Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Nitrogen Amendments on Soil Enzyme Dynamics under Simulated Wetland Ecosystem

Dharmadurai Chennappan, Sugitha Thankappan, Ramalingam Nachimuthu, Kumutha Karunanandham, Sivakumar Uthandi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v30i430181

Aims: To evaluate the influence of nitrogen amendments on soil enzyme dynamics in a long term incubation experiment.

Study Design: An in vitro simulated wetland ecosystem designed with rhizosphere soil was enriched with different N sources.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Biocatalysts Laboratory, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India. An incubation experiment ran for 150 days, to determine the temporal changes of soil enzyme activities.

Methodology: There were five treatments replicated thrice. The N enrichment included in the treatments were aerated except S1 as detailed below: rhizosphere soil (S1), rhizosphere soil without enrichment (S2), combined NH4Cl and KNO2 enriched rhizosphere soil (S3), KNO2 enriched rhizosphere soil (S4) and NH4Cl enriched rhizosphere soil (S5).

Results: The soil enzymes such as dehydrogenase (24.59 μg TPF g-1 soil day-1), urease (49.27 μg NH3 g-1 soil) and acid phosphatase (38.57 μg PNP g-1 soil h-1) were observed maximum in NH4Cl enriched rhizosphere soil (S5) on 70 DAI (days after incubation). While, highest alkaline phosphatase (53.40 μg PNP g-1 soil h-1) and fluorescein diacetate (7.57 μg fluorescein g-1 soil h-1) were registered on 70 DAI in KNO2 enriched soil (S4) and KNO2 + NH4Cl (S3) respectively. However, all the enzyme activities, irrespective of treatments, showed an increasing trend up to 70 DAI and thereafter, declined gradually.

Conclusion: Enzyme activities registered maximum in NH4Cl enriched rhizosphere soil (S5) than other enrichments. Basal N application as ammoniacal form (NH4+) triggers efficient trade-offs between soil functions in the wetland ecosystem whereas, combined sources contribute to microbial biomass and redox status of soil.

Open Access Original Research Article

Yield and Storage Performance of Onion (Allium cepa L.) Genotypes under in situ and ex-situ Conditions

G. Ddamulira, F. Kalali, M. Maphosa

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v30i430182

Onion (Allium cepa L.) varieties grown in Uganda are anticipated to have different yield and storage potential. To determine the yield and storage performance of onion varieties, a field experiment was conducted at Namulonge in Uganda. The experiment constituted six onion varieties as treatments arranged in a completely randomized block design (RCBD) replicated thrice. During the cropping seasons, total and economic yield data was collected and analyzed. The total and economic yield of onions were found to be significantly (P= .05) influenced by varietal effects. Among the onion varieties, Bombay red East Africa provided the highest (4690 kg ha-1) yield while the control (local cultivar) yielded (770 kg ha-1) least. The highest economic yield (2867 kg ha-1) was realized from red creole variety while the lowest yield (687 kg ha-1) was obtained from the control. The economic yield of onions was also influenced by cropping seasons with the highest yield (2693 kg ha-1) obtained during 2017B. Although the control yielded least it had the longest shelf life because after 112 days of storage it had the lowest sprouting and rotting percentage (50%). These results are useful in guiding onion farmers in selecting varieties with high yield and storage potential.

Open Access Original Research Article

Status of Available Phosphorus and Forms of Phosphorus in Soil under Major Cropping Systems of Y.S.R. Kadapa District, A.P.

G. K. Surya Krishna, T. Giridhara Krishna, V. Munaswamy, Y. Reddi Ramu

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v30i430183

An investigation was carried out to study different forms of phosphorus under major cropping systems in Y.S.R. Kadapa district of Southern Zone of Andhra Pradesh. Five soil samples from each cropping system at 0-15 cm depth collected from each cropping system to study their physicochemical properties, status of available P2O5 and different forms of P. Majority of the soils were moderately alkaline in reaction, non-saline, free lime content indicating that these soils are moderately calcareous, medium to high in available P2O5. Highest mean values for available P2O5 (182.41 kg ha-1), Al-P (80.82 mg kg-1), Ca-P (118.55 mg kg-1) and total-P (434.35 mg kg-1) were recorded in groundnut monocropping system whereas for saloid P (23.01 mg kg-1), Fe-P (69.82 mg kg-1) and other forms of P (228.35 mg kg-1) highest mean values were recorded under sunflower-sesame, groundnut-groundnut and fallow-bengal gram cropping systems, respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Sulphur on the Yield and Quality of Potato Varieties in Tista Meander Floodplain Soil of Bangladesh

M. Waliur Rahman, Saiful Islam, M. Monirul Islam, M. Sazzad Hossain

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v30i430184

A field experiment was carried out at Breeder seed Production Centre (BSPC), Debiganj, Panchagarh during the Rabi season of 2016-2017 to study the effect of five levels of sulphur application on yield and quality attributes of three potato varieties. The main objective of the experiment was to determine the effect of sulphur on the yield and quality of potato varieties. There were five treatments comprising different levels of sulphur such as T1 (control-no sulphur), T2 (75% RDS), T3 (100% RDS), T4 (125% RDS) and T5 (150% RDS). Three BARI released potato variety; BARI Alu 36 (4.26 R), BARI Alu 40 (4.45W) and BARI Alu 25 (Asterix) were used in this experiment. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The tuber yield and yield contributing characters were significantly influenced by the application of sulphur. Maximum tuber yield (39.28 t/ha) was recorded in BARI Alu 40 (4.45 w). Highest dry matter content, specific gravity and starch content were found in BARI Alu 40 (4.45 w), which was followed by BARI Alu 36 (4.26 R) in case of specific gravity and starch content. Sulphur application in potato varieties showed significant influence on tuber yield of potato. This parameter increased with increasing dose of sulphur up to 100% RDS. Thereafter, further increase in sulphur did not showed any remarkable influence. Besides, sulphur application in potato varieties showed significant influence on tuber quality of potato. The maximum dry matter yield and starch yield were recorded in the treatment T3, which was followed by all other  treatments except T1. The minimum dry matter yield and starch yield were recorded in the treatment T1. Combined effect showed insignificant influences between varieties and sulphur levels. BARI Alu 40 (4.45 w) was found superior over other varieties in terms of yield and quality attributes. Treatment T3 (100% RDS) was found superior over other treatments in terms of yield. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Organic Manure and Agricultural Lime on Growth and Yield of Two Bean Varieties

E. A. Effa, A. A. J. Mofunanya, B. A. Ngele

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v30i430185

Aim: This study evaluates the effects of soil amendment with organic manure-OM and agricultural lime-AL on the growth and yield of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna aconitifolia grown on soils with 3 different pH (locations) in Southern Cross River State.

Study Design: The study was laid in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out at the Greenhouse, Department of Plant and Ecological Studies, University of Calabar for a period of 3 months.

Methodology: The three locations were: Akamkpa with pH 4.0, Calabar Municipality with pH of 7.0 and Odukpani with pH of 9.0. The treatments were; control (0 g), OM1 (100 g organic manure), OM2 (200g organic manure), AL1 (100 g agricultural lime), AL2 (200 g agricultural lime), OM1 + AL1 (50 g organic manure + 50 g agricultural lime) and OM2 +AL2 (100 g organic manure and 100 g agricultural lime.

Results: Results obtained from the physico-chemical properties of the soil before treatment application revealed low nutrients and minerals which increased after treatment application. Six weeks after planting, there were significant increase in plant height (p<0.05) of P. vulgaris and V. aconitifolia on soil from Akamkpa (169.66 cm) and Odukpani (146.63 cm) treated with OM2 + AL2 compared to 43.77 cm and 71.77 cm from control. Leaf area, petiole length, number of leaves were all significantly improved especially at 8 weeks after planting. Fresh weights of leaf, stem and root revealed higher yield (p<0.05) at the final harvest recorded as 8 weeks after planting than the amount at 4 weeks after planting. The results obtained from the pod number, pod weight and number of seed showed significant improvement after treatment application.

Conclusion: The findings of this study strongly support the use of organic manure and agriculture lime as affordable and accessible sources of manure especially for our local farmers.