Open Access Original Research Article

Natural Mulches Effect on the Yield of White Maize

Parvin Akter Bithy, Kamal Uddin Ahamed, A. M. M. Shamsuzzaman, Md. Moinul Haque

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i1930392

The experiment was conducted at the experimental field of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University during the period from November 2015 to May 2016, Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka-1207, to find out the effect of organic mulches on the yield of white maize. This experiment was comprised of two factors. Factor A: Variety (2): V1 = Shuvra; V2 = KS-510 and Factor B: Indigenous mulch materials (5): T1 = Control (without mulch); T2 = Water hyacinth; T3 = Rice straw; T4 = Rice husk; T5 = Ash. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications and the differences between means were separated by both Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test (DMRT) and Least Significant Difference (LSD) test at 5% level of probability. Mulches showed significant effects on most of the parameters. In the case of variety, the highest grain yield (12.963ton per ha) was recorded from V2. Different organic mulch materials showed different values, the highest values were recorded from T3. Due to this (T3) mulch material. The water retentive capacity of the mulched soil was higher at all the stages of plant growth and ranked in the order of rice straw > water hyacinth > rice husk > ash > control. The highest grain yield (17.407ton per ha) was recorded from T3. . In case of interaction all yield attributing characters include grain yield (19.043ton per ha) was recorded from V2T3. So, KS-510 variety and rice straw mulch combinedly had outstanding superiority for morphophysiological and yield attributes in white maize over the other organic mulches.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Date Seeds Powder as Growth Additive for Callus Induction in vitro Using Vigna radiata Hypocotyl Seedling Explant

Salla Hemadri Reddy, Ibtihal Sultan Al Maskari, Shaima Eid Alrubkhi, Shamsa Sulaiman Alkindi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 11-21
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i1930393

Date seeds (Phoenix dectylifera) are one of the seeds that is not usable and always end to be disposed. The present study describes date seeds as an additive on callus induction in vitro from hypocotyl explants of Vigna radiata. The objective is to explore the usage of date seed powder as growth additive to promote in plant tissue culture media thereby it can be utilized as fertilizer in vivo for sustainable agriculture. 1% concentrations of date seed powder under controlled conditions highly influenced the callus induction. MS media supplied with different auxins is prepared for callus induction. The highest degree of callus weight was observed in MS media supplemented with (5mg/L) 2, 4-D + (0.5 mg/L) Kn (0.437±0.1). MS media supplied with different concentrations of date seed powder + (5mg/L) 2,4-D + (0.5 mg/L) Kn are prepared for callus induction under controlled conditions (16hrs light and 8hrs dark, 3000 lux light intensity,60% humidity and 25±20c) in a plant growth chamber.  MS media supplied with 1% date seed + 3% sucrose + 0.5 mg/l of Kn +5 mg/l of 2,4D gave the highest stimulation of callus growth. Results show that date seed is not replacing sucrose as a carbon source, but it acts as a good additive to promote induction callus. Quantitative nutritional analysis of date seed powder was carried out. The results show date seed powder contains a high amount of elements like: Ca (2994.33), k (1712.33), Si (456.33), Mg (687.33), which plays a major role in callus formation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Different Water Management and Fertilizer Applications on CO2 Fluxes from a Selected Myanmar Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Cultivar

Saw Min, Martin Rulik

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 22-37
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i1930394

The application of nitrogen fertilizer and the water management practices are important to optimize potential yields in rice cultivation. Moreover, they may affect the emissions patterns of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission. Compared to methane, knowledge about the combined effects of different fertilizer rates together with different water management practices on CO2 fluxes are scarce. Therefore, this study aims to assess CO2 fluxes of a selected rice cultivar in response to different fertilizer applications and water management practices. The treatments included two different applications of inorganic fertilizer (recommended rate and farmer’s practice), organic manure application and water management practices; continuous flooding (CF) and alternate wetting and drying (AWD). Mean total CO2 flux in CF was -30.82 g CO2 m-2 d-1 during daytime and 29.64 g CO2 m-2 d-1 during nighttime. Surprisingly, the average net CO2 fluxes were negative under both CF (-49 mg CO2 m-2h-1) and AWD practices (-127 mg CO2 m-2h-1), indicating a net CO2 uptake by the rice plants. Inorganic fertilizer applications led to considerably higher net CO2 emissions compared to the control under both CF and AWD. Conversely, CO2 emission fluxes in the treatment with organic manure showed negative net CO2 fluxes under both water management practices and while revealing the same fresh biomass as observed in other treatments (inorganic fertilizer and control). Taken together, modifications of current cultivation systems toward using organic manure, that emit less CO2, could effectively mitigate CO2 impacts regardless of the selected water management practice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Silicon Fertilization on Agro-Morphological Traits of Grand Naine Banana Grown in Typic Ustifluvent Soil

V. Arthi, M. V. Sriramachandrasekharan, R. Manivannan, Arumugam Shakila

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 38-46
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i1930395

Aims: Banana is the fifth largest agricultural commodity in the world trade after cereals, sugar, coffee and cocoa and second largest fruit crop in the world. The main objective of the study is to know the performance of banana to silicon fertilization grown in typic ustifluvent soil.

Study Design: The experiment was conducted in randomized block design. The test crop banana var Grand Naine.

Place and Duration of Study: Rajagopalapuram village under Kuttallam taluk, Tamilnadu, India

Between July to October 2016

Methodology: The experiment consisted of ten treatments viz., T1-NPK (RDF), T2-NPK+Potassium silicate (FS)- 0.25%,T3-NPK+Potassium silicate (FS)-0.50%,T4-NPK+Potassium silicate (FS)-1.00%,T5-NPK+Potassium silicate (FS)-0.25%,T6 -NPK+ Potassium silicate (FS)-0.50%,T-NPK+ Potassium silicate (FS)-1.00%,T8-NPK+Potassium silicate (SA)-50kgha-1,T9-NPK + Potassium silicate (SA)-100 kg ha-1 and T10 -NPK + Potassium silicate (SA)-150 kg ha-1. T2 to T4 foliar spray was done at 3rd and 5th month and from T5 toT7, foliar spray was done at 3rd, 5th and 7th month. Growth, yield parameters and banana yield were recorded.

Results: The outcome was that soil application of silicon recorded higher growth and yield compared to foliar application. Pseudo stem height, Pseudo stem girth, LAI, chlorophyll content, sucker production and leaf dry matter weight, fruit characters viz., bunch weight and length, number of hands/ bunches, number of fingers / hands, total number of fingers/ bunches, finger weight, length and girth were highest with soil application of 50 kg Si ha-1. Similarly, foliar application of silicon at 1% applied at 3rd and 5th recorded the highest morphological and fruit characters compared to 0.25 and 0.5% Si. The highest fruit yield ((96.0 t ha-1) was noticed with 50 kg Si ha-1 followed by foliar spray of 1% Si applied at 3rd and 5th month (92.7 t ha-1).

Conclusion: It is concluded that soil application of 50 kg Si ha-1 through potassium silicate is best followed by foliar spray of 1.0% Si for realizing higher banana productivity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Performance on Yield and Yield Contributing Attributes of Summer Tomato Genotypes in Bangladesh

Sumaia Mahmuda, M. Mizanur Rahman, M. Shahidul. Islam, Jahidul Hassan, M. Sharif Raihan

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 47-54
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2020/v32i1930396

Twenty three tomato genotypes were evaluated during summer season of 2011 to characterize and evaluate the yield performance under high temperature conditions. Days to first flowering ranged from 41.00 to 51.33 days among the studied genotypes. The highest number of fruits per plant (45.27) was recorded from the genotype FP5 × WP10 followed by C41 ×TLB182 (30.90) while it was the lowest (2.27) for the genotype TLB182. The genotype C41 × VRT004 had the highest fruit weight (80.81 g) closely followed by C51 × VRT004 (79.75 g). The genotype FP5 × WP10 yielded the highest amount of fruits per plant (1.90 kg) followed by C71 × VRT004 (1.61 kg). The corresponding yield (t/ha) was also the highest (64.6 t/ha) for FP5 ×WP10 followed by C71 ×VRT004 (54.74 t/ha).