Open Access Short Research Article

Evaluation of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Genotypes for Yield and Drought Tolerance under Rain Fed and Irrigated Conditions

R. Divya Madhuri, V. Jayalakshmi, M. Shanthi Priya

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 33-42
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i1630378

In Southern India, drought stress is a major constraint to chickpea production and yield stability. Drought tolerant index (DTI) that provides a measure of drought based on yield loss under drought condition in comparison to normal condition was used for screening drought-tolerant genotypes. This study was conducted to determine drought tolerant genotypes with high yield in stress and non-stress conditions utilising physiological traits. Thirty chickpea genotypes were tested in a randomized complete block design with three replications under rain fed and irrigated conditions at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Nandyal, Andhra Pradesh, India during rabi, 2018-2019. The analysis of variance carried out for yield and drought tolerant traits revealed highly significant differences among the genotypes for all characters under rain fed as well as irrigated conditions. NBeG 776, NBeG 779, NBeG 868, ICCV 181606, MH 13 and MH 14 are drought tolerant. NBeG 776, NBeG 779 and NBeG 868 are suitable under both rain fed and irrigated conditions with significantly higher yields over their respective means. ICCV 181606, MH 13 and MH 14 are suitable exclusively for rain fed condition with significantly superior yields over the mean.

Open Access Original Research Article

Stimulating the Rate of Phytoremediation of Chromolaena odorata in Crude Oil Contaminated Soil Using Inorganic Urea

F. B. G. Tanee, K. Jude

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 13-25
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i1630376

Investigation on the use of urea in stimulating the phytoremediation of Chromolaena odorata in a crude oil contaminated soil was carried out at a crude oil spilled site at Botem-Tai, Ogoni, Nigeria. Three phytoremediation treatments labeled A – C in addition to the control (D) were used. The treatments were: A (Chromolaena odorata only), B (Chromolaena odorata + 20 g/m2 urea), C (Chromolaena odorata + 40 g/m2 urea), D (polluted soil without phytoremediation) arranged using Latin Square Design (LSD). Total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and Total hydrocarbon content (THC) in soil and plant samples from the different treatment plots in addition to other soil nutrients were analyzed. The percentage reduction in TPH and THC in soil were as follows: Treatment B, {TPH (92.08%) and THC (95.37%)} > treatment A {TPH (88.95%) and THC (93.37%)}> C {TPH (78.78%) and THC (83.29%)} > Control {TPH (14.76%) and THC (32.90%)}. Treatment C had the highest TPH (2.67 mg/kg) and THC (20.57 mg/kg) accumulation in test   plant. Combining stimulant (urea) with phytoremediation also improved soil properties such  as pH, Nitrogen and Potassium. With the highest reduction of TPH and THC in treatment B (phytoremediation with 20 g/m2 urea) than other treatments is an indication that low   concentration of urea has a stimulatory effect on phytoremediation of crude oil by Chromolaena odorata.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Types of Soil on the Growth & Productivity of Tomato Solanum lycopersicum var. Rio Grande in Libya

Najia Shwerif, Abdunnapi Elghammudi, Samaher Abosnena, Amna Alfaid

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 26-32
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i1630377

The growth performance of plants varies in different environments and is strongly influenced by various biotic and abiotic factors. This, in turn affects the composition of the active compounds which are the product of metabolism (such as photosynthesis, respiration, etc.).  Soil quality is considered to be important factor that negatively affect plant growth and productivity.  Tomatoes are widely produced and consumed due to their high nutritional value and its important compounds have a role in the prevention of many diseases.  Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of three different soil types (clay, sand and compost) on growth and yield parameters of tomato Solanum lycopersicum var.Rio Grande. The experiment was done on the Faculty of Science in Gharyan University (April 2017). The tomatoes were grown in pots; twelve replications were used for each group of soils.  Growth parameters such as number of seedling, plant height, number of leaves and number of fruits were recorded.  The results indicated that soil quality hada highly significant effect (P < 0.001) on growth parameters. Compost was the optimal soil types for growth performance and production of tomatoes, while the growth performance was reduced in clay and sand soil. By contrast, tomatoes that grew in clay soil showed the least growth performance. On the other hand, tomato plants cultivated in clay and sand soil failed in production of flowers and fruits, unlike tomatoes grown in compost. Overall, soil quality and properties have affected tomato growth performance and productivity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Combining Ability Studies for Identifying High Sugar Yielding Sweet Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] Genotypes

B. C. Nandeshwar, Beka Biri, Alemayehu Dugassa

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 43-49
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i1630379

Combining ability analysis provides information about the gene action involved in the expression of a trait and facilitates breeding of superior cultivars. Hence, 45 hybrids evolved from 10 parent half-diallel were evaluated for combining ability to identify good general combiners and superior cross combinations for high ethanol yield from sweet sorghum. RSSV-21-2 has been identified as the best general combiner. It can be used in pedigree breeding programme for the incorporation of desired traits for enhancing ethanol yield. ARS-SS-35-1 × NSS-218 and ARS-SS-83 × NSS-221-2 have been identified as the best specific combinations. These could be exploited in heterosis breeding programme.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Substrates and Container Volume on the Initial Growth of Seedling of Physalis peruviana L

Jeniffer Ribeiro de Oliveira, Weslley do Rosário Santana, Jalille Amim Altoé, Joabe Martins de Souza, André Caiô Cavalcante, Gleison Oliosi, Gabriel Barbosa da Cruz

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 50-56
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i1630380

The production of Physalis peruviana L. in semi-tropical and tropical regions is an alternative. for medium and small farmers. However technical information aspects like seedling adaption, cultivation and production need attention. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different substrates and container volume in the initial growth of Physalis peruviana L. seedlings. The work was conducted from September to November, 2019, in a greenhouse located at Fazenda Experimental of the Federal University of Espírito Santo. The experiment was conducted in completely randomised design with 6 treatment combinations I.e. (R1 = container with volume of 50 cm3; R2 = container with volume of 280 cm3; and R3 = plastic cup with volume of 500 cm3) and two substrates (S1 = Bioplant® and S2 = Provaso® + soil 1:1) and was replicated four times. After 60 days of experiment, the results demonstrated that the treatment composed by a container with volume of 500 cm3 + substrate Provaso® + soil provided a better seedlings growth and quality.

Open Access Review Article

Overview of Possible Causes of Forest Destruction in the Legal Amazon: A Literature Review

Jeniffer Ribeiro de Oliveira, Vinícius de Souza Oliveira, João Vitor Garcia Silva, Weslley do Rosário Santana, Bruna Alves Salomão, Alex Silva Lima, Jalille Amim Altoé, Aclécia Gonçalves Batista, Mariana Alexandre Alves Amourim

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i1630375

The work is a literature review whose objective was to identify in the literature the approach on the main causes of forest destruction in the legal Amazon. For the discussion, scientific materials were selected whose focus includes deforestation in the region of the legal Amazon. Among the possible causes, the ones that stood out the most in the literature were livestock, agriculture, mining, mining and burning, so a discussion was made on them. It is clear, after all the surveys, that there is no single solution to destruction and deforestation in the Amazon. If the Brazilian government, with the help of the international community, does not take control of the forces of destructive development seriously, then, regardless of periods of growth and reduced deforestation, this magnificent rainforest will continue disappearing decade after decade. A series of measures is necessary, ranging from prevention to incisive combat, mainly by the government, which should expand and reinforce the activities of the entities responsible for environmental inspection in the country.