Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Oil Extracts from Three Indigenous Botanicals against Field Pest of Solanum Species

O. Alamu, T. I. Ofuya, M. O. Oni, J. E. Idoko, M. O. Ogungbite, S. K. Adejobi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v30i330176

Oil extract of three plant insecticides, Acalypha godseffiana, Annona muricata and Petiveria alliaceae were evaluated as protectant against field pest of three major Solanum species cultivated in Nigeria. The experimental design was laid out in a completely randomized block design with each treatment replicated three times. The results indicated low level in severity of shoot damage among Solanum macrocarpon bio-pesticide treated plants and their interactions. Higher fruit damage severity (13.93%) was reflected in untreated S. macrocarpon interactions. Findings from the study reflected a coefficient of determination  (R2) = 0.18 between plant oil treatments and fruit yield of eggplant species, which implies that 18% of the variance in fruit yield of eggplant species can be attributed to the plant oil treatments. Further screening of the active components of the botanicals for insecticidal potency is hereby recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Feasibility of Replacing Chemical Fertilizer by Organic Fertilizer in Maize (Zea mays L.) Production in Dhaka, Bangladesh

N. N. Shahinur, A. K. M. R. Amin, P. K. Biswas, R. Afrose, M. M. Hossain

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v30i330177

Present research work conducted at the experimental field of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka, Bangladesh during the period from November 2011 to April 2012 to study the feasibility of replacing chemical fertilizer by organic fertilizer in maize production. The experiment comprised of 10 treatments with organic manure and inorganic fertilizer viz., T0: Control (without any fertilizer), T1: All chemical fertilizers (recommended dose), T2: Cowdung (Recommended dose), T3: Compost (recommended dose), T4: ½ Compost + 1/2 Cowdung, T 5: Full cow dung + Full compost, T6: Full cow dung + 1/2 Chemical fertilizer, T7: Full compost + ½ Chemical fertilizer, T8: Full cow dung + Full compost + 1/2 Chemical fertilizer, T9: 1/2 Cowdung + 1/2 Compost + 1/2 Chemical fertilizer. Maize variety of BARI hybrid bhutta 9 was the test crop. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Results indicated that the highest cobs plant-1 (1.67), cob length (22.27 cm), cob diameter (14.12 cm), grains cob-1 (531.90), weight of 1000 grain (305.30 g), grain yield (11.75 t ha-1) and stover yield (13.97 t ha-1) was obtained from T1. Treatments T7, T8 and T9 gave statistically similar values in respect of yield and yield contributing characters. Treatment T9 (1/2 Cowdung + 1/2 Compost + 1/2 Chemical fertilizers) could be ideal fertilizer management for maize cultivation keeping chemical pollution minimum with improved soil condition and increased grain yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Plant Growth Regulator-Brassinolide for Mitigating Field Waterlogging Stress on Maize

Victoria Otie, AN Ping, Ali Ibrahim, Egrinya Eneji

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v30i330178

Aim: To assess the pleiotropic role of a plant growth regulator, commercially identified as brassinolide (BR) in mitigating waterlogging stress imposed on maize.

Study Design: A factorial combination of two maize varieties [Ikom White (IKW) and Oba-98], two BR levels (0 and 250 ml) and two waterlogging stages of maize growth [control (WL0) and seedling stage (WL1)], arranged as a split-split plot in a randomized complete block design with three replications was used.

Place and Duration of Study: Akpabuyo Local Government Area, Cross River State-Nigeria. A two-year field experiment was conducted during the dry seasons of December 2016 and December 2017.

Methodology: Waterlogging test was conducted on plots by demarcating them with 3.6 by 1.7 m metal sheets buried to a depth of 60 cm to prevent lateral soil-water movement. Two maize seeds were sown at 25 cm within and 75 cm between rows. The BR (250 ml) was sprayed foliar at 21 DAS. The non-waterlogging plots served as control. Observations were made on growth and yield variables as well as the plant's physiological traits.

Results: Waterlogging significantly reduced the growth attributes of maize and increased (p≤0.05) the leaf moisture content. The photosynthetically active radiation on maize plants was substantially reduced (p≤0.05) by the waterlogging stress. Dry matter yield (DMY) and nutrient uptake in the leaves, stems and grains were reduced (p≤0.05) at both silking and at harvest. The effect of the BR was greater in Oba-98 with higher nutrient contents, radiation absorption, dry matter and grain yields than IKW.

Conclusion: Treatment of maize plants with BR could induce some tolerance of field waterlogging. Thus, for optimum efficiency in maize production under stressed soil condition of waterlogging, it is recommended that the foliar spray of BR at the 250 ml per plant rate be considered.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Soil Amendment Practices on Soil Physicochemical Properties, Growths and Edible Leaf Yield of Fluted Pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) in Enugu South Eastern Area of Nigeria

O. E. Ngwu, V. N. Edeh

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v30i330179

The effect of inorganic fertilizer (NPK 15-15-15), mulching materials (plant residue), poultry manure (droppings) and lime (CaCO3) on soil physicochemical properties, growth and edible leaf yield of fluted pumpkin it was studied in 2019 in farming seasons at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources Management Enugu State University of Science and Technology. A Randomized Complete Block Design with five (5) treatments and four (4) replications were used for the experiment. The result of this experiment showed that inorganic fertilizer (NPK 15-15-15), produced significantly (P=0.05) 250 kg/ha, increased leaf area index (LAI), higher number of branches, highest fresh weight and gave longer vine length than line (CaCO3) 250 kg/ha, mulching materials (plant residue) 250 kg/ha and poultry manure (droppings) 250 kg/ha.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Packaging Materials and Storage Periods on the Protein Content of Three Soybean Varieties from Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

J. O. Obute, S. V. Irtwange, T. Vange

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v30i330180

Soybeans are the leguminous vegetable of the pea family that grows in a tropical, subtropical and temperate climate. Protein and oil are soybeans seed components of great economic value. This work was carried out at the Seed Science Laboratory in the Federal University of Agriculture Makurdi, Nigeria. It was aimed at assessing the protein content of soybeans stored under ambient condition. The experimental design was factorial in 3x5x6x factorial completely randomized design (CRD) comprising 3 varieties, 5 storage periods and 5 packaging materials by 3 replicates. The varieties investigated were TGx 932- 3F, TGx1904- 6F and TGx1448- 2E stored in cloth, glass bottle, plastic container, low-density polyethene and laminate paper. The storage periods were 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8months Least significant (LSD) at 5% was used to compare the treatment means. The seeds in storage were sampled periodically (2, 4, 6 and 8 months) to determine the protein content. The protein content of the samples was determined according to the standard method. TGx 1448- 2E (V3) had the highest protein content while TGx 1904- 6F (V2) had the least.  The highest protein content was recorded in soybeans packaged in a plastic container (43.55) while the least was recorded in soybeans that were not packaged in anything (control). The investigation showed that soybeans stored for 8 months had the highest protein content of 44.01 and the lowest was in 0 months (36.47). It was observed that the protein content increased with increase in storage period. Significant differences ((P<0.05) were observed in all the main effects.  The result of the interaction between variety and storage period showed V3 (TGX-1448-2E) had the highest protein content when stored for 8 months and the lowest was V2 (TGX-1904-6F) at 0month (30.8) and the next lowest one was V2 at 2months (36.79). The interaction effect of storage period and packaging material on protein showed that the highest protein content was recorded at 8month and the lowest was recorded at the 0 months (36.467). The interaction effect of variety and packaging material on protein content showed variation. The highest protein content recorded was in V3 (44.795) while the lowest was for V2 (39.847). The highest interaction was between V3 x LDPE (44.795) and the lowest was V2 X laminate paper. However, there were significant differences (P<0.05) in all the interaction effects. The present study revealed that the protein content of stored soybeans varied with storage period, packaging material and variety.