period of 3 months during the termination of the study.

Results: Results showed that Sorghum bicolor, Tagetes erictus, Amaranthus spinous and Sorghum arundinaceum demonstrated strong suppression on germination inhibition and plant height and root length as well as reduced biomass of P. hysterophorus. However, Cassia tora exhibited weak suppression effects in both laboratory and pot experiments.

Conclusion: Findings from this study suggest that Sorghum bicolor, Tagetes erictus, Amaranthus spinous, Sorghum arundinaceum were effective in affecting P. hysterophorus. Our finding provides bases towards developing an effective alternative to manage P. hysterophorous.

Open Access Original Research Article

Salt Resistance of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Cultivars Produced in Benin at Germination Stage

Eliane Kinsou, David Montcho, Séraphin Ahissou Zanklan, Julien Koffi Kpinkoun, Françoise Assogba Komlan, Armel Clément Goudjo Mensah, Christophe Bernard Gandonou

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v28i230102

Aims: In this research study, salt resistance level of seven tomato cultivars grown in Benin, namely Akikon, Tounvi; F1 Mongal, Petomech, Padma, TLCV 15 and Thorgal was evaluated at the germination stage.

Study Design: The experiment was laid out as a completely randomized design with four replications.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was carried out in the Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Abiotic Stresses Study of University of Abomey-Calavi, Republic of Benin from May to June, 2017.

Methodology: Seeds were submitted to treatment with four NaCl concentrations (0; 30; 60 and 90 mM NaCl) in Petri dishes. Seed germination was checked every day during ten days incubation period. Four replicates of 40 seeds each were used.

Results: NaCl reduced seed germination rate in all cultivars from day 2 to day 10 and the germination index proportionately to NaCl concentration. At the end of the 10 days, salt stress reduced the final germination percentages with a significant difference among cultivars: cultivars F1 Mongal followed by Akikon, Thorgal, TLCV15 and Tounvi were less affected in comparison with the two other cultivars. Salt Tolerance Index was significantly variable according to the cultivar with the highest values for cultivars F1 Mongal (1.086), Akikon (1.028), TLCV15 (1.005) and Tounvi (0.989) and the weakest value for cultivar Petomech (0.436).

Conclusion: NaCl stress delayed seed germination and reduced the rate of final germination. Salt Tolerance Index was variable among the seven cultivars. Based on this criterion, cultivars F1 Mongal, Akikon, TLCV15 and Tounvi were the most salt-resistant whereas Petomech was the most salt-sensitive at germination stage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Municipal Solid Waste Compost on Soil Chemical Properties and Growth Performance of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) Seedlings at the Nursery in Ghana

Alfred Arthur, J. A. Dogbatse, A. K. Quaye, S. Konlan

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v28i230103

Aims: Availability of nutrients-rich topsoil for nursing cocoa seedlings is becoming limited and poor growth of cocoa seedlings in the nurseries has been ascribed to the use of unsuitable potting media. Experiments were conducted to investigate the suitability of compost in improving soil chemical properties and boost the growth of cocoa seedlings at the nursery.

Study Design:  The experiment was laid out in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with four replications.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was carried out at the main nursery of Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana, New Tafo-Akim, between September, 2014 and June 2015.

Methodology: Polybags were filled with soil obtained from an old cocoa plot (K6O2) at Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana. The soil has been classified as Rhodic-Lixic Ferrasol. Three soil: compost mixtures treatments, that is, 90:10, 80:20 and 70:30% w/w were tested. A Standard foliar fertilizer and unamended soil were included as treated and untreated controls. Seedlings were raised from mixed hybrid cocoa and assessed at bi-monthly intervals for six months for growth. Pre and post treatments soil analyses were carried out using standard laboratory procedures.

Results: Initial soil analyses showed that OC (1.18%), Ca (5.60 cmol kg-1), P (14.23 mg kg-1) and pH (5.63) were below the critical values required for good cocoa growth. The 70:30 soil: compost treatment produced significantly (P = .05) tallest plant (41.9 cm) with the unamended control the shortest (30.7 cm) at the end of the study. Residual pH (6.98), OC (2.30%), P (14.23 mg kg-1) and Ca (13.02 cmol kg-1) were significantly (P = .05) higher under the same treatment compared to the unamended control; pH (5.36), OC (1.04%), P (11.65 mg kg-1) and Ca (5.60 cmol kg-1).

Conclusion: Less fertile soils could be improved with the addition of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) compost for raising good quality cocoa seedlings at the nursery in Ghana.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mathematical Modeling to Estimation Leaf Area of Pimenta dioica from Linear Dimensions

Vinicius de Souza Oliveira, Lucas Caetano Gonçalves, Amanda Costa, Karina Tiemi Hassuda dos Santos, Jéssica Sayuri Hassuda Santos, Gleyce Pereira Santos, Hérica Chisté, Omar Schmildt, Marcio Paulo Czepak, Edney Leandro da Vitória, Edilson Romais Schmildt

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v28i230104

The objective of this work was to obtain regression equations and to indicate the most appropriate from different mathematical models for the estimation of the leaf area of ​​ Allspice (Pimenta dioica) by non - destructive method. 500 leaves of plants located in the municipality of São Mateus, North of Espírito Santo State, Brazil, were collected, 400 of which were used to adjust the equations and 100 for validation. The length (L) along the main midrib, the maximum width (W), the product of the length with the width (LW) and the observed leaf area (OLA) were measured from all leaves. We fitted models of linear equations of first degree, quadratic and power, where OLA was the dependent variable in function of L, W and LW. From the 100 sheets intended for validation, and using the adjusted equations for each mathematical model, the estimated leaf area (ELA) was obtained. Subsequently, a simple linear regression was fitted for each model of the proposed equation in which ELA was the dependent variable and OLA the independent variable. The mean absolute error (MAE), the root mean square error (RMSE) and Willmott's index d also determined. The best fit had as selection criterion the non-significance of the comparative means of ELA and OLA, MAE and RMSE values ​​closer to zero and value of the coefficient of determination coefficient (R2) close to one. Thus, the power model (ELA = 0.7605(LW)0.9926, R2 = 0.9764, MAE = 1.0066, RMSE = 1.7759 and d = 0.9950) based on the product of length and width (LW) is the most appropriate for estimating the leaf area of ​​Pimenta dioica.

Open Access Original Research Article

Inhibitory Potentials of Trichoderma harzianum and Two Botanicals against Fungi Associated with Postharvest Rots of Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam

A. A. Sobowale, P. O. Owootomo, C. R. Agbawodike

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v28i230105

The mycoparasitic potentials of Trichoderma harzianum, and growth inhibitory effects of Vernonia amygdalina (bitterleaf) and Zingiber officinale (ginger) on rot fungi in Ipomoea batata were examined. Rotting tubers were collected from Agbowo, Ojoo and Bodija markets in Ibadan. They were taken to the laboratory under sterile conditions. Different concentrations of the plants’ extracts and spore suspensions of T. harzianum were prepared. The fungi isolated from the rotting tubers were later cultured on plates impregnated with different concentrations of the extracts and T. harzianum. Incubation was done at 28ºC for 14 days. Data collection was done at 24 hours interval. The fungi isolated were Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus stolonifer. T. harzianum at 1 x 10-3 had a significantly (p≤ 0.05) better pathogens’ inhibition than 1 x 10-5. Inoculation of T. harzianum before the pathogens gave total inhibition. Inhibition of A. niger was significantly (p≤ 0.05) higher than R. stolonifer. Plant extracts from ethanol gave significantly (p≤ 0.05) better pathogens’ inhibitions than that from distilled water. Extracts from both plants gave significantly (p≤ 0.05) better growth inhibition than control. Growth inhibition was significantly (p≤ 0.05) higher at absolute concentration of both extracts than other concentrations. Extract from ginger gave significantly (p≤ 0.05) better inhibition than that from bitter leaf. F-values for model (P> 0.0001) and concentrations (P> 0.0024) for the T. harzianum were highly significant. F-values for model (P> 0.0001), concentration (P>0.0001) and treatment (P>0.0001) for the plants extracts were also highly significant. The results further underscore the mycoparasitic potentials of T. harzianum as well as growth inhibitory effects of Z. officinale and V. amygdalina on fungi rot pathogens of Ipomoea batata.