Open Access Original Research Article

Identification of Best Surface Sterilization Treatment and Control of Endophytic Bacterial Contamination in Annona squamosa L.

Dipal Minipara, Hareshkumar Dhaduk, Ghanshyam Patil, Subhash Narayanan, Sushil Kumar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v29i630157

Surface sterilization is most important step in plant tissue culture protocol. In the present investigation, an attempt was made to eliminate microbial and fungal contaminants from the surface and interior of plant material, thus obtaining axenic culture with highest survival rate. Sequential surface sterilizations of hypocotyl, leaf, shoot tip and mature node were carried out to investigate its effectiveness in controlling surface contamination with satisfactory survival of explants. Combination of different surfactant were used for surface sterilization treatments. The least contamination was obtained when hypocotyl explants were treated with 200 ppm cefotaxime and 500 ppm carbendazim along with 0.1% HgCl2 with best survival percentage. Treatments consisting of alcohol treatment, carbendazim (2000 ppm) followed by 1000 ppm cefotaxime, 500 ppm kanamycin, 2% sodium hypochloride and 0.1% HgCl2 sequentially resulted in complete elimination of surface contaminants from shoot tip, soft node and hard node obtained from field grown mature tree. Optimal elimination of bioburden from young leaf (77.38%) were obtained using 1000 ppm carbendazim, 500 ppm cefotaxime, 500 ppm kanamycin and 0.1% HgCl2. Gentamicin used in the medium was able to control the endophytic bacterial bioburden completely in the first cycle of 15 days itself at higher concentration of 96 mol/l to remove endophytic bacterial contamination with out effecting plant growth.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cations and Related Soil Variables as the Basis for Nutrients Management Strategies in Central Ethiopian Agricultural Soils - I

Assefa Menna

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v29i630160

The study was aimed at assessing the fertility status of soils with special emphasis on cation “concepts” and related physico-chemical variables as decision-support tools in making fertilizer recommendations. Thirty six soil samples collected from three representative locations, namely Arsi (Ar), East-Shewa (ES) and West-Shewa (WS) were considered. The results of the study showed that all the studied soils were salt-free or had no sodicity problems. But, the exchangeable aluminum (Al3+) was detected in some 20.8% of the sites as a manifestation of strongly acidic soil reactions. In all studied soils, the exchangeable potassium (K+) was adequate or even excess in some sites based on the suggested critical thresholds. Some 20.8% of the soils contained low levels of calcium (Ca2+) with values falling below the suggested critical levels. Still some, 12.5% were marginal, leaving 66.7% of the sites to be safe from Ca nutritional problems. Hence, Ca was found to be dominating the soil-colloids, particularly, in the ES zone. Similarly, magnesium (Mg2+) appeared to be deficient in strongly acidic soils (29.2% of the sites). The excess levels of Ca2+, K+ and even Mg2+ were observed in the alkaline soils sampled from ES. In fact, sandy and strongly acidic soils tend to have relative lower levels of the cations, Mg2+ and Ca2+. The overall study revealed that, in addition to the previously reported deficient macronutrients: nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and sulfur (S); Mg was also found to be limiting element in some areas followed by Ca. From the micronutrients: boron (B), zinc (Zn), molybdenum (Mo) and iron (Fe) were found to be the most limiting in the studied soils, all in the decreasing order of importance. Therefore, it is suggested that the deficient amounts of nutrients need to be applied and/or formulated for the specific sites, if soil- and plant analytical data are available.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Green Gram (Vigna radiata L.) Varieties on Growth and Yield Attributes in Dry Ecological Zones of Kenya

Stellamaris N. Mulika, George N. Chemining’wa, Josiah M. Kinama

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v29i630161

Production and productivity of green gram is governed by environmental, genotypic trait of the crop and crop management. The more specific reason for low production and productivity of pulses is the cultivation of local old varieties under marginally fertile lands and low input management conditions. Recently, high yielding varieties of green gram have been developed and evaluation of these varieties under various management conditions will be of great importance. In this view the study was conducted to investigate the growth and yield response of different green gram varieties in Kitui and Makueni counties in Kenya. Three green gram varieties (KS20, KAT 00308 and KAT 00309) were laid out in a randomized complete block design and replicated three times. The varieties differed significantly (P≤0.05) in plant height, number of effective nodules, 100-grain mass and grain yield in both sites. Variety KS20 was the tallest in both sites in all the stages while KAT00309 was the shortest. Variety (KS20) had the highest number of effective nodules in Ithookwe (11) and Kiboko (39) with the lowest were recorded for variety KAT00308. Days to 50% flowering and maturity were different between the varieties, and KS20 had the shortest where it was recorded that the periods were shorter in Kiboko by >15 days compared to Ithookwe. In both sites, the highest grain yield was recorded for KAT00309 with 2898 kg/ha and 1568 kg/ha in Kiboko and Ithookwe, respectively. There were no signficant differences on the biological yield between the varieties but the 100-grain mass differed signficantly in both sites where variety KAT00309 was the heaviest with 7.8 g and 6.9 g in Kiboko and Ithookwe, respectively. It was concluded that variety KAT00309 could lead to the highest grain yield in both Kitui and Makueni counties under water stress conditions of the two counties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Maize-Legumes Rotation Effects on Growth and Yield of Maize in a Semi-Arid Agro-Ecology in Northern Ghana

R. A. L. Kanton, P. V. V. Prasad, E. Y. Ansoba, A. L. Abdulai, J. K. Bidzakin, P. A. Asungre, N. N. Denwar, G. Y. Mahama

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v29i630162

Low soil fertility is the most significant agricultural production constraint also mentioned by resource-poor Farmers participating in the Annual Review and Planning Sessions organized under the auspices of the Research, Extension and Farmer Linkage Committees across Ghana. It is in an attempt to find a very cost effective but yet cheaper and most sustainable solution that this work was undertaken. A six-year field trials were conducted at the Manga Agricultural Research Station near Bawku in the Upper East Region in northern Ghana to determine the most suitable grain legume rotation partners for maize relative to continuous cultivation of maize (Zea mays L.) after maize, which is often practiced by cereal farmers under inherently poor soils conditions. The grain legumes evaluated were cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.], soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea), pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.], mucuna (Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC and green gram (Vigna radiate (L.) Wilczek. The trial was established in a randomized complete block with four replications. Growth, development, grain yield and its components and some derived variables were computed. Mean grain yield of maize in the first year, preceding rotation was 2055 Mt ha-1. All the grain legumes recorded significantly greater grain yields as compared to the farmers’ practice of continuous cultivation of maize. This is consistent with the very low Carbon and Nitrogen ratios recorded under the grain legumes as compared to the continuous maize treatment. Maize after pigeon pea, groundnuts and cowpea recorded consistently superior grain yields as compared to the other grain legumes and farmers’ practice. Mean grain yield increment recorded for one of the first cycle of rotation was as high as 62% over continuous cropping of maize. Similarly, mean grain yield increment of maize after pigeon pea, groundnut and cowpea over continuous maize was 42.5, 41.5 and 31.5% respectively, over the farmer practice. It was concluded that continuous crop rotation of grain legumes with maize resulted in higher maize grain yields as reflected in the superior economic returns on a sustainable basis than the current farmers’ practice of continuous cropping of maize after over the years. This obviously has important implications on food security at the farmer household level not only in northern Ghana but equally so in other countries with similar, agro-ecology zones in the African and Asian Continents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Properties of Soil Influence by Sewage Water Irrigation of Different District of Haryana

Sushil ., R. S. Garhwal, Md. Sarware Alam, Deepika Rathi, Dinesh .

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v29i630163

The present study deals with the difference of chemical properties between sewage and tube well water irrigated soils. Samples were collected from sewage and tube well water irrigated soil of various site like Kaithal, Narwana and Jind district of Haryana state where these waters are directly used for irrigating the crops. Soil samples (0-15 and 15-30 cm) were also collected from fields irrigated with these waters and from nearby fields irrigated with non-sewage waters to determine the changes in soil chemical properties due to sewage irrigation. Total Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Cd, Pb, Co, and Cr along with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were estimated form the samples. The mean value of N (200.50 kg ha-1) was found highest in the soils irrigated with sewage water of Kaithal. The mean value of P (35.85 kg ha-1) and K (236.40 kg ha-1) was found highest in the soils irrigated with sewage water of Jind. The mean value of K (236.40 kg ha-1) was found highest in the soils irrigated with sewage water of Jind. The mean value of Zn (4.43 mg kg-1), Cu (3.33 mg kg-1) and Fe (19.43 mg kg-1) was found highest in the soils irrigated with sewage water of Jind. The mean value of Mn (15.13 mg kg-1) was found highest in the soils irrigated with sewage water of Kaithal. The DTPA extractable heavy metals like Cd, Pb and Co were found higher in the soils irrigated with sewage water as compared to soils irrigated with non-sewage water. The value of Cr content was found nil all the soils samples collected from different cities from sewage and non-sewage water irrigated sites.