Open Access Original Research Article

Market Quality of Late Winter/Early Spring Peony Paeonia after Controlled Dormancy: Dummy Regression Modelling

Gregory Yom Din, Menashe Cohen, Rina Kamenetsky Goldstein

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v28i530119

There is a shortage of herbaceous peony cut flowers in the world market in late winter/early spring. The quality of these prestige flowers, when cultivated in warm climate regions and stored in cooling chambers during dormancy, is influenced by pre-dormancy, dormancy, and post dormancy conditions. In this article, various regimes of peony dormancy with constant and variable temperatures were studied. Containers with plants of cv. ‘Sarah Bernhardt’ were exposed to a pre-dormancy temperature of 15°C and, after two weeks, transferred to cooling chambers in order to keep dormancy under four constant or diurnal temperature regimes. On three different dates, plants from each treatment were transferred to a greenhouse for release from dormancy and the beginning of sprouting. During commercial harvest, data on height and thickness of flower stems, number of harvested flowers per plant, and dates of harvested flowers were collected. Using these data, the index of market quality of peony flowers was defined and regressed on dummy variables that reflected chilling regimes and dormancy duration. Statistically significant differences in market quality were shown between the treatments with the lower storage temperatures 20 C, 2-100 C, and 2-150 C, and the reference treatment with a storage temperature of 2 – 200 C. Statistically significant differences were also shown between the treatments with the shorter storage period of 6 weeks, 4 days or of 8 weeks, on the one hand, and the reference treatment with the storage of 9 weeks, 3 days, on the other. Close results were obtained for the treatments with the constant temperature of 20 C and with the diurnal alternating temperature of 2-100C. Therefore, growers can expect economic gains from saving energy during dormancy under a suitable temperature regime.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Ethephon Associated with the Position of Gems on the Plum of Sugar Cane in the Initial Development of Culture - Part II

Lucas Aparecido Manzani Lisboa, Reginaldo Sciarra Leonezi, Andresa Toledo Chagas, João Paulo Basaglia Freschi, Paulo Alexandre Monteiro de Figueiredo, Edson Lazarini

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v28i530120

The hormones are closely related to the emergence of gemstones contained seedlings of sugarcane, at the time of planting of the stems. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of the ethephon associated to the position of gemstones in the cane of sugar cane in the initial development of the culture. In March 2014, at the Rio Vermelho Plant, located in Junqueirópolis, State of São Paulo, a cane plant with a sugar cane plant was selected for seedlings with an approximate age of 11 months. Two areas with dimensions of 20x20 meters were demarcated. In one of the areas ethephon was applied. At 15 days after application, the seedlings containing 1 and 2 buds were collected to compose two independent experiments. From the area where the product was not applied, seedlings were removed for the control and application treatments of ethephon in the planting groove in pots. The gems were sent to the Faculty of Agrarian and Technological Sciences of the Paulista State University "Júlio de Mesquita Filho" - from Dracena, State of São Paulo. The seedlings came from the apex, middle and base of the canes of sugarcane. In this way, the experimental design was in a 3x3 factorial scheme, that is, the position of the seedlings in the canes of sugarcane and the modes of application of ethephon. The use of ethephon and positions of the seedlings in sugarcane stalks did not influence the Chlorophyll Index and Stomatal Conductance. The use of ethephon in the plant 15 days before planting, together with seedlings from the apex followed by the medium of the canes of sugarcane, presented better results for the ultrastructural characteristics of sugarcane foliage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Liming Effects of Sawdust Ash and Lime on Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Yield in Acidic Soil of Southeastern Nigeria

C. V. Ogbenna, V. E. Osodeke

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v28i530121

Aim: A pot experiment was carried out to determine the effect of sawdust ash and lime (Ca(OH)2) on soil characteristics and yield of sunflower in acidic soil of southeastern Nigeria.

Study Design: The experiment was laid out in split-plot design, using sawdust ash (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 t ha-1) as the sub plot and lime (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 t ha-1) as the main plot.

Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted outdoors at Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, Nigeria, during the 2010 planting season.

Materials and Methods: Treatment combinations were applied to the 60 buckets containing soil, mixed thoroughly and watered adequately. After 1 week of treatment application, two sunflower seeds were planted and later thinned to one seedling per bucket. Plant growth and yield data were collected. Pre planting and post-harvest soil samples were collected and analyzed for soil properties.

Results: Results showed that with the exception of organic carbon there was significant effect of treatments on all soil chemical properties. Lime and sawdust ash (SDA) as single and combined treatments significantly increased total nitrogen (P=0.05), available phosphorus (P<0.010), and base saturation (P<0.012). The interaction between SDA and lime significantly (P=0.05) increased total exchangeable bases and effective cation exchange capacity, while soil pH was significantly increased (P=0.05) by single applications. The increases in soil chemical properties led to significant positive response of the sunflower. With the exception of number of leaves, other plant parameters (Plant height, stem diameter, head weight, 50 seed weight, head diameter) had significant increases for sawdust ash alone at P=0.05. Correlation studies showed positive significant relationship between soil pH and sunflower yield.

Conclusion: The study showed that sunflower performed best at the combination of 3 tha-1 SDA and 1.5 t ha-1 lime producing a mean head weight of 45.4 g.

Open Access Original Research Article

Germination and Longevity of Some Cowpea Cultivars Affected by Single and Mixed Virus Infections in Niger State, Nigeria

A. A. Abdullahi, M. T. Salaudeen, A. C. Wada, H. Ibrahim

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v28i530122

Cowpea being a dependable source of protein for human growth and development is widely cultivated in sub-Saharan Africa including Nigeria. In spite of its numerous uses, infection by viruses constitutes serious problems to its productivity and once plants are infected, there is no remedy as is with other pathogens such as bacteria, fungi and nematodes. A field trial was conducted to investigate the reactions of twenty five cowpea cultivars to single and mixed infections with two unrelated viruses: Blackeye cowpea mosaic virus (BlCMV) and Cowpea mottle virus (CPMoV) on seed germination and longevity. The trial was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Ahmadu Bello University (ABU), Zaria, Mokwa Station and set up in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates. For the single virus infection, seedlings of the twenty five cultivars were inoculated at 10 days after sowing (DAS), while for the mixed virus infections, seedlings were inoculated at 10 and 17 DAS. Results showed that all the cultivars were susceptible to single and mixed infections but to seemingly different extents. Germination of seeds was generally high before storage but was short lived indicating that conservation of infected seeds of the cultivars was impaired. Seeds of cultivars IT04K-267-8 and IT07K-222-2 recorded germination percentages of 54.6 and 53.7% respectively, while cultivars IT96D-610 and IT04K-291-2 had germination values of 52% which did not differ from each other. Viability of seeds amongst the 25 test cowpea cultivars from single infection with CPMoV alone and BICMV alone did not differ in some instances. Percent germination in cultivars IT98K-205-M8, IT90K-277-2 and IT07K-222-2 inoculated with BICMV + CPMoV were not much affected. Test of accelerated ageing germination (AAG) percentage for four weeks showed that seed vigour was greatly impaired in cultivars IT07K-292-2-10, IT06K-124 and IT90K-277-2 infected with BICMV + CPMoV compared to the  lowest AAG percentage of 31.6 recorded in seeds of cultivar IT99K-377-1. Constant monitoring of legume fields through regular field sanitation and disease surveys to identify new and emerging viruses as facts obtained from this study are good starting point for legume virus diseases diagnosis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Distribution of Primary Nutrients (NPK) to Crop Production in Profiles of Soils Derived from Coastal Plain Sand in Ikot Ekpo, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria

M. O. Eyong, E. A. Akpa

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-21
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v28i530123

This study was conducted to evaluate the distribution of primary nutrients (NPK) in profiles of the coastal plain soils of Ikot Ekpo, Calabar, as well as evaluate other soil properties critical to agricultural productivity, in a bid to generate data that will serve as a guide to effective land use and management of the soils for arable crop production. Three (3) Profile pits were dug on the crest, middle slope and valley bottom, and soil samples were collected from their pedogenetic horizons for analysis. Analytical results showed the three profiles of coastal plain soils studied had predominantly sandy particle sizes (ranged from 770 - 910 gkg-1 sand across the three profiles) and mostly loamy sand in texture; especially at the topsoil level. The soils were also acidic (pH 4.7 to 5.1) and low in organic matter (1.0 mg kg-1 to 16.0 mg kg-1) as expected. Generally, the soils were found to be low in total nitrogen content (0.1 to 1.3 mg kg-1) and exchangeable potassium (0.08 to 0.10 cmolc kg-1); however, they were high in available phosphorus (17.20 to 29.75 mg kg-1). NPK distribution charts showed that N and P decreased consecutively with increasing depth for the crest profile. The middle-slope and valley bottom profile showed no definite pattern of distribution. However, the concentration of NPK was highest at topsoil level across most profiles. N had the shallowest intra-profile distribution with significantly higher levels of topsoil concentration indicated by the high percentages of intra-profile CV (94%, 85% & 97% for CUF, MUF & VUF respectively). P showed a shallow intra-profile distribution across the three profiles but did not vary significantly from the intra-profile mean (12.5%, 12.0% & 2.6% for CUF, MUF & VUF respectively). On the other hand K was more evenly distributed within all three profiles ( CV  of 9.4%, 5.3% & 8.6% for CUF, MUF & VUF respective) compared to N and P. Inter-profile distribution of NPK showed that N and P had higher concentrations at crest level, with P showing consecutive decrease in concentration down the slope. This study therefore recommends adoption of different NPK fertilizer recommendations for different soil depths and topographic locations for optimal productivity.