Open Access Original Research Article

Heterogeneous Nutrient Sources Exhibit Varying Associations of Vegetative and Reproductive Parameters of Irish Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

Tange Denis Achiri, Abdulai Assan Nkuh, Divine Nsobinenyui, Dominic Kumbah Njualem

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i330253

The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations of vegetative and reproductive parameters of Irish potato from different organic and inorganic nutrient sources The study was done in the west region of Cameroon, specifically in Bougham, a village in the western highlands. The seeds were sown on the 4th of May 2016. Harvesting was done in August 2016. A total area of 250m2 was cleared and prepared in to a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). Each block was divided into nine ridges. Eight fertilizer treatments: inorganic (NPK 15:1515, NPK 11:11:22), organic (Pig dropping, Poultry dropping), composite (four bi-combinations of the animal and NPK-based fertilizer) and a control treatment were randomly assigned to each ridge per block. General agronomic practices were adopted from local farmers. Data were collected on vegetative and reproductive parameters. Correlation analysis was also evaluated between parameters. This was followed by principal component analysis with varimax rotation. Principal components were selected based on eigen value criteria – a component was selected if its eigen value was greater than 1. All analyses were done using PAST (ver. 3.26b) Analysis revealed significant correlations between some vegetative and reproductive parameters notably between emergence and plant height (r = 0.45, P < 0.05), emergence and plant harvested (r = 0.867, P < 0.05), and between plant cover and plant height (r = 0.546, P < 0.05). According to the eigen value criteria (eigen value > 1.0), 4 principal components were retained from organic and inorganic nutrient sources each, and 3 principal components were retained from composite nutrient source. Reproductive parameters were more aggregated in the first principal component for organic nutrient source, accounting for 35.87% of all variations while they were more aggregated in the second principal component (25.61%) from inorganic nutrient sources. From the composite nutrient source, the reproductive and vegetative parameters were almost equally distributed between the first (31.80%) and second (27.82%) principal components. In this study, that varied nutrient sources (organic. Inorganic and composite) affects Irish potato differently. Consequently, both organic and inorganic nutrient sources should be seen as synergistic and not mutually exclusive for holistic production of Irish potato.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance Evaluation of Some Selected Okra Genotypes

A. T. M. Hamim Ashraf, M. Mizanur Rahman, M. Mofazzal Hossain, Umakanta Sarker

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 13-20
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i330254

The experiment was conducted at the experimental farm, Department of Horticulture, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur to evaluate the Performance of Selected Okra Genotypes for Growth and Yield Parameter. The study was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) from March 2008 to July 2008. The studied characters were plant height, branches plant-1, days to first flowering, days to first fruit harvest, picking duration, fruit length, fruit diameter, fruits plant-1, fruit weight, picking duration, yield plant-1, yield hectare-1 and virus infestation. The results showed that studied genotypes differed significantly regarding all the character studied. The maximum plant height (173.92 cm), days to first flowering (40.00), days to first fruit harvest (9.33), picking duration (49.33) found in Green glory genotypes while maximum branches plant-1 (2.50) found in Seminis. The highest fruit length (15.85 cm) and fruit weight (17.81 g) was recorded in IPSA okra, fruit diameter (18.54 mm) in Green glory, fruits plant-1 (15.27), yield plant-1 (250.24 g), yield hectare-1 (13.73 t ha-1) in Jhalak while lowest virus infestation also recorded in Jhalak in all the  studied days after sowing. From the present investigation, it can be concluded that the genotypes ‘Jhalok’ and ‘BARI Dherosh 1’ performed better among the studied genotypes and can be recommended for commercial cultivation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Soil Organic Carbon Stock under Different Density Classes of Oak (Quercus leucotricophora) Forests in Uttarakhand, India

Antrix Soni, Parul Bhatt, Usha Devi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 21-29
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i330255

Soil organic carbon (SOC) is one of the most important and essential constituents of soil. It is the largest reservoir of terrestrial carbon. Here, an investigation was carried for the assessment of Soil Organic Carbon in three different density classes of Oak forest of Chakrata (Distt. Dehradun), Itarna (Distt. Tehri Garhwal) and Lansdowne (Distt. Pauri Garhwal) forest divisions of Uttarakhand. Three soil samples from each forest system at 0-30 cm depth were collected from each density to assess soil organic carbon stock. A total of 81 soil sample were collected in three seasons. In summer season among all three division maximum Soil Organic Carbon was assessed in Chakrata dense forest division (81.65 t ha-1), followed by moderate forest (47.66 t ha-1) and open forest (37.68 t ha-1) of Chakrata forest division. In Lansdowne forest division maximum SOC was found in dense forest (79.82 t ha-1) followed by moderate (48.53 t ha-1) and open forest (35.37 t ha-1) respectively. A similar trend was reported in case of Itarna forest division. Where (78.47 t ha-1) come up to maximum reservoir of SOC followed by moderate forest (46.50 t ha-1) and open forest (34.52 t ha-1) respectively. In rainy season among all three division maximum Soil Organic Carbon was assessed in Chakrata dense forest division (66.24 t ha-1), followed by moderate forest(45.62 t ha-1) and open forest (29.53 t ha-1) of Chakrata forest division. In Lansdowne forest division maximum SOC was found in dense forest (75.48 t ha-1) followed by moderate 48.65 t ha-1) and open forest (22.36 t ha-1) respectively. Similar trend was reported in case of Itarna forest division.In winter season among all three divisions maximum Soil Organic Carbon was assessed in Chakrata dense forest division (81.89 t ha-1), followed by moderate forest (56.62 t ha-1) and open forest (32.32 t ha-1) of Chakrata forest division. In Lansdowne forest division maximum SOC was found in dense forest (81.90 t ha-1) followed by moderate (57.43 t ha-1) and open forest (35.99 t ha-1) respectively. A similar trend was reported in case of Itarna forest division. This study reveals that in the Soil Organic Carbon is maximum in the dense forest followed by moderate and open forest which could be possibly due the more flora and fauna in the dense forest followed by moderate and open forest. Possibly the activities of flora and fauna lead to the addition of more carbon content in the soil. The study demonstrated similar trends of SOC in three different dense, moderate and open density classes of Oak forest. These outcomes of the study may explore the possibility to improve the scientific basis of forest management and land use in the near future.

Open Access Original Research Article

Productivity and Economic Performance of NERICA Varieties under Two Harvest Modes and Rainfall Intensities in Uganda

M. G. Kaiira, L. Owere, F. Kagoda, M. Elesu

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 30-40
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i330256

The productivity of upland rice is highly determined by the available soil moisture and nutrients. Droughts highly influence yields especially in the second 30 days growth period. A field experiment was conducted at the Uganda National Agricultural Research Institute, Ikulwe station during 2018B and 2019B seasons to determine the productivity and economic returns of four rice varieties under two harvest modes and rainfall intensities. The treatments included NERICA 1, 4 & 6 and NAMCHE 2 given 80 kg N and 30 kg P ha-1. Treatments were replicated three times under a randomised complete block design.  Data was collected on plant height, leaf number, leaf length, leaf width and number of tillers during vegetative stages in all treatments. The panicles m-2, sink size, panicle filling percentage and grain yields were determined at harvest. All the yield attributes and grain yield reduced during the droughty 2018B relative to the rainy 2019B. On the contrary, the number of tillers reduced in 2019. Correlation coefficient (r) for spikelets per m-2 were significant (>8.0) and positive (0.86) to grain yield during 2018 but were lower (0.13) in 2019. The r values were also positive, but not significant, for panicles m-2 (0.76) and for percent filled panicles (0.23) with respect to grain yield during 2018 and 2019 respectively. NERICA 4 & 6 produced higher grain yield under both moisture stress and high rainfall conditions. The results indicate that NERICA 4 and 6 varieties could be adopted and harvested at 75 days after rice emergence (DAE) for NERICA 4 and at 75 DAE and 90 DAE for NERICA 6 under low (630 mm) rainfall or harvested once at 90 DAE given high (1,500 mm) rainfall to get higher yields and Returns on Investment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Different Organic Manures on Early Seedling Growth of Massularia acuminata (G. Don) Bullock Ex Hoyle

M. O. Majolagbe, B. F. Awotedu, J. M. Ajekigbe, T. A. Banjo, A. O. Onifade

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 41-46
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i330257

Aims: Selection of suitable soil amendment is a very crucial attempt for improving seedling production and growth of Massularia acuminata as a forest nursery plants on a sustainable basis can be enhanced over a given period of time.

Study Design: Comparative effects of different organic manures on the seedlings growth of Massularia acuminate.

Place and Duration of Study: Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, between February, 2019 and August 2019.

Methodology: Various concentrations of different types of organic manures; poultry manure, cow dung and horse dung were mixed with the topsoil separately to raise the seedlings of Massularia acuminata, comparative seedlings height growth, the stem diameter growth and the number of leaves per seedlings were examined to determine the development of the seedlings.

Results: The results revealed that, organic manure application generally enhanced the growth of the seedlings, improved seedlings height, number of leaves and collar diameter. Also, with increasing rate of application of organic manures from 0 g to 50 g per seedlings, all seedlings growth parameters were improved. 10 g and 30 g manure had significant effects on plant growth with seedlings height 15.29 cm and 15.10 cm, number of leaves per seedlings (19.80 and 19.43) and collar diameter (6.58 mm and 6.57 mm) with Q2 and Q3 respectively as compared with the control (5.18 mm). Highest seedling growth was observed in poultry application with seedlings height 14.42 cm, number of leaves (19.63) and collar diameter (6.31 mm).

Conclusion: The use of poultry manure and cattle dung at increased concentrations of 10 g and  30 g are recommended to be beneficial for sustainable healthy seedling production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Early Growth Response of Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) Seedlings to Ranging Levels of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers on an Alfisol

F. O. Abiodun, J. O. Afolabi, N. C. Isienyi, J. O. Isola, V. A. Olayiwola, C. I. Ihediuche

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 47-53
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i330258

Aim: To investigate the early growth response of Morinda citrifolia to varying levels of Aleshinloye compost and N:P:K 15:15:15 in a degraded Alfisol in a tropical Nigerian environmental condition.

Study Design: The study was laid out in a completely randomized design (CRD) with twelve (12) treatments replicated six (6) times with a total of seventy two (72) experimental units.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the greenhouse of Soil and tree Nutrition department of the Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria Ibadan (FRIN) and it lasted for a period of 6 month.

Methodology: Degraded top soil used for the experiment was collected within FRIN arboretum. The soil was air dried and passed through a 2 mm diameter sieve before being filled into polythene pots of 15 cm x 20 cm dimension having a 3 kg soil capacity. The organic fertilizer was applied at 4 weeks before transplanting while the inorganic fertilizer was applied at 2 weeks after transplanting and pre-germinated seedlings of Noni were transplanted at four leaves stage. The data collected include Stem Girth (mm), plant height (cm) and Number of leaves starting from 30 Days After Transplanting (DAT).

Results: The result revealed that the soil sample used for this study had pH value of 6.06 and the total N value of 0.11%. Noni plant with treatment T11 (N:P:K 15:15:15 at 80 Kg Nha-1 + Aleshiloye compost (AC) at 80 Kg Nha-1) had the highest plant height  values of 48.17, 65.67 and 77.87 cm respectively which are significantly higher (P = .05) than  T1 (control) with 37.17, 47.50 and 55.33 cm respectively that are the least values observed from 120 DAT to 180 DAT. The Plant Dry Matter (PDM) for leaves, stem and root (3.593, 2.720 and 4.220 g/plant) respectively from the control (T1) plant was the least when compared to every other treatment in the study.

Conclusion: The use of composted manure in combination with N:P:K 15:15:15 ensured early and continuous supply of nutrient with resultant higher growth performance of Noni over a period of six months as shown in the study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Biology and Morphometrics of Etiella zinckenella (Lepidoptera) on Lentil under Laboratory Conditions

Gulshan Kumar, Surender Singh Yadav, Manisha ., Sindhu .

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 54-61
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i330259

Background: Etiella zinckenella (Treitschke), an important and destructive pest of lentils and peas owing to its feeding habit.

Aim: The present study aims to investigate the biology and morphometrics of Etiella zinckenella (lepidoptera) on lentil under laboratory conditions.

Study Design: Laboratory experiment carried out on biological parameters of Etiella zinckenella in the department of Entomology, CCSHAU and Hisar.

Results: Study revealed that a single female could lay 46-65eggs (average 56.3 eggs) preferably singly on pods, flowers, calyx and leaves of lentil. Incubation period of the eggs varied from 5.18 to 5.38 days (average 5.24 days). After egg hatching, larvae passed through 5 larval instars. Total larval and pupal period was observed on an average 16.9 and 13.38 days, respectively. Adult longevity of male and female was found on an average 4.1 and 5.6 days respectively. Etiella zinckenella completed its total life cycle in 37-45 days. 

Conclusion: Biology of an insect pest is a condition precedent to find out its management strategies. Hence, observation on nature and behaviour of each developmental stage of this pest can be further utilised in the effective management at its damaging stage under field conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Soil Orders and Land Uses on Available Soil Nutrients in Meghalaya, India

Chandan Goswami, Naorem Janaki Singh, Bijoy Krishna Handique

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 62-71
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i330260

Understanding of spatial distribution of available soil nutrients is important for sustainable land management. An attempt has been made to assess the spatial distribution of available soil nutrients under different soil orders and land uses of RiBhoi, Meghalaya, India using geo-statistical techniques. Seven Land Use Land Cover (LULC) classes were selected from LULC map on 1:50,000 scale prepared by National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC) viz. Abandoned Jhum (AJ), Current Jhum (CJ), Deciduous Forest (DF), Double Crop (DC), Evergreen Forest (EF), Kharif Crop (KC) and Wastelands (WL). Again, three soil orders were identified by National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning (NBSS&LUP) in RiBhoi district of Meghalaya, India viz. Alfisols, Inceptisols and Ultisols. 105 soil samples were collected, 5 replicated soil samples from 21 strata derived from 7 LULC and 3 soil orders. Soil samples were analyzed for available nitrogen (N), available phosphorus (P2O5), available potassium (K2O) and available zinc (Zn) using standard procedures. One way ANOVA was carried out using IBM SPSS Statistics 20.0 software. Significance levels were tested at p≤0.05.

N content varied from low (215.50 kg/ha) to medium (414.30 kg/ha) with mean value of 291.50 kg/ha. On the other hand, P2O5 content varied from low (19.90 kg/ha) to high (68.30 kg/ha) with mean value of 43.52 kg/ha. Similarly, K2O content varied from low (112.09 kg/ha) to high (567.84 kg/ha) with mean value of 273.68 kg/ha. Again, Zn also varied from low (0.26 ppm) to high (1.46 ppm) with mean value of 0.64 ppm.

In Alfisols, N was found to be higher in EF, AJ & CJ than DF, DC, KC and WL. KC has been found to have lower N than all other LULC classes. Higher P2O5 has been found under EF over KC and WL. AJ has been found to have higher K2O than all other LULC classes. K2O has also been found to be higher in CJ over DC, KC and WL. DF and EF have been found to have higher K2O than KC and WL. Zn has been found to be higher in EF over CJ, DC and WL.

In Inceptisols, higher amount of N was observed under EF over all other LULC classes. Higher N has also been found under CJ over DF, DC, KC and WL. P2O5 content was found to be higher under DF over all other LULC classes. Higher P2O5 content was also found under AJ, CJ and DC than KC and WL. Higher amount of K2O has been found under AJ over all other LULC. K2O content of soil under DF was also higher than CJ, EF, KC and WL. Zn has been found to be higher under EF over all other LULC classes. Zn content under CJ has also been found to be higher than AJ, DF, KC and WL.

In Ultsols, higher amount of N has been found under EF compared to all other LULC classes. Lowest N content was found under KC. P2O5 content was found to be higher under EF, DF and AJ over all other LULC. K2O content has been found to be higher under CJ in comparison to all other LULC classes. K2O content of EF and DF were also found to be higher than AJ, DC, KC and WL. Again, K2O content has been found to be higher under DC compared to AJ, KC and WL. Zn content under EF and AJ was found to be higher than all other LULC classes. CJ, DF, DC, KC and WL have been found to have lower Zn content.

It has been observed that P2O5 content is significantly higher in inceptisols irrespective of LULC classes. The study has highlighted the spatial distribution of available soil nutrients as a function of soil orders and LULC. This will be a useful input in sustainable land management programmes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (Glomus clarum) and Compost on Early Growth Response of Parkia biglobosa under a Greenhouse Condition

F. B. Musa, O. N. Sulaiman, V. A. Olayiwola, F. O. Abiodun, O. A. Agbo-Adediran

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 72-79
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i330261

Background and Objective: Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) plays a role in the structural stability of soil which governs most soil activities. Stable organic manure such as compost may provide a suitable habitat and energy source for mycorrhizal growth, which is also a benefits in view of soil productivity. The impact of a combination of compost and mycorrhizal on plant growth was assessed in this study. Hence, experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of compost and mycorrhizalon the early growth response of Parkia biglobosa under a greenhouse condition.

Materials and Methods: In the greenhouse of the Department of Bioscience, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria. A 2 × 5 factorial experiment in a complete randomized design was conducted; two levels of mycorrhizal (with and without); five levels of compost (10t/ha, 20t/ha, 30t/ha, 40t/ha and no amendments) in two (2) kilogram soil under four (4) replications was set up. Laboratory analyses of soil and organic amendment incorporated in the soil were done. Data on growth variables were taken fortnightly. The data was statistically analyzed and mean were separated using Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT).

Results: The results showed that, there was significant difference (p<0.05) in the plant height of Parkia biglobosa between mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants across all weeks after transplanting (WAT),compost application with the interaction of AMF at 40 t/harecorded the highest plant height and number of leaves at 16WAT with 35.14 cm  and 29.75 respectively, which are relatively comparable to other treatments used, the least plant height  and number of leaves were observed when -AMF 0 t/ha ( control) was used as an amendment with 23.00 cm and AMF 0t/ha (15.05) respectively. For collar diameter, all the treatments were comparable to one another except + AMF 30t/ha which produced the lowest collar diameter with mean value of 2.97mm.

Conclusion: Based on the description of results above, it can be concluded that: The Inoculation of the AMF and compost significantly affect the early growth performance of Parkia biglobosa, thus providing optimum soil physical conditions for it growth.

Open Access Original Research Article

Responses of Maize and Tomato Crops to Fertilization with Three Agroforestry Litter Species (Annona senegalensis, Terminalia macroptera and Parkia biglobosa)

T. J. Massai, A. Ngakou, A. Ibrahima

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 80-92
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i330262

The objective of this study was to assess the effect of Annona senegalensis, Parkia biglobosa and Terminalia macroptera litters amended to soil in order to improve growth and yield of tomato and maize plants. Trials were conducted at the University of Ngaoundere in a complete randomised block design for each of the two crops. Treatments consisted for each crop of a control (T) and three litters-based fertilizers of A. senegalensis (AS), P. biglobosa (PB) and T. macroptera (TM). The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare means between treatments. The results obtained indicate that the chemical characteristics of litters varied from one plant species to another. The pH of the three litters AS, PB and TM (6.06; 6.02; 6.07) was acid, while nitrogen content ranged from 2.43% (PB) to 1.40% (TM). A significant difference was observed between treatments for plant height of tomato (p = 0.0016) and maize (p = 0.039). The litters of  A. senegalensis (80.33 g) and P. biglobosa (70.60 g) stimulated a significant production of more maize biomass compared to that of the control (37.26 g). The tomato biomass produced under soil amended with litter of A. senegalensis (27.33 g) and T. macroptera (31.27 g) was significantly more abundant (p = 0.035) than that of control (17.31 g). For tomato plants, the highest yield was observed for the treatment litter of A. senegalensis (7.35 t/ha), while the lowest yield accounted for the control (3.48 t/ha). The yield variation between treatments was in the following order: AS> PB>TM>T. As for maize, the yield varied from 4.15 t/ha (litter of T. macroptera) to 1.66 t/ha (control), and was classified between different treatments as: TM> PB > AS> T. Among the three tested litters, Annona senegalensis litter was the best for tomato, whereas Terminalia macroptera litter was better for maize production.