Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Cow Urine Foliar Spray on Quality Attributes and Chemical Characteristics of Byadgi chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) in a Vertisol

K. L. Shaziya, B. I. Bidari, S. T. Hundekar, M. Pushpalatha

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i630286

A field experiment was conducted during kharif 2018 in the farmer’s field at Agadi village (Tq: Hubballi) in Dharwad district to investigate the “Effect of cow urine foliar spray on quality attributes and chemical characteristics of Byadgi chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) in a Vertisol”. Experiment consisted of 12 treatments with three replications laid out in Completely Randomized Block Design. Results revealed that, two foliar applications of 15 per cent cow urine one each at 60 and 90 DAT recorded highest colour value (201.65 ASTA units), closely followed by treatment that received two sprays of 10 per cent cow urine on 60 + 90 DAT (194.50 ASTA units). Highest oleoresin content (20.23%) was noticed in the treatment that received 15 per cent cow urine spray on 60 + 90 DAT which was on par with treatment that received two sprays of 10 per cent cow urine (19.56%). Highest capsaicin content (0.16%) was recorded in the treatment that received 15 % cow urine spray at 60 DAT as well as cow urine spray at 60 DAT + 90 DAT and also 50 ppm NAA spray at 60 DAT.

Foliar spray of cow urine did not significantly influenced the total ash, total sugars and total ether extract contents in fruits which ranged from 5.95 to 6.96, 18.20 to 19.89 and 14.10 to 15.20 per cent respectively. Treatment that received one spray of 15 per cent cow urine on 90 DAT recorded numerically highest (6.96%) total ash closely followed by treatment (6.83%) that received five per cent foliar spray at 60 + 90 DAT. Treatment that received two sprays of 15 per cent cow urine recorded numerically highest (19.89%) total sugars closely followed by treatment (19.78%) that received 5 per cent foliar spray at 90 DAT. Treatment that received two sprays of 10 per cent cow urine recorded highest total ether extract (15.20%) closely followed by treatment (14.93%) that received 5 per cent foliar spray at 60 + 90 DAT.

Open Access Original Research Article

Inoculation of Pseudomonas putida in Farmer Environment to Improve Growth and Yield: Maize (Zea mays L.) Trial in Sothern, Central and Northern (Benin)

M. Y. Adoko, N. A. Agbodjato, G. C. Ouikoun, O. Amogou, P. A. Noumavo, H. Sina, A. D. Koda, M. Allagbé, N. Ahoyo Adjovi, A. Adjanohoun, L. Baba-Moussa

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 9-21
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i630288

The application of Plant Growth Promoting rhizobacteria as a microbial bio-fertilizers to increase soil fertility and productivity, allows a rational use of chemical fertilizers which makes agriculture sustainable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the rhizobacteria Pseudomonas putida on the maize productivity in farmer environment. For this purpose, trials were conducted in two Agricultural Development Poles with nine (09) producers equitably distributed in Southern, Central and Northern Benin. The experimental design was a completely randomized block of three (03) treatments (T1: farmer practice; T2: P. putida + ½ recommended dose of NPK and Urea; T3: recommended dose of NPK and Urea) with three (03) repetitions. During sowing, two (2) maize seeds of the 2000 SYNEE-W variety were introduced into a pot and inoculated with 10 ml of bacterial suspensions of 108 CFU/ml concentration. The results showed that the best heights, stem diameters and leaf areas of maize plants were obtained with P. putida + ½ recommended dose of NPK and Urea with the nine (09) producers of the three (03) areas with respective increases of 14.76%; 18.08% and 26.56% compared to the farmer practice. In addition, the results related to yield parameters such as aerial biomass, underground biomass and maize grain yield were better improved with the P. putida + ½ recommended dose of NPK and Urea. The average rates of increase recorded were 42.70%, 38.96% and 77.69%, respectively, compared to farmer practice. In sum, this rhizobacteria can be used as the microbial bio-fertilizers to improve maize productivity in Benin.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effected Irradiated Sewage Sludge and Compost on Jatropha Yield Production and Using 15Nitrogen

Ahmed A. Moursy, M. M. Ismail

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 22-30
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i630289

Studies on irradiation of sewage sludge indicated its feasibility both economical and hygienically but work in this point is limited. Also the effect of non-irradiated and irradiated sewage sludge as a source of N on yield production and improvements fertility of sandy soil. In this research using the organic manure, the effects were increased soil fertility and crop yield. Aseeds yield production by Jatropha curcas L., these treatments can be arranged in the following descending order: T5> T6> T7> T4> T2> T3> T1. The best value of Ndff% recorded with rate 50% gamma irradiated sewage sludge + 50% ammonium sulphate fertilizer. Values of Ndfo % for 75.2%, 74.8% and 73.3% for (50% non-irradiated sewage sludge + 50% ammonium sulphate), (50% compost + 50% ammonium sulphate) and irradiated sewage sludge + 50% ammonium sulphate respectively. In general, the FUE% with 100% ammonium sulphate was ammonium sulphate alone lower than those recorded with ammonium sulphate plus none or irradiated sewage sludge and compost when T5, T7, T6 and T1 treatments were considered.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Tillage Practices and Irrigation Schedule on Soil Quality and Yield of Some Rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Sokoto Rima Flood Plain

E. A. Manasseh, Mahavir Singh, O. E. Fadeiye, M. I. Aliyu

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 49-57
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i630291

Sokoto Rima Flood Plain (SRFP) is located in Sudan Savanna agro-ecology of Nigeria, and is faced with the common challenge of flooding towards the end of the rainy season and widespread drought with high potential for irrigated rice production during dry season. Two year experiment was conducted in the dry season of 2018 and 2019 in a farmer`s field, near the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching and Research Farm, Kwalkwalawa in SRFP, Sokoto State. The treatments consisted of factorial combination of two tillage practices; conventional and reduced tillage, three irrigation schedules; one, two and three days schedule of irrigation and three rice varieties (FARO 44, 60 and 61). Treatments were laid in a split plot design replicated three times, where tillage practices and irrigation schedules were allocated to the main plots while rice varieties to the sub-plots. Data on particle size distribution, bulk density and water retention were simulated by RETC model for Mualem-van Genuchten parameters and for estimating the soil physical quality index (S) and the grain yield (kgh-1) of rice varieties were extrapolated from the net plots. Statistical analysis software was used to analyze all data generated, where significant means were compared using Duncan Multiple Range Test. The results revealed that RETC output for van Genutchen parameters demonstrated significant difference between the two tillage practices, irrigation schedule and depth on the value of curve fitting parameters (n). Soil physical quality index (S) increased with increase in soil depth, although not statistically different. From the finding, the S-index in the study area was in the range of 0.023-0.025, which by grouping was considered moderately suitable for optimal root growth. Also, FARO 44 performed better than other varieties in both 2018 (540.05 kgh-1) and 2019 (5835.85 kgh-1), respectively with one day irrigation schedule and convectional tillage practice. Forage legume incorporation during rainy season should be encouraged to improve the soil physical quality over time.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of Half-Sib Progenies Developed from an Early Maturing Maize (Zea mays L.) Population in a Rain-Forest Location

A. O. Fadahunsi, A. Oluwaranti, M. A. B. Fakorede

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 58-68
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i630292

Problem: Half-sib progenies were developed in a maize breeding program of the Department of Crop Production and Protection of Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife, Nigeria but have not been evaluated for further improvements.

Aims: Therefore, this study was undertaken to evaluate the performances of the half-sib progenies, as well as estimate and determine the association among selected traits.

Study Design: 160 half-sib progenies each developed in the late planting seasons of 2013 and 2014 from an early maturing maize population were used for this study. Each of the field trials were laid out in a 16 x 10 incomplete block design and replicated twice.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted during the early and late planting seasons of 2015 at the Teaching and Research Farm, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (7º28’N 4º33’E and 244 m above sea level).

Methodology: All data collected were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and means were separated using Least Significant Difference (LSD) at 0.05 probability level. Genotypic and phenotypic variances were generated to calculate heritability estimates for all traits taken.

Results: The results observed showed highly significant differences (P < 0.01) between seasons and among half-sib progenies from both years of development for all traits. Half-sib progenies developed in 2014 were also observed to perform better than those developed in 2013 for all traits studied. Heritability was high (72%) for ear height for the 2013 developed half-sib progenies and moderate at 45% for the 2014 half-sib progenies and this trait had highly significant and positive correlations with yield.

Conclusion: It was concluded that sufficient genetic variability existed among the progenies that could be exploited to improve the population. However, it was recommended that these progenies could also be evaluated in multiple locations to ascertain their adaptability and performance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Soil and Nutrient Loss from Hill as Affected by Different Cropping and Mulch Practices in Hilly Area of Bangladesh

Md. Zonayet, A. J. M. Sirajul Karim

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 69-80
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i630293

Soil and nutrient loss is a multifactor threat to crop production and the environment in hilly area of Bangladesh. Most studies on soil erosion characterization have not focused on soil and nutrient loss associated with erosion which were affected by different cropping and mulch practices. The demand for food is expected to significantly increase with continued population growth over the next 50 years, indicating that agricultural efficiency should be simultaneously stabilized and enhanced. The experiments was conducted in the hill district of Bangladesh (CHTs) i.e Bandarban, under the AEZ 29 (Northern and Eastern Hills Tract) during March 2016 to November 2017 to study the soil and nutrient loss from hill as affected by different cropping and mulch practices. The experiments were laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The treatments for the experiment were: T1 Mulch (20 t/ha with rice straw) and T2No mulch in maize and turmeric field. Turmeric and maize cultivation showed economically better under mulch condition in hilly region. More nutrient depletion took place in no mulch condition under the cultivation of turmeric and maize crops. Due to non-mulching, the productivity loss in maize and turmeric was 1.37 and 2.56 t/ha, respectively. Turmeric showed higher benefit-cost ratio (BCR) in mulch practice (2.64) than in non-mulch (1.63) cropping.

Open Access Original Research Article

Priming with Methylene Blue Enhances the Antioxidant Properties and Germination Power of Cowpea, Millet and Sorghum Seeds

Jerry Ampofo-Asiama, Francis Amoako-Andoh, Bright Quaye

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 81-89
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i630294

Seed priming is the preparation of plants to overcome stress with the aim of improving the efficiency and rate of germination. The effect of priming cowpea, millet and sorghum seeds with methylene blue (MB) on germination power (GP) was investigated in this work. The seeds were primed by steeping for 6 h in different concentrations of MB solution, germinated over 48 h on wet cotton and the GP determined. Further, soluble protein and total phenolic contents, and the antioxidant properties [scavenging ability for hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide, hydroxyl radical and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and iron chelation ability] of the seeds steeped in MB that gave the highest GP were determined. The highest GP was observed for cowpea and sorghum seeds steeped in 80 µM MB solution and 60 µM MB solution for millet seeds. At these MB concentrations, a faster rate of germination coupled with an increase in soluble protein and total phenolic content was observed. The increase in germination rate was also characterized by enhanced antioxidant properties of the seeds. The results of this study show that priming with MB can be used to improve the germination of these seeds.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effects of Biofertilizers, Organic and Inorganic Nutrient Sources on Growth Parameters and Yield of Piper betle L. (Betlevine) under Gangetic Alluvial Soil of West Bengal

Babli Dutta, A. K. Bandyopadhyay, Samima Sultana, Adwaita Mondal, B. C. Rudra, Ganesh Das

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 90-95
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i630296

An experiment was carried out during  two consecutive years of 2012-13 and 2013-14 at the experimental site of AICRP on MAP and Betelvine, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design (RBD) replicated thrice with 9 treatments comprising of different combinations of organics (Azotobacter, Phosphobacter and mustard oil cake) and inorganic (urea and SSP) sources of nutrients. The maximum vine elongation, basal girth, leaf size, leaf yield and other yield attributing characters were found significantly better under application of Azotobacter  @ 10 Kg + 140 kg N (MOC) + Phosphobacter @ 5 Kg + 50 Kg P +100 Kg K ha-1year-1. However, the treatment was statistically at par with Azotobacter @ 5 Kg + 170 Kg N (MOC) + Phosphobacter @ 5 Kg + 50 Kg P + 100 Kg K ha-1year-1 in respect of dry matter production. Hence, the treatment with Azotobacter  @ 10 kg + 140 kg N (MOC) + Phosphobacter @ 5 Kg + 50 Kg P +100 Kg K ha-1year-1 application can be used as a best sustainable and eco friendly integrated nutrient management approach for better yield of betelvine  under the gangetic alluvial zone of West Bengal.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Planting Methods and Seedling Age on Growth, Yield and Nutrient Uptake in Rice under High Rainfall Areas of Bay Islands

N. Bommayasamy, L. B. Singh, F. H. Rahman

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 96-102
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i630298

A field experiment was conducted in farmer’s field during Kharif season at Badmaspahar village of South Andaman under National Innovation on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) to find out the influence of planting methods, seedling age on growth, productivity, profitability, nutrient uptake of rice under higher rainfall areas of Bay Islands. Among the method of planting and age of seedlings, square planting with 14 days old seedlings recorded the highest dry matter production of 63.2% higher dry matter production as compared to random planting with 28 days old seedlings. Maximum grain and straw yield of 4855 and 9460 kg/ha respectively was recorded square planting (20 x 20 cm) with 14 days old seedling which was 64.6, 45.6 and 71.7, 59.9% higher grain and straw yield as compared to random planting with 28 days old seedlings and same age of seedlings with line planting respectively. Higher gross return of Rs. 50920/ ha and net return of Rs. 32170/ ha with B: C ratio of 2.72 was recorded in square planting (20 x 20 cm) with 14 days old seedling. The higher N, P and K uptake of rice (78.7, 25.1 and 114.8 kg/ha, respectively) was recorded in square planting (20 x 20 cm) with 14 days old seedlings was comparable with line planting (20 x 15 cm) with 14 days old seedlings. Hence, it can be concluded that square planting (20 x 20 cm) with 14 days old seedlings with stand lodging, produced more economic yield and net return for realizing efficient use of resources and productivity.

Open Access Review Article

Agricultural Land Use and Management Practice Influence on Efflux and Influx of Carbon between Soil and the Atmosphere: A Review

M. B. Hossain

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 31-48
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i630290

The objective of this paper is to formulate suitable policies and management practices that can firmly reduce CO2–C (carbon dioxide –carbon) emissions and sequester it in a sustainable way. Land use and management practices can influence both efflux and influx of carbon between soil and the atmosphere. Organic matter dynamics and nutrient cycling in the soil are closely related to nutrient immobilization and mineralization. Unplanned conversion of lands to agricultural production causes a sharp decrease in carbon stored in soil. In the atmosphere, 4.0 Gt C yr-1 is enriched by different sources. Increasing soil organic carbon (SOC) improves soil health and mitigate climate change. Histosol, clayey and fine particle size have good capacity to sequestrate C in soil. Land use pattern controls organic matter status in soil. Crop/grass, forestry/agroforestry, reduced tillage, quality of organic matter, soil biotic - abiotic are the major factors to sequestrate significant C in soil. The application of fertilizers especially nitrogen usually results in an increase in crop growth as well as a corresponding increase in root development takes place for building up active organicmatter in soil. Biochar amendments can impact soil C storage and net CO2 removals from the atmosphere in three different ways such as longer residence time due to resistant to microbial decay, plant productivity and reduce N2O emission. Wetland soil, effective management practices and control deforestation sequestrate 0.2, 2.0 and 1.6 Gt C yr-1, respectively. Based on these information, it is possible to increase 4‰ carbon a year the quantity of carbon contained in soils at 0-40 cm soil depth to halt carbon dioxide enrichment (4.0 Gt C yr-1) in the atmosphere.