Open Access Original Research Article

Combine Use of Dry Cocoa Bean Testa Ash and Wood Ash for Soil Fertility Improvement and Maize Yield on Degraded Tropical Humid Alfisol, Southwestern Nigeria

Michael Rotimi Olojugba, David Boluwaji Oguntoyinbo

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v29i130131

Combine use of dry cocoa bean testa ash (DCBTA) and wood ash (WA) for the improvement of soil fertility and yield of maize (Zea mays, L.) was studied on an Alfisol South Western Nigeria, located at Joseph Ayo Babalola University Ikeji-Arakeji, Ilesa Osun State, Nigeria Teaching and  Research Farm from April to July 2017 and from August to November 2017. Four treatments of dry cocoa bean testa ash (DCBTA) at 5 tons/ha, wood ash (WA) at 5 tones/ hectare, dry cocoa bean testa ash (DCBTA) at 2.5 tons/ha, mixed with wood ash (WA) at 2.5 tons/ha and control (C) were used in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The data collected were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the means were compared by the use of Duncan multiple range test (DMRT) at 5% significance level. The study showed that dry cocoa bean testa ash (DCBTA) either used alone or in combination with wood ash (WA) is a valuable fertilizer and can serve as a suitable alternative to inorganic fertilizer in the south western Nigeria especially, DCBTA has higher concentration of potassium (K) and organic carbon than wood ash. Wood ash (WA) 2.5 tones/ha) treatment plus dry cocoa bean testa ash (DCBTA 2.5 tones/ha) produced higher values for plant height, leaf area, chlorophyll, plant diameter, cob length, cob diameter and grain yield against the control that recorded the lowest value. Also, DCBTA improves soil pH as well as increases minerals such as Ca, Mg, Na and in particular, made available phosphorous due to its increment on soil pH. pH increased from 5.4 to 7.4 (DCBTA), 6.9 (WA) and 7.42 (DCBTA + WA). N levels in the soil increased from 0.05% to 2.61% (DCBTA) and 1.95% (DCBTA + WA). Organic carbon (OC) increased from 0.08% to 2.31% (DCBTA) and 3.11% (DCBTA + WA). P level decreased from 3.5 mg/kg to 2.49 mg/kg (DCBTA) and 2.50 mg/kg (DCBTA + WA) which was an indication of P availability to crop during growing season.  Maize grain yield increased from 0.74 ton/ha in the control plot to 1.82 tons/ha in DCBTA and 1.89tons/ha in (DCBTA + WA). The study recommends an application rate of 5 tons/ha of dry cocoa testa ash (DCBTA) alone or 2.5 tons/ha combination each of (DCBTA) and WA for maize yield and soil fertility improvement on this type of soil in this agro-ecology.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effects of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizer Applications on Yield and Plant Vegetative Growth of Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.)

Mahmoud Al Ali, Cafer Gençoğlan, Serpil Gençoğlan

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v29i130132

A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of organic and chemical fertilizers on yield and plant vegetative growth of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) between 22.05.2018 and 12.09. 2018 under field conditions in Bandırma, Turkey. Treatments were control with no fertilizer (CONT), developed organic fertilizer (DOF), organic fertilizer (OF) chemical fertilizer (CHF), each treatment has 3 replicates with 360 plants. Developed organic fertilizer and OF were applied in (2000) kg.da-1, chemical fertilizer (15%N, 15%P, 15%K, 20%SO3) was applied in 40 kg/da. Yield and plant vegetative growth weight were determined. Organic and chemical fertilizer applications had a significant effect (P<0.05) on yield and plant vegetative growth. The eggplant yield at CONT, DOF, OF, CHF were 3922, 4593, 4375, 4579 kg.da-1 respectively. The plant vegetative growth (Plant organs fresh weight) at CONT, DOF, OF, CHF were 3548, 4018, 3818, 3882 kg.da-1 respectively. The difference between fertilizers (DOF, OF, and CHF) was not significant so that organic fertilizers are competitive and may be a suitable replacement for chemical fertilizer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Crop Mulches for Increased Weed Control and Rice Productivity

M. G. Kaiira, G. N. Chemining’wa, F. Ayuke, Y. Baguma

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v29i130133

A study was conducted to determine the influence of mulches of rice (R), maize (Mz), mucuna (Mc) and cymbopogon (C) on weed growth and rice yield. Twelve mulch treatments included MzRC, RMcC, MzMC, MzRMc, MzRC + one hand rogueing of weeds (hr), RMcC + hr, MzMcC + hr, MzRMc + hr, MzRC + one hand hoeing of weeds (hh), RMcC + hh, MzMcC + hh and MzRMc + hh, 2hh, 3hh, Butanil +1hh and a weedy check in a randomised complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates. The study was conducted both on-station and on-farm (2014). CMcRMz species were each planted in 24 plots under a RCBD replicated thrice and 3 crops uprooted from the plots were combined in equal proportions of different stover into four mulches (MzRC, RMcC, MzMcC & MzRMc). The experimental site was ploughed, divided into 48 plots under RCBD replicated thrice and the mixed mulches were applied (10-12.Mt ha-1) to 12 plots at planting. Higher rice growth was recorded under MzMc than RC mulches with or without a post mulch weed control. RC based mulches most effectively reduced weed density and biomass followed by MzMc mulches. 2hh and MzRMc mulch + 1hr produced similar rice yield but lower rice yield was under RMcC and Butanil + 1hh. Rice growth and tiller development reduced under the weedy check giving zero yields. The highest Striga was under Butanil + 1hh (8 Striga), followed by 3hh and 2hh (3 & 2 Striga). No Striga was recorded under cymbopogon mulches and weedy check. The highest returns on investment (ROI) were under 2hh (0.52 & 0.43) at the two sites and MzRMc + hr recorded high ROI (0.47) on station, similar to 3hh on-farm. Maize, rice, cymbopogon and mucuna have high potential to produce bio-herbicides with high rice yields.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Zinc on Growth, Yield and Zinc Use Efficiency of Rice in Rice–Wheat Cropping System

Pankaj Kumar Keshari, Ranjan Laik, Abhinandan Singh, Sudip Sarkar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v29i130134

A four year rice-wheat cropping (2012-15) was developed on Nursery Jhilli area of Rajendra Agricultural University, Pusa, Bihar, where zinc applied in four different doses (2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 kg ha-1) and 3 modes of application under rice – wheat cropping system, to investigate the effect of different doses of Zn and modes of application on rice growth parameters, yield and Zn use efficiency. Results reveled that among the different growth and yield attributing characteristics of rice the highest of number of tillers m-2, number of productive tillers m-2 and number of filled grain panicle-1 were observed in 7.5 kg Zn ha-1 at alternate year applied plot. Root weight were highest in 7.5 kg Zn ha-1 every year applied plot. The grain and straw yield data clearly indicated that application of zinc significantly increased both yields. The highest grain yield was found in 5 kg Zn ha-1 applied every year (40.20 q ha-1) and 7.5 kg Zn ha-1 in initial year application was the lowest dose for optimum rice grain yield in the fourth year. Highest Agronomic Efficiency was found in 7.5 kg Zn ha-1 (101.33 kg grain/ kg Zn) and the order of apparent Zn recovery efficiency was in the order of, 2.5 kg Zn, alternate year (3.72%) > 2.5 kg Zn, initial year (3.70%) > 7.5 kg Zn, every year (3.61%) > 2.5 kg Zn, every year (3.58%). A suitable dose (5 kg Zn ha-1) of Zn found more efficient in term of yield and recovery efficiency than high or low doses, this can be helpful to farming communities for better earning and reduce excessive application.

Open Access Original Research Article

Distribution of Some Macro Nutrients and Chemical Properties in Some Semi-arid Soils of Borno State

M. K. Sandabe, A. M. Zubairu, M. I. Yusuf

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v29i130135

The research was carried out to study the distribution of some macro nutrients and chemical Properties in some semi–arid soils of Borno state. Three composite soil samples were collected at different locations at depth of 0-20 cm which were analysed for some macro nutrients and chemical properties. University of Maiduguri (Unimaid) soil is slightly acidic to neutral in reaction,  low in electrical conductivity (EC), high base saturation, low in percent organic carbon, moderate in calcium, high in magnesium, low in potassium, high in sodium, low in available phosphorus. Dalori soils were neutral in reaction, low in EC, high base saturation low in percent organic carbon, low in calcium, high in magnesium, low in potassium, high in sodium, low in available phosphorus. Gongulong soil was moderately acidic in reaction, moderate in EC, high base saturation, moderate in percent organic carbon, high in calcium, very high in magnesium, moderate in potassium, high in sodium, low in available phosphorus.