Open Access Short Research Article

Effect of Fertilization and Bacterial Inoculation on Nutrient Status in Coal Mine Soil under Alder (Alnus sibirica) Plantation

Md. Omar Sharif, Chang-Seob Shin

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v31i430214

This study was conducted to assess the effect of fertilization and nitrogen fixing (N-fixing) bacterial inoculation on the available nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg), present in the coal mine soil, by growing N-fixing plant species, alder (Alnus sibirica). The study was conducted in a greenhouse of the Forest Science Department, Chungbuk National University, South Korea, during the period of May 2019 to July 2019. A completely randomized design (CRD) comprising of four treatments, including T0—non-fertilized non-inoculation (control), T1—fertilization, T2—bacterial inoculation and T3—fertilization along with bacterial inoculation with three replications were used in the study. The results of the study showed that available N (NH4+-N and NO3-N) in the coal soil were increased by the applied treatments for alder, as compared to control. Apart from control, difference was also found for increasing ammonium (NH4+-N) between treatments T1 and T3 and for increasing nitrate (NO3-N) between treatments T1 and T2 and treatments T2 and T3. Available P and K in the soil also increased when NPK fertilizer was applied solely, and together with inoculation to the plants but reduced at other treatments. Therefore, it can be concluded that fertilization and biological N fixation in alder plant can improve the fertility of coal mine soil, and hence, this plant species could be a good option for the reclamation of degraded coal mine soil.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of the Control of Fungus Occurring in Schizolobium amazonicum Seeds with the Use of Pyroligneous Extract

D. G. da C. Macedo, G. Q. David, O. M. Yamashita, W. M. Peres, M. A. C. de Carvalho, M. E. de Sá, F. M. dos S. Lourenço, M. P. de B. Mateus, I. V. Karsburg, T. P. M. de Arruda, C. Rodrigues

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v31i430216

Fungi are the main microorganisms present in seeds, constituting the main cause of deterioration and production losses. Among the health testing methodologies for detecting fungi in seeds, incubation tests under controlled conditions facilitate fungal growth and sporulation. Therefore, this work aimed to evaluate the efficiency of pyroligneous extract in the control of phytopathogenic fungi occurring in Schizolobium amazonicum seeds. Treatments consisted of exposure of seeds to pyroligneous extract for a period of five minutes at concentrations (0%, 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 7%, 10% and 12.5%). The treated seeds were placed in Petri dishes, lined with two sheets of filter paper, moistened with sterile distilled water. The experimental design was completely randomized, consisting of 7 treatments, with 9 seeds per plate and 10 replications per treatment, totaling 630 seeds arranged in 7 Petri dishes. The evaluation was performed 8 days later, with the aid of stereoscopic and light microscopy, where the fungal growth in each seed in the plates was verified for the incidence calculation and then the identification of these. Pyroligneous extract was found to be efficient in reducing the fungal incidence of the genera Fusarium sp. and Rhizoctonia sp., fungi considered important plant pathogens that could compromise seed quality and seedling establishment in the field. It also reduced the incidence of storage fungi capable of causing seed deterioration and consequent loss of vigor, such as Aspergillus spp. occurring in seed samples of S. amazonicum. However, Penicillium sp was not controlled by treatment of S. amazonicum seeds with pyroligneous extract up to 12.5% concentration.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Quality Indicators in the Evaluation of Subtropical Argiudolls and Hapludolls in Formosa (Argentina)

Juan Esteban Baridón, Roberto Raúl Casas

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v31i430217

The quality indicators are suitable tools to determine the state of the soil and the effects of different uses and management on it. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the quality of sub-tropical Argiudolls and Hapludolls subjected to different uses in Formosa, using a minimum set of indicators (MSI). Changes in soil use and the application of management techniques to maximize agricultural production are frequent in the world. In Formosa, Argentina, improvements in the productive infrastructure and low market value of the land, promote that these changes occur faster than the monitoring of the ones. The effects of 25 years of continuous agricultural use, extensive livestock in implanted pastures and fruit crops, in relation to the native forest were analyzed. The MSI consisted of five variables: total organic carbon, particulate organic carbon, total nitrogen, structural stability and bulk density. The baseline of the indicators was determined and threshold values were established. The standardized MSI was analyzed graphically. Particulate carbon and structural stability were the most sensitive indicators. Continuous agriculture degraded the edaphic system, resulting in lower values of indicators than the thresholds. It produced a decrease of 74% of the particulate organic carbon and 63% of structural stability, with possible impact on the resilience of the system. Fruit crops led to a decrease in soil quality causing particulate organic carbon and structural stability to approach values that compromise their natural recovery. The implanted pasture improved the quality of the soil with respect to the degraded native forest.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Tillage and Water Management on Aggregate Stability of a Gleyic Cambisols

E. A. Manasseh

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v31i430218

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of tillage and water management on the physical stability of irrigated lowland rice field, in Kwalkwalawa, Sokoto State. The experiment was carried out in a farmer`s field, near the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching and Research Farm, Kwalkwalawa, Sokoto State. The coordinates of the area were taken using global positioning system (GPS) model Garmin etrex 20.0, which shows that the area is located on (N13°05.963”E005°12.650” and at 252 m asl). The soils of the study area were classified as Aeric Endoaquepts at subgroup level in the USDA Soil Taxonomy System which correlated with Gleyic Cambisols in the World Reference Base. The treatments consisted of factorial combination of two tillage systems (conventional tillage (CT) and reduced tillage (RT), three irrigation water managements (Alternate one, two and three days irrigation intervals, which were carried out from one week after transplanting to hard dough stage) and three rice varieties (FARO 44, 60 and 61) all laid in a split-plot design and replicated three times. After harvest, disturbed soil samples were collected with the aid of soil auger, prepared and passed through 5 mm sieve for aggregate stability determination. Result reveals that a consistent trend in aggregate size fraction was observed between the two tillage systems in both years, were a significant decrease in values of aggregate fractions of both the CT and RT in 2019 compared to in 2018. Aggregate size fraction of 5-2 mm had a significantly high value of RT compared to CT, 2-0.25 mm fractions were at par (0.41) while a greater value of aggregate fractions for CT in both 0.25-0.005 mm and ˂0.005 mm were observed compared to RT. Alternate days to irrigation and sampling depths increase with a corresponding in all the aggregate size classes in the two years of this study. A significant difference in mean weight diameter (MWD) and geometric mean diameter (GMD) between the two tillage, water management and depth was noticed in both years of the trial where RT and alternate one day had high value while MWD and GMD increase with increasing depth.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Amending Acid Oxisols Using Basalt Dust, Tithonia diversifolia Powder and NPK 20-10-10 on Garlic (Allium sativum) Production in Bafut (Cameroon Volcanic Line)

Primus Azinwi Tamfuh, Pierre Wotchoko, Asafor Henry Chotangui, Alice Magha, Djibril Gus Kouankap Nono, Monique Njoya Mot Peghetmo, David Guimolaire Nkouathio, Dieudonné Bitom

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v31i430219

Aims: To compare the effects of basalt dust, Tithonia diversifolia (T. diversifolia) powder and NPK 20-10-10 on the growth and production of Garlic (Allium sativum, softneck variety) in Bafut (Cameroon Volcanic Line).

Study Design: A randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications in the field was used. The treatments were T0 (control), T1 (0.7 tons ha-1 NPK 20-10-10), T2 (0.4 tons ha-1 basalt), T3 (0.6 tons ha-1 basalt) and T4 (0.5 tons ha-1 T. diversifolia powder).

Place and Duration of Study: The study conducted in Bafut (Cameroon) from 2nd August 2017 to 24th February 2018.

Methodology: Fieldwork involved land preparation, planting and collection of growth and yield parameters as well as rocks and soil sampling. Laboratory work involved soil physicochemical analysis and cutting of rock thin sections for microscopic observations. The plant data were subjected to statistical and economic analyses.

Results: The control soil (T0) showed a sandy clayey loamy texture, acidic pH (5.1), very high organic carbon (6.4%), low total nitrogen (0.2%) and moderate available phosphorus (19.42 mg                kg-1). The exchangeable complex revealed high K+ (0.88 cmol (+).kg-1), very low Ca2+ (0.63 cmol (+).kg-1) and Mg2+ (0.21 cmol (+).kg-1), low Na+ (0.07 cmol (+). kg-1), very low sum of exchangeable bases (1.79 cmol (+).kg-1), moderate cation exchange capacity (CEC) (22.7 cmol (+). kg-1) and a very low base saturation (7.88%). C/N ratio was very high (35>17) indicating very poor quality organic matter and a potentially very slow mineralization rate. Growth and yield parameters, except fruit number, were such that T2>T3>T4>T1>T0. T2, T3 and T4 plants gave high yields while T1 recorded the lowest yields below the control. The net yield showed that T3>T4>T2>T0>T1 suggesting that basalt dust and T. diversifolia powder improved soil fertility that in turn boosted yields. Economically, T1 had a BCR (benefit-to-cost ratio)<1 indicative of no profit, while T2, T3 and T4 showed a BCR>2 indicating more than 100% profit of the investment and a possibility of popularization of these treatments.

Conclusion: Natural basalt dust and T. diversifolia powder treatments gave better garlic yields indicating a better soil fertilizing capacity compared to synthetic NPK 20-10-10. Basalt dust and T. diversifolia can be popularized to local inhabitants.