Genetic Variability and Inter-relatedness of Agronomic Traits of Single Cross Hybrid Maize in Contrasting Soil Nitrogen-nutritional Conditions
International Journal of Plant & Soil Science,
Background: Lowering the nitrogen demand is the most cost effective and sustainable option to increase grain yield of maize in poor fertility soil.
Aim: This study was conducted to estimate the variability and inter-traits’ association of white and yellow hybrid maize in soil nitrogen-nutritional stress and optimal conditions.
Materials and Methods: 150 white and 66 yellow single cross hybrid maize were evaluated in contrasting soil (stress and optimal) N conditions in Ibadan in 2014 and 2015. The trial for the white maize was laid out in 19 × 8 lattice design while the yellow maize was experimented in randomized complete block design. Each trial was replicated three times. Data were collected on days to anthesis (DTA), days to silking (DTS), plant height (PH), ear height (EH), anthesis-silking-interval (ASI) and grain yield (GY) were estimated while leaf senescence (LS), plant aspect (PASP) and ear aspect (EASP) were scored. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance while variances and broad sense heritability were calculated and rated.
Results: Greater variability existed among white maize than the yellow maize for the traits. Inheritance of the traits can be predicted in optimal N than stress condition. Additive genes action was responsible for inheritance of DTA and DTS while both additive and non-additive control the GY, PH, EH and LS of the white maize in both N conditions. For yellow maize, the DTA and DTS were controlled by additive genes action in both N conditions. The GY, ASI, PH, EH and LS were governed by both additive and non-additive genes actions in N stress condition. Additive genes action is responsible for inheritance of PH and EH while both additive and non-additive actions govern inheritance of GY, ASI and LS in optimal condition. The GY had positive relationship with the DTA, DTS and LS in both N conditions for the white maize while the GY positively correlated with PH, EH and LS in N stress, but with ASI only in optimal condition for the yellow maize.
Conclusion: Grain yield, flowering, height and leaf senescence can be used in selecting maize for nitrogen-use-efficiency.