Open Access Original Research Article

Phytoremediation of Copper and Nickel Contaminated Soil Using Eleusine indica on Soil Properties

G. I. Ameh, E. J. Onuh

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v31i530220

The effects of Eleusine indica phytoremediation on the soil properties of Copper and Nickel contaminated soil samples were investigated using standard techniques. Soil sample and seeds of E. inidca were collected from a farmland in Obe, Nkanu West L.G.A of Enugu State. 0%, 1%, 2% and 3% potted treatments of Copper and Nickel contaminated soil were made for three samples (initial sample, sample without plant and sample with plant). The plant showed BAF and TF greater than 1. The Soil samples after the plant was harvested were subjected to soil analysis tests (Metal determination, pH, Soil moisture content, total organic carbon, and cation exchange capacity). The results from the study revealed that soil samples with plant showed a lower pH level within the range of 6.50 to 7.80 and higher percentage moisture content for both Cu and Ni contaminated soil samples, of which 1% treatment showed the highest percentage moisture of 0.679% for Cu contamination and 3.16% for Ni contamination. Heavy metal contamination of soil reduces its total organic carbon and increases its cation exchange capacity. Eleusine indica is a hyperaccumulator, its root stores more heavy metals and thus suitable for phytoremediation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Soil Bioamendments on the Availabilty of Nickel and Phytoextraction Capability of Marigold from the Contaminated Soil

V. Sathya, S. Mahimairaja, A. Bharani, A. Krishnaveni

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v31i530221

Phytoremediation is an emerging technology involved in heavy metal remediation processes. It is evident from the several researches that the bioamendments greatly influences various biochemical processes and thus enhance the bioavailability of metals in the contaminated soil. It should favour greater absorption (removal) of metals by plants. Therefore, a pot experiments was conducted to examine the bioavailability and subsequent uptake of Ni by marigold during the application of different biomendments such as Farmyard manure (FYM), Composted poultry manure, Pressmud compost and Prosopis wood biochar. The result of pot experiment has shown the potential of bioamendments in enhancing the bioavailability of Ni in soil. The bioamendment application also enhanced the Ni content in plants.  A significant positive correlations were obtained between Ni uptake by plants and water soluble and exchangeable Ni in soil. This explains the role of bioavailability in plant uptake of Ni. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) and enrichment factor (EF) were less than one but the translocation factor (TF) was greater than one in plants grown on soil amended with bioamendments.  Marigold showed greater potential in tolerating and accumulating higher concentration Ni and therefore it could be integrated along with bioamendments for phytoextraction of Ni from contaminated soil.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morphological and Structural Characterization of Rhizospheric Endomycorrhiza Communities Associated with Rice Grown in the Sahelian Zone (Chad)

Yoradi Nadjilom, Steve Takoukam Toukam, Richard Tobolbaï, Albert Ngakou

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v31i530222

In Chad, rice is grown for its starchy seeds or caryopses, but is also for consumption in the form of seeds pasta with soup. However, little or no work has been conducted in Chad to assess the composition of endomycorrhiza community inhabiting the plant rice rhizospheres. Hence, the main objective of this study was to investigate on native endomycorrhiza that are efficient to establish a symbiotic relationship with two rice varieties in the Sahelian zone in Chad. Two rice varieties were grown in a pot experiment on composite soils samples from Laï, Kelo, Kolobo and N’Djamena for 3 months. Parameters such as mycorrhizal frequency, intensity, specific density and richness were determined following to the standard methods. After spore extraction, species description and characterization were obtained through the informations provided by the International Vesicular Mycorrhizal fungi collection (INVAM): http://invam.caf.wv.edu/fungi/taxonomy/species ID.htm. The highest specific endomycorrhizal density (97.3%) and richness (11%) were registered respectively at kelo, Laï and Kolobo. The endomycorrhizal frequency and intensity were respectively between 4.33-7.33% and 0.8-2.9% for the two rice varieties. Eleven endomycorrhiza species belonging to six genera were identified from different soil samples. These include Septoglomus (S. constrictum, S. deserticola); Rhizophagus (R. aggregatus, R. fasciculatus, R. intraradices); Acaulospora (A. lacunosa, A. rugosa, A. trappei); Claroideoglomus lamellosum; Glomus pansihalos and Diversispora epigae. S. constrictum was the most dominant and frequent species found in all the soil sampling sites, while R. aggregatus was the less frequently encountered specimen. The lowest macorrhizal richness and frequency obtained is a proof that cultivation of rice dependent on endomycorrhiza in this zone. The multi-native endomycorhiza spores identified are the active principle to be included in the bioinoculants production in order to increase and improve the production of rice in the south of Chad.

Open Access Original Research Article

Environmental Diagnosis of Degraded Pasture Areas and Soil Chemical Quality

Shayani Fernandes Mota, Marcelo Borges, Bruna Azevedo Barbosa, Thais Alves da Silveira Lourenço Borges, Gilson Araújo de Freitas, Evandro Alves Ribeiro, Rubens Ribeiro da Silva

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v31i530223

The extensive grazing system is predominant in Brazilian livestock. The lack of adequate management in these areas hinders the performance of the activity and can bring problems related to the environmental degradation of pastures. Therefore, our objective was to perform environmental diagnosis in pasture areas on the Belo Horizonte farm, in the municipality of Dueré-Tocantins in northern Brazil. The environmental diagnosis was made in three pastures composed of Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu (pasture 1, pasture 2 and pasture 3) in the rural property of Belo Horizonte, municipality of Dueré -Tocantins. Degradation was evaluated by the following methods: (a) structured interview of questionnaire to evaluate pasture formation, degradation, recovery and maintenance; (b) soil sampling of 0-20 cm layer and (c) visual assessment of the level of environmental degradation. Regarding the first method, the owner reported that the greatest difficulty in adopting conservation pasture practices was the high cost of implementation, which caused only a few practices to be performed. The soil analysis demonstrated that nutritional parameters were lower than the reference values adopted. In the third method, the five parameters: vigor and pasture quality; invasive plant population; soil cover; erosion were evaluated. In the use of these five parameters for evaluation, the individual results were established for each parameter, which ranges from 1 to 4. Only pastures 1 and 3 are in a state of degradation at different levels, ‘strong’ and ‘light/mild’, respectively. Reduced soil fertility was found to be one of the causal agents of pasture degradation. Pasture degradation is related to the reduction of soil chemical attributes, such as phosphorus (P), nitrogen (N) and high aluminum (Al) saturation.

Open Access Review Article

Adaptive Strategies of Desert Plants in Coping with the Harsh Conditions of Desert Environments: A Review

K. U. Ekwealor, C. B. Echereme, T. N. Ofobeze, G. C. Ukpaka

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2019/v31i530224

The low and erratic precipitation of desert habitats and the resultant drought have been a huge environmental challenge to the desert flora. Because these organisms must harmonize their structures and functions to thrive in their environments, they have evolved a range of strategies to survive the drought that characterizes the desert ecosystem. Desert plants have adopted some strategies like drought tolerance, drought escape, and succulence as the means to conserve and use water. Also, to minimize the rate of transpiration, they have evolved leaf sclerophylly. All these adaptations and more, play an important role in the organisms’ ability to conquer the harsh conditions of desert environments amidst the prevailing climate changes. It seems that some of these plants could potentially serve as models for understanding drought adaptation mechanisms and their potential uses. It is expected that understanding the response of plants to increasing drought would be important in the light of global and regional climate changes, not only to forecast population dynamics in natural ecosystems but also to adjust management processes in agronomy and vegetation management for improvement.