Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Harvesting Stages on Seed and Oil Yield of Rapeseed-mustard to Suitable in a Cropping Pattern

A. H. M. Motiur Rahman Talukder, Mrityunjoy Biswas, Mohammad Noor Hossain Miah, M. A. Kashem, Lutfun Nahar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i230240

Aim: To find out the optimum harvesting stage of high yielding rapeseed-mustard varieties to fit in rice based cropping pattern.

Study Design: The field study was arranged following RCB (factorial) design with three replications.

Place and Duration of the Study: Agronomy field of Regional Agricultural Research Station, Jamalpur (located between 24°34ʹ and 25°26ʹ North latitude and 89°40ʹ and 90°12ʹ East longitude), Bangladesh during 2015-2016 and 2016-2017.

Methodology: Seeds of mustard varieties viz. BARI Sarisha-11, BARI Sarisha-14, BARI Sarisha-15, Binasarisha-4 & Tori-7 were sown in line maintaining 30cm spacing on 02 November, 2015 and 06 November, 2016. This varieties were harvested at four different harvesting stages viz. H1= Green stage of siliquae, H2= Pale yellow stage of siliquae, H3= Golden yellow stage of siliquae and H4= Full maturity stage of siliquae. Green stage of siliquae was determined just at seven to ten days after all flower droppings of crop while the pale and golden yellow stage of siliquae was determined when 40%-50% and 70%-80% bearing turned into light yellow and deep yellow in color respectively. Full maturity stage of siliqua was determined when lower bearing just brust out.

Results: BARI Sarisha-14, BARI Sarisha-15 (B. campestris) and Binasarisha 4 (B. napus) may be harvested at pale yellow stage of siliquae at 73, 82 and 78 DAS (average of two years) considering 11.0% seed and 3.15% oil yield; 10.0% seed and 1.56% oil yield; 6.60% seed and 3.90% oil yield loss respectively than full maturity stage of siliquae.

Conclusion: BARI Sarisha-14, BARI Sarisha-15 and Binasarisha 4 need to be sown within first week of November in districts named Mymensingh (located 24°15 and 25°15N and 90°49E longitudes),  Jamalpur (located 24°34ʹ and 25°26ʹN latitude and 89°40ʹ and 90°12ʹ E longitude) and Tangail (located 24°01 and 24°47 N latitudes and 89°44 and 90°18' E longitudes) and the crop should be harvested at pale yellow stage of siliquae (within 73-82 days period) sacrificing seed and oil yield loss to some extent to introduce HYVs of rapeseed-mustard in rice based cropping pattern.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Characteristic of Forest Soil and Gold Mine Tailings and Their Effect to the Plant Growth of Two Leguminous Trees

Ricksy Prematuri, Maman Turjaman, Takumi Sato, Keitaro Tawaraya

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 11-20
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i230241

Aims: To clarify chemical characteristic of gold mine tailings and its effect to the growth of two leguminous trees of Falcataria molucana and Albizia saman under greenhouse conditions.

Study Design: Field samples collection, analyze their samples of forest soil and tailings from gold mining area and determined the effect to the plant growth of two leguminous trees.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Yamagata University, and The Forest Research and Development Centre, Bogor, West Java, Indonesia between 2012 to 2013.

Methodology: Soil pH, total carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and available phosphorus (P) concentrations, cation exchange capacity, C/N ratio and exchangeable K, Na, Mg, Ca, Fe and Ni concentrations were analyzed. F. moluccana and A. saman were grown for 15 weeks and their shoot heights, shoot and root dry weights were calculated.

Results: Total N, carbon and available P of gold mine tailings were lower than that of forest soil.  CEC, Mg, K and Fe of gold mine tailings were lower than that of forest soil. C/N ratio of gold mine tailings werehigher than that of forest soil. Soil chemical characteristics of pH (KCL), pH (H2O), Ca and Na of gold-mine tailings were higher than that of forest soil. There was no difference in Ni between forest soil and gold mine tailings. Shoot dry weight and root dry weight of F. molucana on gold mine tailings were lower than that of forest soil. Root dry weight of A. saman grown on gold mine tailings were higher than that of forest soil. Shoot dry weight of A. saman grown on gold mine tailings were tended to have higher than that on forest soil.

Conclusion: Gold mine tailings resulted from gold processing decrease chemical characteristic compare to the forest soil and its inhibit to the growth of two leguminous tree, F. molucana and A. Saman.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antifungal Activity of Securidaca longepedunculata and Acacia gourmaensis Hydro-ethanolic Extracts against Three Rice Seed-borne Fungi

Léon W. Nitiema, Fabrice W. Nikiema, Drissa Sérémé, Pierre A. E. D. Sombié

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 21-28
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i230242

Aims: This study was undertaken to investigate the antifungal activities of Securidaca longepedunculata and Acacia gourmaensis bark hydro-ethanolic extract against Fusarium solani, Fusarium moniliforme and Curvularia lunata and to evaluate the percentages of germination and infection of infected rice seeds.

Methods: Different extract concentrations ranging from 0.25, 0.5 and 1% were tested during 15 days using poisoned food technique method for in vitro antifungal activity against above three fungal strains. The same concentrations of extract were used to evaluate in vivo antifungal activity on rice seeds infected by these three fungal strains.

Results: The extract of Securidaca longepedunculata had antifungal effect on Fusarium solani and Fusarium moniliforme and completely inhibited its mycelial growth at all tested concentrations (0.25, 0.5 and 1%). Curvularia lunata mycelial growth was inhibited of 84.7% by 1% Securidaca longepedunculata extract after five days of culture. However, mycelial growth of F. solani, F. moniliforme and C. lunata were increased with increasing concentration of Acacia gourmaensis extract. It has been observed that when Securidaca longepedunculata hydro-ethanolic extract concentration increased up to 1%, seeds germination percentage decreased for all infection. In contrast, the opposite was observed for Acacia gourmaensis extract. Likewise, seeds infection decreased with the highest concentration (1%) of Securidaca longepedunculata for all infection, whereas the opposite was observed with Acacia gourmaensis extract.

Conclusion: This study showed that S. longepedunculata hydro-ethanolic extract has more antifungal activity against seed-borne fungi (F. solani, F. moniliforme and C. lunata) than A. gourmaensis in vitro and in vivo. Results show that Securidaca longepedunculata hydro-ethanolic bark extract can be used as a potential antifungal agent in the management of some rice fungal diseases. Acacia gourmaensis extract, at low concentration, could be used in rice seed treatment to increase seed germination.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Decomposed Crushed Seeds, Oil Cakes and Deoiled Cakes of Neem on Growth and Development of Maize (Zea mays)

S. C. Kiran, C. Nagarajaiah

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 29-34
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i230243

An experiment was conducted to study the “Effect of decomposed crushed seeds, oil cakes and deoiled cakes of neem on maize (Zea mays)” under the greenhouse condition. The three forms of neem cakes were subjected to decomposition for a period of 30, 60 and 90 days in a plastic containers of capacity five kg. The chemical composition of deoiled cake was 4.51 % N, 0.79 % P, 1.40 % K, 57 ppm Zn, 640 ppm Fe, 1.40 ppm Ca and oil content 1.09 % while in oil cake and crushed seeds 4.21 and 3.99 % N, 0.71 and 0.64 % P, 1.30 and 1.10 % K, 49 and 43 ppm Zn, 630 and 633 ppm Fe, 1.40 and 1.30 ppm Ca and oil content 10.27 and 22.53 % respectively. The Plant height, root length, fresh weight, dry weight and chlorophyll (SPAD) has increased by increasing number of days of decomposition and the significant increase  was observed in deoiled cake at 90 days of decomposition as compare to oil cake and crushed seeds at 30, 60 and 90 days of decomposition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Indigenous Rhizobia Strains Associated to Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] in Benin

M. C. C. Zoundji, P. Houngnandan, F. Boko, F. Toukourou

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 35-46
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i230244

Legumes such as soybean establish symbiotic relation with nitrogen fixing bacteria such as Rhizobia. Nitrogen fixation via legume-rhizobium symbiosis is the most important source of Nitrogen in agro-ecosystems. But environmental stresses are important limiting factors for this process. Hence, the aim of this study is to evaluate the physiological characteristics and Plant Growth Promoting (PGP) properties of soybean rhizobia. A total of 28 Rhizobia strains obtained from soybean root nodules collected in from three Agro-Ecological Zones (zones 3, 4 and 5) producers of soybean in Benin were used. The physiological characteristics include utilization of carbon source, tolerance to temperature, salinity and pH, resistance to antibiotics and heavy metals. The PGP properties were relative to production of indole, hydrogen cyanide and ammonia and catalase test. The results revealed that, irrespective of their geographical regions, the 28 isolates were grouped into five Clusters. Most of them tolerated neutral to alkaline pH and high salt stress and 17% of them could grow at 40°C. Most of them showed resistance to heavy metal and antibiotics. These isolates tested were able to use a broad range of carbohydrates as sole source of carbon. Production of indole, hydrogen cyanide and ammoniac were respectively found on 56%, 41% and 44% of isolates but all isolates gave positive reaction to catalase test. These rhizobial isolates showing best physiological and PGP properties could be good candidates to establish a successful symbiosis with soybean under the variation of environmental conditions that prevail in Benin.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Herbicides Application on Soil Physico-chemical Properties and Performance of Maize in Sudan Savanna Zone of Nigeria

G. Omar, B. Tasi’u

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 47-58
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i230245

A multi-locational field trial was conducted at two locations (Orchard of the Bayero University Gezawa village in Gezawa Local Government area) in the Sudan savanna zone of Nigeria to investigate the effect of applications of paraquat and atrazine herbicides on soil physico-chemical properties and maize performance. Pre-planting and plot-by-plot soil samples was taken 24 hours after herbicides application, vegetative growth period, reproductive stage and at harvest were taken and subjected to routine analyses using standard laboratory methods. Crop growth and yield characters were measured using standard methods. The experiment consisted of 7 treatments laid out in a randomized complete block design replicated 3 times. Results indicated highly significant differences between the locations in the content of the sand, silt and clay separates but no significant differences were observed between the treatments. There were highly significant variations in soil reaction, electrical conductivity, organic carbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorus and all the exchangeable bases, except calcium at both locations. Soil reaction, electrical conductivity, organic carbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium and cation exchange capacity showed no significant differences with all the treatments across the locations. Electrical conductivity, organic carbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorus and sodium were low across the locations but were higher at Bayero University Kano. The soils at both locations were generally acid. Thus, the soils at both locations were non-saline and non-sodic. Only the yield varied with the treatments. The highest yield was obtained at Bayero University Kano. Application of the highest treatment (4 kg/ha Atrazine + 4 kg/ha Paraquat was associated with high sand content and strong soil acidity). Combined application of 3 kg/ha Atrazine + 3 kg/a Paraquat was associated with low total nitrogen and exchangeable potassium and with the highest yield of maize. Application of Atrazine at 3 kg/ha corresponded with low organic carbon and low leaf area. Paraquat applied at 4 kg/ha was associated with very low concentration of exchangeable Na and moderate concentration of available P. Combined application of paraquat at 4 kg/ha was associated with low cation exchange capacity. Combined application of 3 kg/ha atrazine and 3 kg/ha paraquat is recommended for higher maize yield. Integrated soil fertility management is recommended in the study areas.

Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Fertility for Sustainable Crop Production: A Case Study of Gyerentor in Kete Krachi, Oti Region of Ghana

Felix O. Ababio, Adams Sadick, Gyekye M. Prince, Calys-Tagoe Edward

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 59-67
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i230247

Soil fertility management is important for sustainable crop production. In the bid to boost the agricultural development in Ghana, Krachi Farm Ltd, identified Gyerentor in Kete Krachi within the West District of the Oti Region, formally Volta Region as a potential area for cashew, cowpea, maize and mango production. However, the fertility status of the soil is not known hence the assessment of the suitability of the soil for the above crop production. 30 soil samples were collected randomly from depths of 0-30 and 30-50 cm. Soil sampling points were identified using a GPS device. Following standard methods adopted by Laboratory Analytical Services Department of Soil Research Institute, Ghana,  the collected soil samples were analyzed to find out their texture, pH, organic matter (OM), nitrogen (N), calcium (Ca), magnesium (mg), potassium (K), sodium (Na) and available phosphorus (P). The soil was acidic with the mean value of 4.5 in the topsoil, OM (1.0%), Ca (2.1 me/100 g), mg (0.8 me/100 g), K (0.3 me/100 g) and P (4.6 ppm). The soil texture was sandy loam and sandy clay loam. The fertility of the soil was low in almost all the studied parameters, especially with respect to OM and the NPK levels. Assessment for various land utilization type (LUT) types did not find it suitable for cashew, cowpea, maize and mango especially due to the extremely acidic condition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Integrated Soil Fertility Management for Small Holder Cocoa Farms: Using Combination of Cocoa Pod Husk Based Compost and Mineral Fertilizers

Moses Ogunwole Ogunlade, Samuel Bukola Orisajo

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 68-77
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i230250

Nutrients are being removed through pod harvest without replacement in the form of fertilizer application leaving the soil impoverished and the nutrients grossly inadequate for optimum cocoa yield. To address this issue, a randomised complete block designed study was carried out to examine the effects of readily available source of organic fertilizer like cocoa pod husks compost combined with mineral fertilizers on the yield of cocoa. The treatments with three replications consisted of Compost (100%), Compost (75%) + NPK (25%), Compost (50%) + NPK (50%), NPK (100%) and Control (no fertilizer). Results indicated that cocoa yield obtained with the compost plus NPK fertilization was significantly higher than with sole compost, NPK applications, and control in all locations. Percentage dry cocoa bean yield gain was 72.4% with the compost plus NPK fertilization, while sole compost or NPK alone was 36.4% compared to the control. Additionally, compost plus NPK fertilization significantly reduced black pod losses compared to sole compost, NPK, or control with percentage loss rate ranging from 9.9 to 13.4%, 21.6 to 23.1, 19.6 to 22.3, 32.2 to 35.5, respectively, in all locations. The use of CPH-based compost plus NPK fertilization has the potential to provide efficient integrated soil fertility restoration scheme that incorporated good agricultural practices and addressed disease management.

Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Organic Carbon Stock as Affected by Different Tillage Practices under Rice-Mustard Cropping System

Rajat Kumar Parit, K. Mahanta, P. K. Bharteey, H. Khanikar, P. K. Maurya

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 78-84
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i230251

Management of soil organic matter (SOM) in arable lands has become increasingly important in many areas of the world to combat land degradation, increase food security, reduce carbon emissions and/or mitigate climate change. Soil carbon cycling and composition are essential components of comprehensive agricultural and ecological impacts and forecasting. Soil Organic Matter (SOM) plays keys to developing drought-resistant soils (i.e., water conservation, evaporation and erosion control and soil water infiltration ease) and ensuring sustainable food production. This study was conducted during 2018 (March) after harvesting of mustard at Instructional-cum-Research Farm, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat-13, to determine the temporal effect of different tillage practices on soil carbon stock in Rice (Oryza sativa)-Mustard (Brassica juncea)-Sesbania (Sesbania rostrata) cropping system under conservation agriculture system. The soil was acidic (pH- 5.4), sandy loam in texture with CEC-6.28 cmol(p+)/100 g, organic carbon-0.92%, available  N-260 kg ha-1, available P-19 kg ha-1, available K-86 kg ha-1. Tillage practices can potentially affect soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation in agricultural soils. SOC stocks of the 0-15 cm, 15-30 cm and 30-45 cm soil layers for each treatment were calculated by multiplying bulk density (g/cc), organic carbon (%) and depth of the soil (cm). Significantly lower bulk density was observed in CT and the control over the MT. While soil organic carbon was recorded significantly higher in MT over the CT and the control. The SOC stocks in MT were also higher than those under CT and Control (P < 0.05). The order of SOC stocks in the 0-45 cm soil layer was MT >CT.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quality of the Diluted Landfill Leachate in Water Supply Used in the Performance of Drippers

Francisco de Oliveira Mesquita, Rafael Oliveira Batista, Daniela Costa Leite Coelho, Ketson Bruno da Silva, Antonio Gustavo de Luna Souto, Emanoel Lima Martins, André Japiassú, Adriana Araújo Diniz

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 85-93
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i230252

The landfill percolate (LP) has appreciable amounts of nutrients that can be used in the production of biomass for energy purposes and serves as parameters to study the performance of irrigation systems. The objective of this work is to analyze the drip performance indicators applying diluted landfill percolate, well as the main obstruction factors and the percolate quality. The experiment was assembled up in split-plot scheme with kind drippers (G1 - non-pressure compensated; G2 - pressure compensated; G3 - pressure compensated; and G4 - pressure compensated) in the plot and operating times (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140 and 160 h) in subplots, with four replications. The flow rates tested in the main and secondary plots in this work were: main plots - types of drippers (G1 - 1,6 L h-1; G2 - 2,0 L h-1, G3 - 4,0 L h-1 e G4 - 8,0 L h-1) and in the subplots the operating times (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140 e 160 h), with four replications. The suspended solid and dissolved solids attributes present a severe risk of dripper obstruction for the diluted landfill percolate.