Open Access Original Research Article

Saline-Sodic Soils Treated with Some Soil Amendments and Foliar Application with Compost Tea and Proline for Improvement Some Soil Properties and Yield-Water Productivity of Rice

Megahed M. Amer, Y. A. M. Aabd-Allah, Amira A. Kasem, Alaa El-Dein Omara

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i130402

The improvement of saline and sodic soils aims to reduce the dissolved salts in the soil solution. In this context, an integrated management approach is required, which not only improves its effectiveness in improving soil properties but also increases water productivity and yields.

To mitigate the negative effects of soil salinity, improvement of soil properties and yield –water productivity of rice plant, a field trial was carried out at El-Hamoul region, Kafer El-Sheikh, Egypt, during the summer seasons of 2019 and 2020. The experiments were conducted in split plot design, with three replicates. The main plots were assigned to soil amendments (control, compost (C) 10.0 Mg ha-1, gypsum (G) 100% from gypsum requirement 13.512 Mg ha-1 and G+C).Sub main plots were assigned to foliar application (control (tap water), compost tea (50 L ha-1), proline (3.6 g ha-1), and combination of compost tea + proilne).

Generally, results showed that the impacts of main plots were in the following order: compost + gypsum ˃ gypsum ˃ compost ˃ control in both growing seasons. Also, soil amendments had a significant effect on decreasing some soil chemical properties i.e. pH, EC, ESP and increasing of CEC compared control treatment. The treatment compost +gypsum more pronounced the other treatment on soil bulk density and total porosity. Soil basic infiltration rate (IR) and hydraulic conductivity (K) high significantly increased by application of compost, gypsum and gypsum + compost and recorded the highest value by application of compost + gypsum. Chlorophyll, proline content, 1000-grain weight, straw and grain yield of rice were significant increased and recorded the highest values due to the interaction between compost + gypsum and foliar of compost tea and proline during two growing seasons. Water productivity (WP) and productivity of irrigation water (PIW) for grain yield of rice were high significantly increased and recorded the highest values due to the interaction between soil amendments, compost tea and proline. Total return, net return, benefit cost ratio and total return from water unit for rice yield were significant increased with treatment and recorded highest values due the interaction compost + gypsum and foliar  application of compost tea and proline.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Different Rates of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizers on Growth and Yield of Potato (Solanum tuberosum) under Mechanized and Traditional Cultivation

Sayed Ziauddin Hashami, Torabaz Poyesh

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 16-26
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i130403

In the present study, half of the land was cultivated mechanically by tractor using a two-bladed mould board plough and nine tine harrow. The other half was cultivated by a local farmer who used a bullock and wooden plough. A single seed variety (Marabel) was sown across the entire trial site. Four separate identical fertilizer treatments were used across both the mechanized and traditionally cultivated sites. Phosphorous was applied in the form of diammonium phosphate. Nitrogen was applied in the form of Urea. FAO’s recommended rates for phosphorus (220kg/ha) and nitrogen (330kg/ha) were applied. In addition, additional rates below and above the FAO’s recommendations were also applied, with phosphorous being applied at 0 kg/ha, 110 kg/ha (50% of recommendation) and 440 kg/ha (200% of recommendation). Nitrogen was applied at 0 kg/ha, 165 kg/ha (50% of recommendation) and 660 kg/ha (200% of recommendation). Results on average revealed that across all four fertilizer rates, mechanized cultivation produced 60% higher crop yields (average 32.83mt/ha) compared with traditional cultivation (average 20.5 mt/ha) which resulted in an average of 12.33mt/ha higher yield for mechanized cultivation over traditional cultivation. This yield difference was highly statistically significant (P =0.99(. Additionally, the average gross margin per hectare was 74% higher across the mechanized plots (US$6,552/ha or 373,464AFN/ha) compared with the traditional plots (US$3,772/ha or 215,004 AFN/ha). These figures confirm that use of mechanized cultivation and the application of phosphorus at 440 kg/ha and nitrogen at 660 kg/ha will increase the potato yield and produce a higher cash value and a higher gross margin per hectare.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth and Yield of Squash Influenced by Leaf Pruning and Gibberellic Acid (GA3)

Tanzina Baby, Banalata Das, Anjuman Ara, Shormin Choudhury, Jasim Uddain

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 27-39
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i130405

The experiment was conducted at Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University's Horticulture Farm, Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka-1207, to determine the effect of pruning and GA3 on squash growth and yield over the period from November 2017 to February 2018 Three levels of pruning as P0 = No pruning (control), P1 = 1st pruning at 20 DAT (1st and 2nd leaves) and P2 = 2nd pruning at 30 DAT (3rd and 4th leaves) and four levels of GA3foliar application as G0 = No GA3 (control), G1 = 100 ppm GA3, G2 = 200 ppm GA3 and G3 = 400 ppm GA3 considered for the present study. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Considering growth parameters, pruning treatment had a significant effect on growth, yield contributing parameters and yield of squash except for stem base diameter and individual fruit weight. Regarding GA3 treatments, growth and yield parameters were significantly influenced except fruit diameter. In terms of the combined effect of pruning and GA3 treatments, all the studied growth and yield parameters were significantly influenced. The highest stem length (64.73 cm), number of leaves plant-1 (23.59), stem base diameter (2.09 cm), number of male flower plant-1 (8.69), number of female flower plant-1 (7.52), total number of fruits plant-1 (5.74), fruit length (22.42 cm), fruit diameter (6.15 cm), individual fruit weight (507.66 g), dry weight of fruit (6.61%), weight of fruits plant-1 (2914.33 g) and fruit yield ha-1 (29.14 t) were also found from the treatment combination of P1G1 compared to the other treatment combination. Hence, we can summarize that 1st pruning at 20 DAT (1st and 2nd leaves) with 100 ppm GA3 given the maximum output in terms of yield compared to other treatments.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Plant Densities on Yield Potential of Nerica 10 Rice Variety (Oryza sativa L.) In Taita Taveta County

Leah Andisi Akula, Esther Mwende Muindi, Lenard Gichana Mounde, Mwamburi Mcharo

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 40-46
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i130406

Rice (Oryza sativa L.), is an important cereal crop grown within central, western and coast region of Kenya. Despite annual rice consumption being higher than maize (Kenya’s staple food), the country is unable to meet an annual demand of 0.55 million tons and depends on imports to fill a 73% deficit. In order to contribute to reducing the deficit gap, a field experiment was conducted at Dembwa and Kipusi, Taita Taveta County in Kenya during the 2019 long rain season to find out the effect of spacing and seeding rate on performance of New Rice for Africa (Nerica) 10 rice variety. Three spacings 30 cm x 15 cm (control), 20 cm x 15 cm and 20 cm x 10 cm and four seedrates drill (random seed placement in small groove/line), 1, 2, or 3 seedling(qs) per hill were used. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design, factorial arrangement with three replications. Results showed that the interaction between 20 cm x 10 cm spacing at single seedling per hill significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased grain yield by 58%, dry biomass by 33% and harvest index by 45% compared to 20 cm x 15 cm and 30 cm x 15cm (control). These results suggest that interaction between 20 cm x 10 cm spacing at 1(one) seedling per hill is the best for Nerica 10 grain yield maximization in Taita Taveta County. The current investigation is among preliminary studies on Nerica 10 rice variety in the county. Therefore, there is need for long term trials in various agro environments in the County.

Open Access Original Research Article

The role of Controlled and Mole Drainage in Relation to Water Saving, Salt Accumulation on Sugar Beet Yield and Quality in North Nile Delta, Egypt

Kh. M. El-Ghannam, Amira El-sherief, I. A. Nageeb

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 47-58
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i130407

Two field experiments were conducted at Sidi Salem region, Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt, during two winter seasons 2018/2019 and 2019/2020 to study the impact of controlled drainage at 0.5, 0.75, 1.25 m and mole drain spacing 2 m on soil salinity, water-saving and sugar beet productivity. Results obtained that using controlled drainage saved irrigation water 24.56 and 11.35% in 1st season and 23.73 and 15.08% in 2nd season for 50, 75 cm depth of water table respectively, compared to 125 cm depth of water table. Application of mole drains seems to be more effective in decreasing soil salinity and sodicity especially, in the topsoil (0-60 cm) and narrow spacing between the plowed lines (2 m).Data showed that the water table level at 0.5 and 0.75 m treatments rose more rapidly and remained higher for longer time than the uncontrolled drainage treatment, the average water table depth was above specified depths between irrigation intervals from 3-7 days depending on the depth. There was a marked variation between the treatments that controlled drainage increased the yield at 0.50 m water table depth by 39 and 30% for both seasons, respectively. It can be concluded that the treatment of controlled drainage may give more profit than the uncontrolled one.  At the same time, the contents of K+, Na+, alpha- amino N and alkalinity in root beet were insignificantly affected by controlled subsurface drainage in both seasons.

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation between the Soil Moisture Reading Obtained with Soil Moisture Sensors and Gravimetric Method for Scheduling of Irrigation in Maize

C. Durga, V. Ramulu, M. Umadevi, K. Suresh, E. Sathyanarayana

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 72-80
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i130416

A field experiment was conducted at Water Technology Centre farm (WTC), College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad for studying the correlation between the soil moisture reading obtained with soil moisture sensors and gravimetric method. The experiment was designed in split plot with two main treatments comprising of surface furrow (M1) and drip irrigation (M2) methods and six irrigation schedules were assigned to sub treatments and replicated thrice. Significantly higher grain yield (7.05 t ha-1) of maize was observed with nano sensor (IITB) based irrigation scheduling over rest of the irrigation schedules except gypsum block. The results revealed that correlation between the tensiometer readings and gravimetric moisture content showed a negative non significant correlation before irrigation in surface furrow irrigation method and negative significant correlation for drip irrigation method. But in case of after irrigation a positive non significant correlation was observed in both drip and surface furrow irrigation methods. The gypsum block reading and gravimetric moisture content studies showed a negative significant correlation before irrigation in both surface furrow and drip irrigation methods, where as a positive non significant correlation between gypsum block readings and gravimetric moisture content readings were noticed after irrigation in both drip and surface furrow irrigation methods. Similar trend was recorded in nano sensor, except that it showed a positive significant correlation in both irrigation methods before irrigation. The correlation studies between the profile probe readings and gravimetric moisture content showed a negative significant correlation in surface furrow irrigation method at before and after irrigation, whereas, a positive significant correlation was observed after irrigation in drip irrigation method.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Vermicompost and Foliar Spray of Zinc on Growth, Quality and Productivity of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

Sunil Kumar Dadhich, Govind Kumar Yadav, Chiranjeev Kumawat, Ajeet Singh

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 81-87
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i130526

A field experiment was conducted during 2018-19 and 2019-20 to study the effect of vermicompost and foliar spray of zinc on growth, quality and productivity of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) The experiment comprising of ten treatments viz., T1 (NPK), T2 (NPK +VC), T3 (NPK +VC+ Soil Zn 100%), T4 (NPK + VC+ Soil Zn 75%), T5 (NPK + foliar spray of 0.25% ZnSO4), T6 (NPK + foliar spray of 0.50% ZnSO4), T7 (NPK + foliar spray of 0.75% ZnSO4), T8 (NPK + VC + foliar spray of 0.25% ZnSO4), T9 (NPK + VC + foliar spray of 0.50% ZnSO4) and T10 (NPK + VC + foliar spray of 0.75% ZnSO4) were replicated thrice and evaluated in the randomized block design (RBD). The experimental soil was loamy sand in texture, low in N, high in available P and medium in K. Groundnut variety, RG 559-3 was tested. The results of the experiment revealed that significantly higher values of growth parameters viz., plant height and number of root nodules plant-1; yield viz., pod yield (44.3, 47.2 q ha-1) and haulm yield (54.03, 58.8 q ha-1); quality parameters viz., oil content and protein content were recorded under the treatment receiving NPK (15:60:30) +VC (5 t ha-1) + Soil Zn 100% (T3) over control (T1) while at par with the application of NPK + VC+ Soil Zn 75% (T4), NPK + VC + foliar spray of 0.25% ZnSO4 (T8), NPK + VC + foliar spray of 0.50% ZnSO4 (T9) and NPK + VC + foliar spray of 0.75% ZnSO4 (T10).

Open Access Review Article

Soil Microbes are Shaped by Soil Physico-chemical Properties: A Brief Review of Existing Literature

Debarshi Dasgupta, G. P. Brahmaprakash

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 59-71
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i130409

Soil consists of very complex, inter-related community of microorganisms which interact with one another and with plants and animals, forming a complex web of biological activity. The microbes determine health and potential of soil to perform a multitude of ecosystem processes, which depend on the community composition and functioning. The microbial community structure and functions in soil are influenced by physico-chemical properties of soils. Abiotic controls like surrounding climate, environment, land use, nutrients, pH and rhizosphere control the composition of microbes in soil, which in turn modify soil properties. In this review, we investigate the existing body of research exploring studies which have explored how microbes are shaped by soil properties.