Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Nitrogen Fertilization and Spacing on Chemical Composition of Rhodes Grass (Chloris gayana Tan) in the Dry Sub Humid Zone of Sokoto, Nigeria

M. Mabu Isa, D. Galadima Musa, B. Sani Usman

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v31i130198

A field experiment was conducted during the 2016 and 2017 rainy seasons at Centre for Agriculture and Pastoral Research (CAPAR) of the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto, Nigeria to study the effect of nitrogen fertilizer and inter-row spacing on chemical compositions of Rhodes grass. A factorial combination of five fertilizer levels (0, 100, 120, 140 and 160 kgNha-1) and three inter row spacing (30, 50 and 70 cm) were used, making (15) treatments combinations, which were laid out in a RCBD replicated four times. The data obtained was subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA), using CRD with two repetitions, Least Significant difference (LSD was used for the separation of means. The sample for each treatment was analyzed for chemical composition using A.O.A.C procedure (CP) was determined by Kjeldahl method, Ash was determined by burning the herbage sample in a furnace at 550-650°C for 3 hours. Ether extract (EE) was estimated by using Sohlex extraction method, crude fibre (CF) was determined by sequential acid and alkali extractions from the residue obtained after fat extraction. Nitrogen free extract (NFE) was calculated as residual component of the feed dry matter; the result revealed that, application of 160 kgNha-1 consistently recorded higher values (P<005) for CP, NFE and EE and lower values for the CF and Ash contents of the samples. 70cm Spacing showed superiority among the treatments in the chemical compositions investigated compared to 50 and 30 cm spacings. It may be concluded that application of 160 kgNha-1 and 70 cm spacing gave better (P<0.05) nutrient quality of Rhodes grass in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physiological Response of Capsicum annuum L. to Aqueous Extracts of Allelopathic Plants: A Case of Tithonia rotundifolia and Murraya koenigii

O. O. Otusanya, A. A. Ogunwole, M. O. Tijani

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v31i130199

The present study evaluated the allelopathic potential of fresh shoot aqueous extracts of Tithonia rotundifolia (FSET) and Murraya koenigii (FSEM) on the germination of seeds, growth, chlorophyll, ascorbic acid and percentage crude protein accumulation of Capsicum annuum. The laboratory experimental results showed that seed germination and juvenile seedling growth of C. annuum were significantly retarded by both FSEM and FSET. The radicle growth was more susceptible to the phytotoxicity of both extracts than the plumule growth. Both plants extract had a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on the seedling growth of the recipient crop while the FSET was more phytotoxic than FSEM. However, this retardatory effect of aqueous extracts on growth observed in the laboratory was reversed in the soil-cultured experiments such that application of FSEM significantly enhanced all the studied growth parameters (shoot height, number of leaves, leaf area, leaf area ratio, shoot fresh and dry weight, root fresh and dry weight, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, ascorbic acid content in the shoot and percentage crude protein in the shoot and fruits). Likewise, FSET application significantly increased the leaf area, total chlorophyll and percentage crude protein accumulation in the shoot and fruits of the recipient crop at P<.05. This study then emphasizes the fact that T. rotundifolia and M. koenigii are allelopathic plants. The increased ascorbic acid and percentage crude protein accumulation in the aqueous extract-treated crop could, apart from enhancing the nutritional benefits of the test crop, be an adaptive mechanism evolved by the crop to overcome the allelopathic stress posed by the application of the aqueous extracts. These findings therefore suggest that allelochemicals in the aqueous extract of M. koenigii and T. rotundifolia could serve as biofertilizers for boosting the production of C. annuum.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Preplantation Phosphate on the Inner Morphology of Sugarcane Leaves

Lucas Aparecido Manzani Lisboa, Reges Heinrichs, Paulo Alexandre Monteiro de Figueiredo

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v31i130201

Phosphorus is considered an essential element for sugarcane, assuming great importance in rooting, tillering and final stem yield. In order to evaluate the effects of pre-planting phosphating on the internal morphology of sugarcane leaves, an experiment with the RB867515 variety was carried out in a randomized block design with 4 replications, in a factorial scheme 2x4, being two sources of phosphorus (decanted phosphate and monoammonium phosphate) and four doses of phosphorus (0; 80; 120; 160 kg ha-1 P2O5). At 120, 240 and 362 days after planting the following characteristics were evaluated: Abaxial epidermis thickness, adaxial epidermis thickness, mesophyll thickness, phloem vessel diameter and phloem vessel diameter. Phosphorus doses influenced the development of sugarcane leaf-bearing vessels at harvest. Concentrations above 160 kg ha-1 the P2O5 presented lower mean phloem diameter values in sugarcane leaves. Concentrations with 80 kg ha-1 the P2O5 presented greater xylem diameter in sugarcane leaves.

Open Access Original Research Article

Agronomic Performance and Genetic Divergence in Corn (Zea mays) in the Cerrado-Amazon Ecotone

Rafael Marcelino da Silva, Weder Ferreira dos Santos, Matheus Rodrigues de Andrade, Zildiney Dantas da Silva, Layanni Ferreira Sodré Santos, Joênes Micci Peluzio, Lara Rythelle Souza Bequiman, Claúdia Nolêlo Maciel Luz, Vanderlan Carneiro Dias, Thaís Alves da Silveira Lourenço Borges, Albert Lennon Lima Martins, Magno De Oliveira

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v31i130202

The objective of this work is to study the agronomic performance and genetic divergence in corn in the Cerrado-Amazon ecotone. The trials were conducted in the 2017/18 harvest at a property in the state of Pará. The experimental design was a randomized block with nine treatments and three replications, where the treatments are represented by nine cultivars of corn. The characteristics to evaluate agronomic performance and genetic divergence were: ear height (cm), plant height (cm), ear length (cm), ear diameter (mm), number of rows, number of grains per row and grain yield (kg ha−1). The cultivars were separated into a multivariate model in five groups using the Tocher optimization method. The cultivar AG 1051 showed the best agronomic performance. The results of genetic divergence were according to the generalized distance of Mahalanobis (D2), with the commences AG 8088 x CATIVERDE and AG 1051 x AL BANDEIRANTE, the most promising for future crosses.

Open Access Review Article

Landscape Ecology: A Helicopter View

K. U. Ekwealor, C. B. Echereme, T. N. Ofobeze, C. N. Okereke

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v31i130200

This article reviews some of the main areas of landscape ecology. It includes the ideas and views of authors to the knowledge and understanding of the interplay between spatial heterogeneity and ecological processes, both in terrestrial and aquatic habitats at their varying scales. Moreover, the ecological consequences of landscape disturbance and landscape fragmentation are reviewed. Man and fire are discussed as the main agents of alternation of the natural landscape both at local and global scales. Studies on landscape restoration and management that emphasize the integration of various stakeholders for effective landscape restoration and management for sustainable biodiversity and socioeconomic benefits to man are as well reviewed. This paper further highlights the integration of the innovative remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) technologies in the generation and analyses of spatial data. The current integration of population genetics in landscape ecology is also visited in this review.