Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizae on the Development and Attack of Leaf-Cutting Ants in Clonal Seedlings of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus camaldulensis

Josielly Cândida Macêdo de Oliveira, Muriel da Silva Folli- Pereira, Juliana Garlet, Amanda Azevedo Bertolazi, Ivone da Silva Neves, Getulio de Freitas Seben Junior

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i1830387

The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the mycorrhizal association in the development and attack of leaf-cutting ants Atta sexdens (Linnaeus, 1758) in clonal seedlings of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus camaldulensis hybrid. The treatments consisted of inoculated and uninoculated seedlings with 100 grams of sand containing spores from arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) collected on native soil from four different areas of the amazon: native forest area (NF), permanent preservation area recovered to three years (PPA03), permanent preserved area degraded (PPAD) and permanent preservation area recovered to four years (PPA04). At 45 and 90 days after inoculation (d.a.i.), height, fresh and dry matter of shoot and root, root development, number of leaves, stem diameter and tolerance to leaf-cutting ants were evaluated. In the first group of plants (45 d.a.i.), mycorrhizal plants presented the higher root volume with the use of APP04, APP03 and NF all with 6.16 mm. For the second group of plants (90 d.a.i.), the highest root volume was also found on mycorrhizal plants with the soil of APP03 and control with 7.16 mm. For the attractiveness test of ants, 16 discs were taken from the non-inoculated seedlings. Regarding the disks of mycorrhizal seedlings with the soil of APP04, only 9 were taken. Although the use of AMF to stimulate plant resistance to attack by leaf-cutting ants is a new study, studies related to the influence of mychorrizas on plant development are quite common and the results presented in this study did not evidence the influence of mychorrizas on plant development. However, it was observed that the early inoculation of the seedlings can reduce the attractiveness of leaf-cutting ants by the seedlings of the hybrid Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus camaldulensis, already in the first 45 d.a.i of the seedlings and the inoculum used can interfere in this process.

Open Access Original Research Article

Maize Growth and Yield Response to Incremental Rates of Nitrogen in N-Depleted Lixisols in Northern Ghana

Ebenezer Ayew Appiah, Joseph Xorse Kugbe, Ahmed Mahama Rufai

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 16-30
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i1830388

To help economize fertilizer use and predict soil-based and site-specific fertilization regimes in crop production, knowledge on crop response to incremental rates of nutrition have long been identified to play a significant role. In the nutrient-poor lixisols of northern Ghana where bulk of Ghanaian maize is produced, the response of maize growth and yield to eleven rates of N fertilization was evaluated in 2019 as a first step in developing a tool that could predict site-specific nitrogen rates for optimum maize production. The rates were 00, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120, 135, and 150 kg/ha; laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design. Collected maize growth and yield data were subjected to analyses of variance, where significantly different means were separated at a probability of 5% using the least significant difference. The study revealed no significant differences in plant height from the third to sixth week after planting, days to 50% flowering, 100 grain weight, and leaf area index at sixth week after planting. However, plant height and leaf area index at ninth week, cob weight, cob length, straw weight and grain yield were significantly affected by N fertilizer rates. Increasing nitrogen fertilizer rates had a pronounced effect on later-stages of growth, on grain yield and on yield components of maize.  Application of 120 to 150 kg/ha N achieved statistically similar, and maximum growth and yield parameters compared to lower rates. The findings provide essential agronomic data required to relate soil test results with corresponding maize yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Vermicompost, Poultry Manure and Jeevaamrit on Growth Parameters of Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) cv. Allison

Ashok K. Garg, Rajesh Kaushal, Vishal S. Rana

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 31-40
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i1830389

The present investigation was conducted on 6 years old kiwifruit vines cultivar ‘Allison’ at a spacing of 4.0 m × 6.0 m for two consecutive years 2018-19 and 2019-20 at experimental block of Department of Fruit Science, Dr YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan (HP). The experiment was laid out in triplicate in Randomized Block Design with 8 treatments under three farming systems viz., Inorganic Fertilizer Based System (IFBS), Organic Farming Based System (OFBS) and Subhash Palekar’s Natural Farming System (SPNFS). The maximum leaf area (158.1 cm2), leaf area index (4.36), chlorophyll index (51.2), comparative photosynthetically active radiation (612 µ mol quanta m-2 s-1) was found in the treatment (T8) receiving 30 liters of jeevaamrit (JM) + 3 kg ghana jeevaamrit and 40 kg FYM per vine under SPNFS. Among OFBS, the treatment T2 (100% recommended dose of nitrogen (RDN) through vermicompost and poultry manure on 50:50 basis) observed maximum leaf area (151.8 cm2), leaf area index (4.35), comparative photosynthetically active radiation (642 µ mol quanta m-2 s-1) but lower significantly lower chlorophyll index (51.2) over T1 (Recommended dose of inorganic fertilizers + FYM) treatment of IFBS. Hence application of 30 litres jeevaamrit and 3 kg ghana jeevaamrit (both in 3 equal splits first in end of January, second in February and third in the month of April) along with 40 kg FYM per vine or alternatively substitution of 100% RDN through vermicompost and poultry manure on 50:50 basis along with 40 kg FYM were found to be best and alternate different option in place of inorganic fertilizers to ‘Allison’ cultivar of kiwifruit under mid-hill conditions of Himachal Pradesh, India. Furthermore, the research emphases mainly on improving soil health without compromising growth and yield of kiwifruits in the region. By using alternative sources of nutrients, farmers can obtain the comparable growth and yield of kiwifruits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Leaf Litter Production and Nutrient Return in Coffee (Coffea canephora) Plantations of Different Ages in Ibadan, Nigeria

Cecilia Isibhakhomen Iloyanomon, Nnenna Taiwo, Christerbeth Edugie Ogbeide

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 41-51
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i1830390

This study investigates the role of leaf litter and its nutrient input on soil fertility levels in coffee plantations of different ages in Ibadan, Nigeria. Four coffee plantations of 11, 19, 24 and 51 years were selected for the study. Each plantation was divided into four blocks where leaf litter, soil and plant samples were collected and analyzed for nutrient .Results indicated that mean total leaf  litter input in these plantations ranged from 2.50 - 3.5 tha-1yr-1  with a minimum in the 11 year old plantation and maximum in the 51 year plantation. Nitrogen input from leaf litter across the coffee plantations ranged from 27.60 – 60.07 kgNha-1year-1, which was insufficient to meet the nitrogen need of coffee trees. This was reflected by the low nitrogen content of soils of the coffee plantation (0.2 g/kg - 0.8 g/kg) which was below the soil critical nitrogen level of 0.9 g/kg recommended for coffee production. Phosphorus input from the leaf litter in the different plantations was also low 0.38 - 1.73 kgPha-1 as evident from the low phosphorus content of the soil 4.49 - 5.94 mg/kg. This was also reflected in the low leaf phosphorus content of 0.14 - 0.23 g/kg. The potassium content of the leaf litter was also insufficient 17- 55.8 kg Kha-1. Calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc were sufficient. Coffee leaf litter contributes considerable amount of nutrient to natural soil fertility management of coffee plantations but this is inadequate to meet the nutrient requirement of coffee. There is therefore need for application of fertilizer to supply limiting nutrients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Magnetized Freshwater, Saline Water and Treated Wastewater on Plant Growth and Yield Production of Cucumber Crop

Mahmoud Rahil, Saif Abo Radi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 52-59
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i1830391

Aims: The growing scarcity and miss use of the available water resources particularly in arid and semi-arid regions constitute challenges to water demands for various utilities. One possible approach to conserve the scarce resources may be through improving the performance of the existing irrigation water using magnetization technology. The main aim of this study was to investigate the impact of magnetized and non-magnetized different types of water quality: freshwater (FW), magnetic freshwater (MFW), saline water (SW), magnetic saline water (MSW), wastewater (WW), and magnetic wastewater (MWW) on the growth and yield production of cucumber plant cultivated under greenhouse conditions.

Study Design: The experiment was designed using a complete randomized design. Six different treatments were used and designed (FW, MFW, SW, MSW, WW, and MWW) with four replicates per each treatment.

Place and Duration of Study: The field study was conducted at the experimental farm of Palestine Technical University- Kadoorie on February 2019 for a period of four months.

Methodology: Cucumber seedlings were cultivated in plastic pots (7 litters). Six different types of water quality (FW, MFW, SW, MSW, WW, and MWW) were used for irrigating of cucumber plants. Average plant length, average fruit number per plant, average fruit weight per plant, average total yield, average plant dry matter, and photosynthetic rate were measured during the growing period.

Results: Results of this study indicated that the plant irrigated with magnetized freshwater produced the highest plant length and fruit number followed by magnetized treated wastewater compared to the other treatments. Moreover, the plant irrigated with magnetized treated wastewater produced the highest yield, photosynthetic rate and dry matter, followed by magnetized fresh water and magnetized saline water treatments.

Conclusion: It is concluded that, magnetized water for irrigation purposes could be a promising technique for agricultural improvements but more investigation is required on different crops.