Open Access Original Research Article

Yield Response and Nutrient Use Efficiencies under Different Fertilizer Applications in Maize (Zea mays L.) In Contrasting Agro Ecosystems

Tesfaye Balemi, Jairos Rurinda, Mesfin Kebede, James Mutegi, Gebresilasie Hailu, Tolcha Tufa, Tolera Abera, Tesfaye Shiferaw Sida

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v29i330141

Variability in crop response and nutrient use efficiencies to fertilizer application is quite common under varying soil and climatic conditions. Understanding such variability is vital to develop farm- and area- specific soil nutrient management and fertilizer recommendations. Hence the objectives of this study were to assess maize grain yield response to nutrient applications for identifying yield-limiting nutrients and to understand the magnitude of nutrient use efficiencies under varying soil and rainfall conditions. A total of 150 on-farm nutrient omission trials (NOTs) were conducted on farmers’ field in high rainfall and moisture stress areas. The treatments were control, PK, NK, NP, NPK and NPK+ secondary and micronutrients. Maize grain yield, nutrient uptake, agronomic and recovery efficiencies of N and P differed between fertilizer treatments and between the contrasting agro-ecologies. The AEN ranged from 24.8 to 32.5 kg grain kg-1 N in Jimma area and from 1.0 kg grain kg-1 N (NK treatment) to 10.2 kg grain kg-1 N (NPK treatment) at Adami Tullu and from 0.1 kg grain kg-1 N (NK treatment) to 8.3 kg grain kg-1 N (NPK treatment) at Bulbula. The differing parameters between the agro-ecologies were related to difference in rainfall amount and not to soil factors. Grain yield response to N application and agronomic efficiencies of N and P were higher in the high rainfall area than in the moisture stress areas. Grain yield responded the most to nitrogen (N) application than to any other nutrients at most of the experimental sites. Owing to the magnificent yield response to N fertilizer in the current study, proper management of nitrogen is very essential for intensification of maize productivity in most maize growing areas of Ethiopia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quality, Yield and Nutrient Uptake of Fenugreek as Influenced by Integrated Nutrient Management

C. K. Dotaniya, Rajeev K. Niranjan, Uttam Kumar, Manju Lata, K. L. Regar, R. K. Doutaniya, Sandeep Mohbe, Priyanka Jadon

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v29i330142

Organic Agriculture sustain and enhance the health of soil, plant, animal, human and planet as one and indivisible. The experiment was carried out at Agriculture experimental field, Nehru PG collage Lalitpur (U.P.) during 2014-15. Lalitpur district is a part of Bundelkhand plateau. Betwa River is the boundary between Jhansi and Lalitpur in the north. Most of the area is under the average elevation of 300 m to 450 m from the sea level, whereas some portion in south has an elevation above 450m. Its latitudinal extension is from 24°10'N to 25°15'N and longitudinal extension is from 78°10'E to 790°0'E. The experimental comprising four levels of Vermicompost, Farm Yard Manure and Rhizobium was conducted in the factorial randomized block design with 12 treatment combinations and three replications in 30 pots. Application of integrated nutrient management increased the seed & straw yield (kg/ha) as compared to control. Seed and straw yield (kg/ha) of fenugreek crop was found, the maximum 300 gm/pot of vermicompost (1433 kg/ha) and (9267 kg/ha) followed by FYM and Rhizobium. The Application of vermicompost (300 gm/pot) resulted in significantly higher nitrogen phosphorus and potassium uptake than FYM, Rhizobium treatment and control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Chemical Property Variation under Different Conservation Agriculture Practices, in Bako Tibe District, West Shoa, Ethiopia

Regassa Terefe, Bekele Lemma

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v29i330143

Conservation agriculture is claimed to be one of the solutions for the problems of poor agricultural productivity in sub-Saharan countries. The impact of conservation agriculture depends on environmental factors such as slope, vegetation, soil type, rain fall pattern and intended crops. This study was conducted from 2013 to 2014 with the objective of assessing the impact of conservation agriculture practices on soil chemical properties. Five main treatments were selected for the study: Monocropping (maize) without crop residue, Monocropping (maize) with crop residue, Crop rotation (maize and haricot bean) with crop residue, Intercropping (Haricot bean with maize) with crop residue and a grazing land as a control. A Randomized complete block design with four replications was used. A total of 40 composite soil samples (4 replication * 5 treatments * 2 soil depth) were collected and analysed for selected soil chemical properties. Results showed that soils in the study area were moderately acidic, and contained medium level of available phosphorus (AP) (7.33±0.58 mg/kg), but low concentration of total N (0.176±0.02%). Soil pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), C/N, and AP did not significantly differ (p=0.958, p=0.998, p=0.219, p=0.140 and 0.568) respectively, among the treatments following the four year of conservation agricutural practices. Thus, conservation agriculture has little effect on soil properties in short term, but it may take longer time to influence on different soil chemical properties in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Water Availabilities Associated with Natural Phosphate and Triple Superphosphate in Radish Cultivation

Edna Maria Bonfim-Silva, Juliane de Souza Beltrão, Raphael Pereira França de Paula, Wellington Fava Roque, Ana Paula Alves Barreto Damasceno, Jefferson Vieira José

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v29i330144

Aims: The objective of this study was to evaluate the development of giant Crimson radish cultivated in a oxisol under phosphate fertilizer sources (natural phosphate, triple superphosphate, natural phosphate + triple superphosphate and control) associated with water availabilities (40, 80 and 120% of the field capacity).

Study Design: The experimental design was completely randomized, in a 4x3 factorial scheme, with 4 replications (48 units).

Place and Duration of Study: The research was conducted in a greenhouse belonging to the Federal University of Mato Grosso, in the municipality of Rondonópolis (MT).

Methodology: The dystrophic Oxisol was used to fill the 1.5 dm3 pots. The irrigation management was in accordance with the methodology of the maximum water retention capacity, by the gravimetric method. Phosphate fertilization was applied before sowing using 265 mg dm-3 phosphorus, varying the source used, triple superphosphate and Bayovar Natural phosphate. After the emergence of the plants, the other nutrients were applied to the soil. The parameters related to vegetative development and after the harvest of radish were evaluated at 20 and 35 days after sowing.

Results: The parameters fresh mass of the aerial part, dry mass of the tubercle, dry mass of the aerial part, fresh mass of tubercle and length of tubercle had the highest values with the use of triple superphosphate, and for the field capacities of 80 and 120%. The highest harvest index (1.51) was found for the use of Natural phosphate in the field capacity of 120%. The water consumption by the plants was higher with the use of triple superphosphate and field capacity of 120% (6,425.25 L). The efficiency of water use was better with the application of triple Superphosphate and 40% of the field capacity (0.0547 g mL-1).

Conclusion: There was influence of both water availabilities and phosphate fertilization on the studied parameters. Triple superphosphate associated with 80% of the field capacity allowed the best productivity averages for radish.

Open Access Original Research Article

Organic Fertilizers Effect on Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Tuber Production in Sandy Loam Soil

Farid Ahmed, M. Monjurul Alam Mondal, Md. Babul Akter

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v29i330146

Potatoes are one of the most common and important vegetable crops in the world and carrying different health benefits that make them all the more essential as a staple dietary item for much of the world’s population. The high nutrient content, ability to adapt to marginal environments, relative ease of cultivation and low cost and high productivity are attributes that make potatoes one of the principal and most important sources of food and income for developing countries. Considering the importance of organic manure for potato cultivation, the experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of four organic fertilizers on potato tuber production in sandy loam soil. The most popular and easily available two potato cultivars namely Cardinal and Diamant and four organic fertilizers viz., cowdung at the rate of 8 t ha-1, chicken manure at the rate of 8 t ha-1, Rangpur Dinajpur Rural Service (RDRS) developed organic fertilizer at the rate of 740 kg ha-1 and Northern organic fertilizer at the rate of 500 kg ha-1 along with a control. The results revealed that the plant height, number of leaves, leaves fresh weight, yield contributing characters and yield were significantly different and higher in organic fertilizers over control. The highest plant height, leaf number, leaf fresh weight, total dry matter, absolute growth rate, tuber growth rate, tubers plant-1 and larger tuber size were observed in chicken manure which resulted the highest tuber yield (29.71 t ha-1) followed by cowdung (28.67 t ha-1) with same statistical rank. The third highest tuber yield was recorded in RDRS organic fertilizer (26.42 t ha-1) and Northern organic fertilizer (26.00 t ha-1). Besides, the potato cultivar, cardinal gave the highest tuber yield (26.39 t ha-1) compare to diamont (24.57 t ha-1). Finally, the potato cultivar cardinal and organic fertilizers, chicken manure followed by cowdung are recommended for potato cultivation in Rangpur region due to the highest yield production as well as maximum benefit-cost ratio.