Open Access Short Research Article

Effect of Different Spacing of Bt and Non Bt Cotton Hybrid on Population of P. gossypiella under High Density Planting

P. A. Lahane, A. V. Kolhe, D. N. Mohod, Anurag Khandare

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i530276

A field experiment was conducted at Experimental farm of Department of Entomology, Dr. PDKV, Akola, on evaluation of various cotton cultivars against sucking pests under high density planting during kharif 2013 in Factorial Randomized Block Design with three replications. It is evaluated from the study that the higher population of P. gossypiella was harboured on Bt and non Bt cotton hybrid. The population of P. gossypiella larvae was in PKV Hy-2 and RCH-2 BGII was ranging from 0.25 to 1.28 and 0.05 to 0.11, respectively. The lowest mean population of P. gossypiella larvae (0.40) was observed in plant spacing of cotton 120 x 45 cm followed by plant spacing of 90 x 45 cm.

Open Access Original Research Article

NPK Briquette has Positive Effect on Jhum Rice Cultivation

Md. Zonayet, Alok Kumar Paul

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 5-14
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i530277

The study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of NPK briquette for increasing the yield of jhum rice. Two experiments were conducted at Ramery para, Bandarban sadar, Bandarban hill district in Chittagong under the AEZ 29 (Northern and Eastern Hills Tract) during March 2017 to November 2017 to study the effect of NPK briquette on growth and development of Jhum rice. In this experiment, Jhum rice was used as the test crop. The experiment was conducted in two field and designed on Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD). The treatments consisted of 7(seven) levels of NPK briquette i.e. T1: Control, T2: 100% RFD (267.5 kg ha-1), T3: 120% RFD (320.8 kg ha-1), T4: 80% RFD (214.1 kg ha-1), T5: 100% NPK briquette (267.5 kg ha-1), T6: 120% NPK briquette (320.8 kg ha-1), T7: 80% NPK briquette (214.1 kg ha-1). Ratio in 100 kg NPK briquette contain 50 kg urea: 30 kg TSP: 20 kg MoP and RFD value was N 60 kgha-1, P 20 kg ha-1 and K 30 kg ha-1. The growth and yield of Jhum rice were significantly influenced by different levels of NPK briquette. The highest plant height of jhum rice (138.3 cm), effective tillers hill-1 (16.03), panicle length (30.10 cm), highest number of filled grain panicle-1 (202.8), 1000 grain weight (27.67 gm), straw yield (4.13 t/ha) and grain yield (3.54 t/ha) were found from T5 treatment receiving 100% NPK briquette (267.5 kg ha-1) and for all cases lowest results were found in T1 treatment receiving no fertilizer (control). Yield of Jhum rice mainly vary with RFD and NPK briquette but highest yield obtained from NPK briquette treatment compared with control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Plant Growth Regulators (BA, KIN and NAA) on In vitro Propagation of Papaya (Carica papaya)

Nahida Hasan, Humayra Huq, Fahima Khatun, Shamim Ara Sumi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 15-23
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i530278

The present research was carried out in Biotechnology Laboratory of the Department of Biotechnology, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka-1207 from the period of September 2017 to June 2018. This research aims to study the effect of Benzyladenine (BA), Kinetin (KIN) and Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) either in combination or alone on In vitro propagation of papaya (Carica papaya). The shoot tips of young shoots were used as explant, which was sterilized using freshly prepared 0.1% HgCl2 mixing with few drops of Tween-20, were inoculated in MS media supplemented with 0.1% activated charcoal. The minimum days to shoot induction (10.25) were recorded on MS medium containing 0.5 mg/L BA. The highest shoots (4.5) and length of shoot (5.75 cm) observed in 1.0 mg/L BA. The combined treatment 1.0 mg/L BA+0.75 mg/LKIN gave the highest number of shoots (5.25) and length of shoot (5.78 cm).The minimum days (8.5) to root induction was reported in 2.0 mg/L NAA along with maximum 8.25 roots per plantlet. The highest length of root (6.92 cm) was observed in 2.0 mg/L NAA. In regenerated plantlets, 80% survival rates were observed in growth chamber conditions and 75% in the open atmosphere were achieved. Finally, the in vitro regeneration protocol described herein can potentially be used as a tool in molecular breeding programs for the improvement of different cultivars and genotypes of papaya.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Amended Organic Manure on Arachis hypogaea Growth Response and Rhizosphere Bacterial Community

Progress Oghenerume, Samuel Eduok, Basil Ita, Ofonime John, Inemesit Basssy

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 24-35
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i530279

The effect of zinc oxide nanoparticle-organic manure amended ultisol and loam soils on plant growth response and rhizosphere bacterial community of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) was evaluated using standard methods under greenhouse conditions. Results indicate germination rates ranged between 30 and 100% in the amended soils compared to 50 and 70% in the controls. ZnO nanoparticles exerted concentration-dependent and varying effects on the plant root and shoot lengths, weights, nodules and pod formation in the two soil types. Heterotrophic bacterial counts ranged from 7.21 ± 0.51 to 7.38 ± 0.5 Log10CFUg-1 in the amended ultisol and 6.99 ± 0.55 Log10CFUg-1 in the control with a log reduction to 6.70 ± 0.39 Log10CFUg-1 in 500 mgkg⁻¹ ZnO spiked soil. Counts in the amended loam soil ranged between 6.59 ± 0.48 and 7.22 ± 0.41 Log10CFUg-1 relative to 6.80 ± 0.58 Log10CFUg-1 in the control. ZnO induced concentration-dependent effect on oxygen uptake rate relative to the controls. The organisms were members of the genera Lactobacillus, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Rhizobium, Xanthobacter, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Nitrosomonas and Agromyces. ZnO nanoparticle exerted concentration-dependent stimulatory and inhibitory effects on the plant growth response, oxygen uptake rate and induced temporal shifts in soil microbial abundance. It is challenging to generalize a consistent response of the plant or microorganisms because ZnO nanoparticles interacted with A. hypogaea and soil bacterial community in ways that differ in the ultisol and loam soil.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Pomological and Chemical Properties of Autochthonous Pear Varieties with Standard Pear Varieties

Besim Salkić, Ramzija Cvrk, Emir Imširović, Ahmed Salkić, Ensar Salkić

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 36-42
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i530280

Indigenous fruit varieties are the wealth and natural resource of every country. Their importance is reflected, in addition to economic and biological, through the growing consumer interest in consuming fruits produced without the use of chemicals. Proper and accurate identification and preservation of valuable assortment has resulted in studies of the physicochemical and pomological properties of the fruits of ten pear varieties and their comparison with standard varieties. The usable value of pear fruits is multiple. It is used for liqueurs, vinegar, fruit salads, jams, jam, as dried fruit. The aim of the study is to determine the pomological and chemical properties of indigenous pear varieties and their comparison with standard pear varieties grown in northern Bosnia. The size of the fruit was quite different in the tested varieties and ranged from very small to extremely large fruits with the content of total acids slightly lower than the standard varieties. The research was supported by the Federal Ministry of Education and Science as part of a scientific research project entitled "Investigation of phenological and pomological characteristics of indigenous pear varieties in north-eastern Bosnia".

Open Access Original Research Article

Compost Derived from Sugar Cane Processing Waste Better Improves Baillonella toxisperma P. Growth in Nkoteng-Cameroon Locality

Tchuenteu Tatchum Lucien, Mounkine Zacharie, Megueni Clautilde

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 43-52
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i530281

Aims: Baillonella toxisperma P. (moabi) is a woody which belongs to Sapotaceae family. It is endemic to the forests of Congo Basin, and therefore to Cameroonian forests. In Cameroon, B. toxiperma undergoes anthropogenic pressure which may lead to its complete disappearance. In this respect, the establishment of an appropriate technical route for regeneration of this species, which becomes rare because of overexploitation, is a necessity. This study aimed to improve the regeneration of moabi while contributing to sustainable agriculture.

Study Design: A random device design with 5 treatments (control, compost derived sugar cane processing waste, bagasse, molasses and bagasse-molasses mixture) was used.

Place and Duration of Study: Under Bimodal Forest climate in the Central Cameroon region, between September, 2018 and April 2019.

Methodology: The breaking of moabi seeds dormancy, physico-chemical properties of soil and produced compost, and growth parameters (plant height, foliar production, diameter of stem, and dry biomass of plant) were evaluated to determine the development of the seedlings.

Results: Moabi seeds stored cold at 4°C for 48 hours before sowing germinated better. Compost significantly (p˂0.001) increased moabi plants growth compared to bagasse, molasses, bagasse-molasses mixture. Dry biomass of treated moabi plants by compost, bagasse, bagasse-molasses mixture and molasses were 1.80; 1.13; 1.78; 1.40 fold greater than those of unfertilized plants respectively.

Conclusion: The use of sugar cane compounds works as a double benefit because in addition to using compounds previously discarded, we are adding potent fertilizers that act strongly on moabi growth.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Udaipur Rock Phosphate, Single Super Phosphate and Their Combinations on Yield and Total Nutrient Uptake by a Groundnut-Maize Cropping System on the Acid Alfisols of Odisha State, India

Debasis Sarangi, Dinabandhu Jena, Gour Hari Santra

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 53-64
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i530282

To find out the effect of low grade Udaipur rock phosphate on yield and nutrient dynamic in groundnut- maize cropping system, a field experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with three replications and eight treatments consisting of Udaipur rock phosphate (URP), single super phosphate (SSP) alone or in combinations with different ratios including phosphorus control from 2013-14 to 2015. The soil has a loam texture, a pH of 5.18, low available nitrogen and medium phosphorus and potassium. The highest maize equivalent yield of 6293 kg ha-1 and relative agronomic efficiency (RAE) of 159% was recorded in SSP+ lime (0.2LR) treatment followed by URP+SSP (1:1). Combined application of SSP+ lime recorded higher P, Ca, Mg and S uptake by groundnut-maize cropping system. When the crops received URP+SSP mixture in 1:1 ratio, the RAE values were increased above the standard SSP treatment (T3) being 102% for groundnut, 105% for maize and 103% for groundnut-maize cropping system. The yield in URP+SSP mixture (1:1) was higher than for the SSP treatment, but the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Thus, combined application of URP+SSP mixture (1:1) can safely be recommended in acid soils for short duration crops like maize and groundnut as against the more costly water soluble SSP fertilizer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Characterization of Bacteria Involved in Daniellia oliveri, Ficus sycomorus, Hymenocardia acida andTerminalia glaucescens Leaf Litter Decomposition and their Hydrolytic Enzyme Potentials

Grégoire Ndara Babe, Steve Takoukam Toukam, Jacob Tchima Massai, Pale Maigari, Albert Ngakou, Adamou Ibrahima

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 65-82
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i530283

The effect of microorganisms particularly those of bacteria on litter decomposition in the tropical savannahs of Adamawa Cameroon is poorly investigated. Litter decomposition was conducted in the field on the litter of Ficus sycomorus, Terminalia glaucescens, Daniellia oliveri, and Hymenocardia acida, and the dynamic of bacterial populationas well as their enzymatic activity during degradation of leaf litters was studied. For this purpose, bacteria were isolated from the litterof these plants at the initial time (zero), 12 and 24 weeks of degradation by serial dilution method and spreading onto nutrient agar culture medium. Identification of bacteria was done under photonic microscope after Gram staining and the production of enzymes was carried out on specific media. Results indicate that: 25 bacteria were isolated from distinct phenotypic characteristics on nutrient agar. Based on morphological appearance as observed under light microscope, 24% of isolates were found to be single bacilli; 28% bacilli cluster; 16% were found to be streptobacilli and 32% diplococci. For sugar fermentation test (TSI), 20% of isolates produced gas and acidic reaction, 40% produced acidic butt reaction, while only 20% produced H2S gas ; 76% of isolates were positive to citrate utilization (SIM) test; 20% of isolates were positive to catalase production test, whereas only 20% of isolates were motile. The aforementioned study of phenotypic, microscopic and biochemical enabled identification of two genera: the genus Bacillus and the genus Micrococcus representing respectively 68 and 32% of the isolates. The genus Bacillus consisted of Bacillus cereus (41.17%, with 7 phenotypes), Bacillus megaterium (17.64%, with 3 phenotypes), Bacillus subtilus (35.29%, with 6 phenotypes) and Bacillus sp. (5.88%, with 1 phenotype). The genus Micrococcusre grouped 08 phenotypes. The relative abundance of isolates demonstrated that in all leaf litters and soils, there was a great diversity of bacterial isolates at the initial time and then a considerable decrease in this diversity during litters degradation. The genus Bacillus was generally dominant at all decomposition periods of different plant species. A total of 64% of bacteria isolates produced at least one enzyme. 36% of the isolates produced amylase, 56% produced cellulase, 40% produced esterase, 48% produced lipase, while 48 % of the isolates produced protease. This strong enzymatic activity of the isolated bacteria suggests their competences in the degradation process of leaf litter, and therefore, the interest in exploiting them in litter degradation units for an efficient production of organic fertilizer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Jute Mallow (Corchorus olitorius L.) Grown in an Alfisol and Inceptisol to Different Organic Fertilizers and Mycorrhizal Inoculation in Nigeria

F. B. Musa, O. F. Oyetunji, R. V. Oyewumi, D. A. Adenuga, C. I. Ihediuche, F. T. Adelusi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 83-93
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i530284

Background and Objective: The use of organic fertilizers in soil usually upsurge the infection rate of mycorrhizal in a plant, thereby increases the nutrients content, uptake and promotes the vegetative growth of  the host plant. This experiment was conducted to assess the influence of different organic fertilizers and mycorrhizal inoculation on Corchorus olitorius growth and yield in an Alfisol and Inceptisol in Nigeria.

Materials and Methods: The experiment was set up at the screenhouse of the Department of Agronomy, Ibadan. 2 x 2 x 5 factorial experiment in a completely randomized design was conducted with two levels of soil (Alfisol and Inceptisol); two levels of mycorrhizal inoculation (with and without) and five levels of organic fertilizers (organic fertilizers; poultry manure, cattle manure, Moringa, Tithonia and control) in two-kilogram soil under three replications.

Results: Soil supplemented with organic fertilizers significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the growth and yield of Corchorus olitorius. The height, leaf area and number of leaves of Corchorus olitorius in soil supplemented with organic fertilizers were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than control. Higher leaf area and number of leaves were obtained in C. olitorius influenced by mycorrhizal (+AM) than without mycorrhizal (-AM) under poultry manure application in Alfisol. Inceptisol without fertilizers and mycorrhizal inoculation was also high in the leaf area of C. olitorius compared to Alfisol corresponding treatment with about 31.1%. Number of leaves of C. olitorius without mycorrhizal (-AM) inoculation and Tithonia can be compared with mycorrhizal (+AM) inoculation and cattle manure at 7 weeks after transplanting in both soils. Plants height obtained was highest in C. olitorius grown in Alfisol without mycorrhizal and cattle manure with about 12.2% higher over Inceptisol. Shoots and roots observed under mycorrhizal inoculation were also significantly different from those observed without mycorrhizal inoculation in both soils under different fertilizers application.

Conclusion: Integration of different fertilizer types (organic fertilizers and mycorrhizal inoculation) can be efficiently used as a suitable nutrient management system due to positive responses observed in this investigation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth and Yield Stability of Maize Varieties (Zea mays L.) as Affected by Different Rates of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Cow Dung in Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria

I. Audu, R. Idris

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 94-103
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i530285

A field experiment to study the growth and yield stability of maize varieties (Zea mays L.) to different rates of nitrogen fertilizer and cow dung in Mubi Adamawa State, Nigeria was conducted in 2014 and 2015 cropping seasons at the Food and Agricultural Organization/Tree crops Plantation (FAO/TCP) Farm of Faculty of Agriculture, Adamawa State University Mubi. Two maize varieties; viz. Quality Protein Maize (QPM) and Extra Early White (EEW) were selected for sowing. They were assigned to the main plots and nitrogen with cow dung assigned to the subplots in a factorial combination with nitrogen at the rates of 0, 60 and 120 kg N ha-1 and cow dung at 0, 1- and 2-ton ha-1 in split plot design. Data were collected on plant height, leaf area per plant, leaf area index and grain yield per hectare. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance and treatment means were separated using Duncan Multiple Range Test. The result showed that EEW had the highest plant height (190.77 cm), higher leaf area per plant (535.6 cm2) and leaf area index (0.40 cm) than QPM. The effect of nitrogen fertilizer on the growth and yield parameters increased as the nitrogen fertilizer was increased. 120kg N ha-1 gave the highest plant height (195.68 cm) and grain yield (5658.3 kg). The control plot produced the least; 164.77 cm (plant height) and 2662.50 kg ha-1 (grain yield). Application of 1ton ha-1 cow dung exhibited the highest plant height, (95.00 cm), leaf area per plant (518.91 cm2) and leaf area index (0.37 cm). There was an interaction of variety with nitrogen on plant height and grain yield. High interaction of variety with cow dung on plant height and leaf area per plant was recorded. There was an interaction of nitrogen with cow dung on plant height, leaf area per plant and leaf area index. However, there was an interaction of variety with nitrogen and cow dung on plant height, leaf area per plant and leaf area index. Application of 120 kg N ha-1 significantly increased the yield of QPM maize along with 2-ton ha-1 of cow dung.