Open Access Original Research Article

Initial Growth of Physalis peruviana L. Seedlings on Different Substrates

Jeniffer Ribeiro de Oliveira, Mayara Nascimento Santos, Joabe Martins de Souza, Vinícius de Souza Oliveira, Mariana Alexandre Alves Amourim

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i830310

The substrate is one of the most important factors in the formation of the seedling and must present conditions suitable for germination and development of the seedling root system. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different substrates on the initial growth of Physalis peruviana L. seedlings. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Farm, of the Federal University of Espírito Santo– São Mateus (Brazil). The experimental design used was completely randomized, with three treatments (Soil, Provaso® and Bioplant®), seven replications and seven plants per plot, using seeds with 427 days of storage. At 56 days after sowing, the 10 most vigorous seedlings were selected for evaluation. The following characteristics were evaluated: percentage of emergence, emergence speed index (ESI), mean time of emergence (MET), number of leaves (NL), stem diameter (SD), aerial part length (APL), aerial part fresh matter (APFM), aerial part dry matter (APDM), root fresh matter (RFM), root dry matter (RDM) and Dickson quality index (DQI). The Provaso® substrate showed the best performance in all studied variables, being recommended for the production of Physalis seedlings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Foliar Fertilization on Leaf Nutrient Status of Kinnow Mandarin

. Reetika, G. S. Rana, Rakesh Kumar, Ravi Kumar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 8-14
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i830311

Aims: To study the impact of Urea, K2SO4, ZnSO4, FeSO4 and boric acid on leaf nutrient status of Kinnow mandarin.

Study Design: The experiment was performed in randomized block design with three replications per treatment on Kinnow mandarin.

Place and Duration of Study: The current study was carried out on seven years’ old earmarked plants at the Horticultural Orchard and in Soil Testing Laboratory of College of Agriculture, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar during the year 2016-17. 

Methodology: The eleven fertilizer treatments in different combinations of Urea, K2SO4, ZnSO4, FeSO4 and boric acid were arranged in randomized block design with three replications on seven years old uniformly grown Kinnow mandarin trees. All the chemicals were sprayed twice, i.e., first in last week of April and second in the last week of July. Leaf samples were taken in the month of October for analysis of leaf N, P, K, Zn and Fe content.

Results: The results of the experiment indicate that the foliar application of Urea, K2SO4, ZnSO4, FeSO4 and boric acid had a significantly positive influence on the recorded parameters. The content of nitrogen, zinc and iron in Kinnow mandarin leaves was recorded maximum when the plants were sprayed with Urea 1.5%  + K2SO4 1.5% + ZnSO4 0.75%, Urea  1.5%  + K2SO4  1.5%  + ZnSO4  0.75%  + FeSO4  1.0%  + Boric Acid  0.4% and Urea  1.5%  + K2SO4  1.5%  + ZnSO4  0.75%  + FeSO4  1.0%, respectively, while phosphorous and potassium content in leaves of Kinnow mandarin remained unaffected by the foliar application of Urea, K2SO4, ZnSO4, FeSO4 and boric acid.

Conclusion: Based on this study, it is concluded that the foliar application of Urea, K2SO4, ZnSO4, FeSO4 and boric acid had a significantly positive influence on leaf mineral nutrient status of Kinnow mandarin plants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Vermicompost and Biochar on Growth and Yield of Carrot in Red Lateritic Soils of Purulia District of West Bengal

P. Biswas, B. Mahato, D. C. Mahato, F. H. Rahman, Chinanshuk Ghosh

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 15-20
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i830313

An experiment was conducted at Horticultural Farm of Krishi Vigyan Kendra Kalyan, Purulia, West Bengal, India located at Jahajpur during Rabi season of 2019. The main objective was to determine the effectiveness of vermicompost and biochar on growth and yield of carrot. The experimental design applied was randomized block design (RBD) with three replicates for each treatment. The eight treatments comprised of T1- (Control), T2- (100% NPK), T3- (100% Biochar), T4- (50% Biochar + 50% NPK), T5- (75% Biochar + 25% NPK), T6- (100% Vermicompost), T7- (50% Vermicompost + 50% NPK), T8- (75% Vermicompost + 25% NPK). The growth parameters i.e. plant height, number of leaves, root length, root diameter and yield parameter fresh weight of root were analyzed during growth period and final harvesting in carrots for each treatment using standard methods. The results showed that vermicompost and biochar had a positive effect on all the parameters. T7- 50% Vermicompost + 50% NPK recorded highest yield of 27.67 t/ ha, while the lowest yield (12.24 t/ ha) was recorded in T1- (Control) from the carrots which did not receive any nutrients. However, yield recorded in T4- 50% Biochar + 50% NPK was at par with T8- 75% Vermicompost + 25% NPK. On the basis of the results of this study, 50% Vermicompost + 50% NPK is therefore recommended because it improves the growth parameters resulting to higher yield in carrots.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Short Duration Drought Tolerant Rice Varieties in Drought Prone Areas of Subarnapur District of Odisha

S. Pradhan, F. H. Rahman, S. Sethy, G. Pradhan, J. Sen

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 21-26
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i830314

A study was conducted in farmer’s field through technology demonstrations during Kharif season of 2018 and 2019 in Subarnapur district of Odisha to recommend the most suited short duration drought tolerant upland rice variety particular to the locality. Six different varieties like Sahabhagi dhan, Mandakini, Jogesh, DRR-44, and DRR-42 & Khandagiri were taken with four replications in Randomized Block Design in both years. Technology demonstration included not only the improved short duration varieties, but also a package of good agronomic practices viz. line sowing, seed treatment with Bavistin, proper fertilization with dose @ 80:40:40 NPK/ha, pre emergence herbicide application with pretilachlor, needful manual weeding and  need based plant protection chemicals. The results of demonstration showed that farmers could increase rice productivity notably by adopting improved variety Sahabhagi dhan and DRR-44. These varieties recorded higher grain yields of 64% and 46%, respectively, and fetched a sum return of Rs 25620 and Rs 25275 over farmers’ local variety Khandagiri.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relative Suitability of Phosphorus Extraction Procedures for F Tropical Ferralsol

J. S. Tenywa, E. Odama, A. K. Amoding

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 27-35
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i830315

Purpose: To evaluate the predictive capacity common procedures for soil P extraction and testing in laboratories in the region.

Materials and Methods: A pot study with treatments viz. soil phosphorus extraction methods (Bray I, Bray II and Mehlich 3), and six P application rates (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 kg P ha-1). Maize (Zea mays L.) variety Longe IV was the test crop. A Ferralsol from northwestern Uganda (West Nile) was used in this study.

Results and Conclusion: Mehlich 3 correlated most with plant P uptake by presenting the highest correlation coefficient with plant P content (r = 0.254) and a number of leaves per plant (r = 0.733). A strong positive correlation existed between Bray I and Mehlich 3 extractable P values (r = 0.975), suggesting lack of a marked difference between them; implying that either of the two procedures could be applied for soil P extraction in Ferralsols. However, Mehlich 3, being a multi-nutrient extractant, was recommended as the most suitable for P extraction for the Ferralsol used in this study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Cauliflower to Different Forms of Boron and Relation to Boron Availability in Red and Lateritic Soils of West Midnapore District of West Bengal

S. Mukherjee, F. H. Rahaman, T. K. Choudhuri, S. Das, K. Nag

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 36-41
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i830316

A field experiment on Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L.) was conducted to study the different form of Boron deficiency which in terms will increase yield of Cauliflower in red and lateritic soils during 2011-12 at Kapgari village of Seva Bharati Krishi Vigyan Kendra at West Midnapore district of West Bengal. The design adopted was Randomised Block Design (RBD) having ten replications with four treatments. The different forms of boron treated cauliflower plants attributed higher yields over control. Among different treatments evaluated, the treatment T3 i.e. FYM @ 10 t/ha + Boric acid (20% Boron) @ 0.3% as foliar spray after one month of planting showed better yield (91% fresh curd harvested) and quality in respect to curd size (24 cm) and weight (2.70 kg) followed marginally by T4 i.e. FYM @ 10 t/ha + Total B2O (liquid Boron - 20% Boron) @ 1.5 g/L of water as foliar spray after one month of planting in all aspects followed by T1 i.e. Farmyard manure @ 10 t/ha as basal dose and T2 i.e. FYM @ 10 t/ha+ Borax @ 15 kg/ha as basal dose respectively. Treatment T3 also achieved 13.41%, 51.66% and 139.47% more fresh curds as compared to T4, T2 and T1 respectively. Treatment T4 showed improved performance (82% fresh curd) after T3 which achieve economic thresh level over T2 (60% fresh curd) and T1 (38% fresh curd) respectively. Lower curd size recorded with T1 (16 cm) followed by T2 (18 cm) and T4 (20 cm). T3 recorded highest weight of the curd (2.7 kg) as compared to T1 (1.25 kg), T2 (1.5 kg) and T4 (2.0 kg). Highest available form of boron in the soil is found in T3 (37.50 ppm) followed by T4 (35.0 ppm), T2 (30.62 ppm) and T1 (27.4 ppm) respectively. It is clearly understood that Treatment T3 i.e. FYM @ 10 t/ha + Boric acid (20% B) @ 0.3% as foliar spray after one month of planting emerged out to be the best treatment in respect to yield, curd size and weight of curd.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physiological Evaluation of Different Rice Genotypes to Two Salinity Level during Seedling Stage under Hydroponic System

S. Lakshmi, V. Ravichandran, L. Arul, K. Krishna Surendar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 42-56
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i830317

Hydroponics study was conducted to screen eight rice genotypes (CO 51, ADT 53, ADT 37, IR 64, CO 43, ASD 16, Pokkali; TRY 3) under salinity stress on early seedling stage. Two Saline treatments (75 and 100 mM NaCl) were given at 15 days old seedling; observations were recorded at 10 days after salt stress. Results showed that shoot length, root length, total fresh and dry weight, shoot and root fresh weight, shoot and root dry weight and root- shoot ratio were reduced under saline conditions compared to control. Na+ ion Concentration and Na+/ k+ ratio was higher in saline treatments than control. However, K+ ion absorption decreased with increasing salinity level. Electrolyte leakage and osmotic potential had increasing trend with increasing level of salinity. In this study, rice genotypes Pokkali, TRY 3 and CO 43 perform as tolerant; CO 51, ADT 53 and ASD 16 perform as moderately tolerant; ADT 37 is susceptible and IR 64 is highly susceptible. This type of study is required to develop salt tolerant genotypes at salt stress during seedling stage; to increase the growth and yield of rice there by satisfy the need of country’s requirement.

Open Access Original Research Article

Peanut Cultivation in Different Space Arrangements in the Paraibano Semi-arid

André Japiassú, Francisco de Oliveira Mesquita, Antônio Wilson Júnior Ramalho Lacerda, Patrícia Peixoto Custódio, Anailson de Sousa Alves, Antônio Gustavo de Luna Souto, Alex Serafim de Lima, Ana Beatriz Alves de Araújo

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 57-66
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i830318

This research was proposed to evaluate the results under different spacing and densities   arrangements on growth, development and productivity of peanut plants, cultivate BR-1, in an agricultural area on the banks of the Piranhas River, located in the municipality of Pombal-PB. Therefore, the study was developed in the experimental field, of the Agri-Food Science and Technology Center, located in São João farm, distant 18 kilometers from the city Pombal. This experiment was carried out from february to may/2017 as a factorial experiment laid out in Complete Randomized Block Design (CRBD), with six repetitions. Include two factors, spaces (0.10x 0.50 m and 0.20x 0.50 m) and density (one seed per hole and two seeds per hole) totaling 24 plots. The experimental unit was composed of three lines of 4 m, the central line being considered a useful area. Regardless of the sowing season, plant density or spacing are factors that most influence agronomic characteristics and pod productivity and grains of peanuts grown in the Sertao Paraibano. The number of immature fruits per plant was the only variable that significantly differed from the cultivation arrangements in relation to the others, showing better behaviors in the highest density of plants per hectare and in the largest spacing. Regardless of the sowing season, plant density or spacing are factors that most influence agronomic characteristics and in the productivity of pods and grains of peanuts grown in the Sertao Paraibano.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Media on Germination and Seedlings Performance of Chili Pepper (Capsicum annum)

P. D. Kaledzi, P. K. Tandoh, S. Asana

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 67-75
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i830319

The production of vegetable seedlings is an important business for some farmers in most parts of the world with poor media being a major constraint. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different media on germination and nursery performance of chili pepper at the Department of Horticulture, Kwame Nkrumah University of science and Technology (KNUST). A Randomized Complete Block design with six treatments and three replications was used in the study. Media treatments were used either alone or in combination and they were: topsoil only, rice hull ash only, rabbit waste only, topsoil and rice hull ash (1:1), topsoil and rabbit waste (1:1) and topsoil and river sand (1:1). There were significant differences in germination percentage, seedling height, number of leaves and stem girth as function of the media treatments. The different media however did not affect days to 50% germination significantly. Comparatively, the highest and the lowest germination percentages (77.50% and 62.00%) were obtained by nursing seeds in the mixture of topsoil and rice hull ash as well as rabbit waste only respectively. In terms of growth characteristics, plant height and number of leaves were highest in seedlings nursed in topsoil and rice hull ash mixture (18.36 cm and 13.23 cm) respectively at the end of the study period. The highest stem girth was seedlings nursed in topsoil (3.129 mm) at the end of the experiment. Plants nursed in rabbit waste only had the lowest growth performance in terms of plant height (2.75 cm), number of leaves (4.50) and stem girth (1.27 mm) at the end of the experiment. Growth medium consisting of a mixture of proportion of topsoil and rice hull ash is therefore recommended for growing chili pepper seedlings since this combination improved both germination and subsequent growth as compared to the other media used in the experiment. Rice hull ash is not recommended to be used alone in raising chili pepper seedlings since it has a high pH which decreases seedling growth. Partially decomposed rabbit waste is also not suitable to be used as nursery medium because it retards seedling growth.

Open Access Original Research Article

Farmers’ Knowledge on Soil Conservation Technologies, Associated Farm and Farmers’ Attributes in Hilly Farms of Nandi County, Kenya

Joseph Kipkorir Cheruiyot

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 76-87
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i830320

Soil erosion is an issue of global concern due to its effects on the natural resource base in which agriculture is based on. In Kenya, low utilisation of soil conservation technologies (SCTs) has been blamed for continued land degradation. A study was designed to examine association of selected farmers’ and farm attributes with knowledge on SCTs using an ex post facto survey design. A sample of 138 farmers was accessed in the hilly terrains of Nandi County, Kenya through a multi-stage sampling technique. The study was based on the trans-theoretical model and its stages of change, with a focus on its initial stages. Data was questionnaire-based and the data was analysed for associations using Gamma and Sommers’ delta. Kruskal-wallis (KW) test was utilised to test for differences between groups. Post hoc tests are based on Bonferroni correction. Results indicate that there was significant influence of formal education levels, gender, duration of residence and farmers income levels on knowledge in SCTs. Significant KW test results on differences in knowledge levels on SCTs were; Education, H (2) = 9.359, P= 0.009; Age, H (3) = 9.938, P=.019; Gender, H (1) = 3.429, P = .064; duration in current farm, H (2) = 6.122, P = .047 and income levels, H (2) = 8.710, P = 0.013. There were no significant differences based on household size, farm gradient and farm size. Information literacy on SCTs was low among lowly-educated and low-income categories. Deliberate investments in soil conservation measures targeting these categories are recommended. An in-depth study on the underlying causes for the face-value association is recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Soil Physicochemical Properties and Arachis hypogea Rhizosphere Microbial Community

Progress Oghenerume, Samuel Eduok, Basil Ita, Ofonime John, Inemesit Bassey

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 88-100
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i830333

We evaluated the effect of 4000 mg zinc oxide (ZnO, 99%, 30 nm) nanoparticle on the physicochemical and microbiological properties of organic manure amended ultisol and loam soil cultivated with Arachis hypogaea using standard methods. The results indicate varying effects on the physicochemical properties in relation to the soil type. The pH of the control ultisol at 7.85 ± 0.17 and 8.3 ± 0.12 in the amended ultisol whereas, the control loam was 7.15 ± 0.17 and 7.41 ± 0.11 in the amended soil indicating 1.06- and 1.04-times higher difference than the controls respectively.  Phosphorus concentration at 57.82 ± 0.54%, 50.81 ± 0.22% and 55.97 ± 0.04%, 59.97 ± 0.02% was 1.14 times lower in the ZnO amended ultisol and 1.07 times higher in amended loam soil compared to the respective controls. The organic matter content in the control and amended ultisol was 2.28 ± 0.32% and 0.91 ± 0.02%, 3.68 ± 0.36% and 0.36 ± 0.02% in the control and amended loam soil. The concentration of nitrate in the control ultisol was 0.05 ± 0.01% and 0.03 ± 0.01% in the amended soil. The nitrate in the control loam soil was 0.08 ± 0.01% relative to 0.02 ± 0.01% in the treated soil and these differences were significant at p = 0.05. The concentration of nutritive salts was reduced and in contrast iron, copper, exchangeable acids, exchange capacity, clay and silt increased in the amended soils. Further to this, heterotrophic ammonia and nitrate-oxidizing bacterial population were inhibited in the amended soils and denitrifying organisms were stimulated. The organisms were members of the genera Pseudomonas, Xanthobacter, Enterobacter, Bacillus, Lactobacillus, Citrobacter, Nitrosomonas, Agromyces and Rhizobium. ZnO nanoparticles altered the soil physicochemical properties which exacerbated the negative effect on microbial abundance and varied with the soil type.