Open Access Short communication
In Brazil, vegetable consumption grows every year, as it has many advantages, from the supply of food to the medicinal value, which makes it necessary to optimize the use of land by producers, and an alternative used is the intercropping. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the productivity and economic viability of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in two different cropping systems (intercropped and monoculture). The production of seedlings was held at UFT —Gurupi Campus and the experiment conducted in a given area featuring 13m wide and 23 m in length, totaling 299 m2, in the period between June and August of 2018. The area mentioned was used for the production of Lucy Brown lettuce, and the ‘Caipira’ variety of cucumber. The experiment was conducted in a cazualized block with four replications and three treatments, which were incorporated in: monoculture of cucumber (T1), monoculture of lettuce (T2), and consortium of lettuce with cucumber (T3). Lettuce and cucumber in monoculture presented the best answers for all variables analyzed when compared with the consortium. The index of equivalence area (IEA) was calculated to assess the efficiency of crops in both production systems. And the value found for the IEA showed that the consortium is efficient within the production system. According to the technical coefficients relating to deployment, conducting plants and their production costs, the Consortium has proven economically viable.
Open Access Original Research Article
Aims: To evaluate the effects of phosphate rock and organic inputs on soil organic carbon and acid phosphatase activity.
Study Design: The experiment was laid in Randomized Complete Block Design with seven treatments replicated thrice.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Kigogo Primary school in Meru South Sub-county, Tharaka Nithi County, Kenya. The experiment ran for two consecutive seasons the short rains of 2017 (October to December) and long rains of 2018 (March through June).
Methodology: There were seven treatments replicated thrice. The treatments included Tithonia diversifolia, Phosphate rock (PR), Goat manure, Tithonia diversifolia + Phosphate rock, Goat manure + Phosphate rock, Triple superphosphate + Calcium ammonium nitrate and a Control (no soil external inputs). The test crop was maize (Zea mays L.) H516 variety. Soil organic carbon followed modified Walkley and Black oxidation method while acid phosphatase enzyme activity was essayed following the method by Tabatabai and Bremner.
Results: Goat manure + phosphate rock, sole phosphate rock and use of goat manure significantly (P= .0001) increased soil organic carbon by 198, 100 and 71% compared to the control. Tithonia diversifolia reported a 3.4-fold increase in soil organic carbon compared to the control in short rains of 2017. Goat manure gave higher soil organic carbon by 135% compared to the control in the long rains of 2018. Goat manure + phosphate rock treatment significantly (P= .0002) increased the phosphatase activity by a difference of 1.12% compared with the control, with 2.14% decreases under TSP+CAN treatment compared to the control.
Conclusion: The results showed that integration of phosphate rock and manure could have a far-reaching influence on soil organic carbon and acid phosphatase activity thus could be recommended for improved soil productivity in humic nitisols in similar agro-ecological zones.
Open Access Original Research Article
A field experiment was conducted for two consecutive years (2011-2012 and 2012-2013) on fine texture soils of Agricultural college farm, Bapatla. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design in kharif season with four treatments. The treatments consisted of M1 (RDF (Recommended dose of fertilizers) - Control), M2 (10t FYM (Farm Yard Manure) ha-1 + RDF), M3 (1.5t vermicompost ha-1 + RDF), M4 (Green manuring + RDF). During the immediate rabi, the experiment was laid out in a split-plot design without disturbing the soil for succeeding maize with the four treatments given to kharif rice as main plot treatments and each of these divided into five sub-plots to receive five levels of fertilizer NPK application viz., N1 - 75% NPK, N2 - 100% NPK, N3 - 125% NPK, N4 - 150% NPK and N5 - 175% NPK for succeeding maize.
Data collected on available NPK after harvest of maize crop were significantly increased with the application of 100% NPK in combination with FYM @10t ha-1 to preceding rice crop, irrespective of the NPK levels applied to succeeding maize crop. However, it was on par with that of green manuring together with 100% NPK during both the years of the study.
Open Access Original Research Article
Eighteen field pea genotypes were evaluated to know their reaction to pod borer complex (Helicoverpa armigera, Etiella zinckenella and Polyommatus boeticus). Sixteen genotypes (HFP-1140, HFP-914, HFP-1120 and HFP-530B, HFP-1129, HFP-1010, HFP-1125, HFP-715, HFP-4, HFP-9907B, HFP-1132, HFP-1107, HFP-1137, HFP-8712, HFP-8909 and HFP-529) were categorized as moderately resistant to E. zinckenella. However, Three genotypes (HFP-1137, HFP-530B and HFP-529) were examined as resistant (PSR 2), thirteen genotypes as moderately resistant (PSR 3-5) and one genotype (HFP-8712) as highly susceptible (PSR-8) against H. armigera. On the consequences of Pest Susceptibility Rating (PSR) six genotypes (HFP-1132, HFP-1129, HFP-1010, HFP-914, HFP-1125 and HFP-8712) were observed as highly susceptible (PSR: 8-9) P. boeticus.
Open Access Review Article
The genus Eugenia presents one of the most important in Myrtaceae family, expressing a potential nutritional high and in drugs obtaining. The plants are resist and resist disease, their hardwood has been used to produce posts, stakes, poles, firewood and charcoal. The objective of this present work was to conduct a survey of the population structure of Eugenia sp. was conducted in caatinga area, located in the municipality of Caturité, PB. Were sampled Forty plots of 10x20 m, totaling a sample area of 8.000 m². All shrub-tree individuals were inventoried by the taking the ground level diameter (DNS), height and number of tillers. The vegetation structure was evaluated by basal area, absolute density, absolute frequency and aggregation index of the species. A total of 741 individuals of Eugenia sp. Distributed in four vegetation mosaics with a history of different uses, which were conventionally approached as: A I = Abandoned quarry area; A II = Bottom of the valley; A III = Conserved Area and A IV = Capoeira Area. Area I presented a total of 92 individuals sampled in the 10 experimental plots (DA = 460), where in this environment the species tended to cluster, Area II presented 124 individuals (DA = 620) and the McGuines index expressed that in this environment the species finds grouped. In Area III, 480 individuals were sampled with an absolute density of 2,400 ind. ha-1 grouped. The density of Eugenia sp. Was performed descriptive statistical analysis. It is different in vegetation mosaics due to the history of land use in the studied areas. The largest number of individuals of Eugenia sp. is concentrated in the conserved area showing aggregation pattern. In all areas of study, individuals have low stem diameter, expressing the importance of the species in the regeneration of disturbed areas. In the quarry area are the individuals with higher height.