Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers on the Growth and Yield of Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) Production in South Western Nigeria

S. O. Olanipekun, A. O. Togun, A. K. Adebayo, F. B. Anjorin

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i230408

Farmers use Inorganic Fertilizers (IF) to improve kenaf yield in Nigeria. However, the detrimental effects of mineral fertilizers and its high cost calls for the use of organic fertilizers that are locally available and environment friendly. Combination of Organic Fertiliser (OF) with IF may reduce the bulkiness of OF while harnessing the benefit of both for higher yields. Field trials were conducted at Ibadan and Ilora in 2013 and 2014 to investigate the effects of combined fertilizers on the growth and yield of kenaf. Organic and IF (NPK 20:10:10) fertilizers as: (i) 160 kg ha-1 (sole organic), (ii) 100 kg ha-1 (sole IFl), (iii) Organic and IF at 50:50 ratio and (iv) control (no fertilizer). The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete block design (RCBD) and replicated three times. Results showed that plant height (220.17 cm, 216.80 cm) and stem diameter (2.27 cm, 1.16 cm). Bast fiber (2.27 t/ha, 2.27 t/ha) and seed yield (1.69 t/ha, 1.78 t/ha) in Ibadan and Ilora respectively were significantly higher in plots with combined fertilizer. Combined fertilizers had the highest fiber and seed yield above sole application and control (no fertilizer application). Hence it is recommended for kenaf cultivation in Southwest Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Rice Husk Dust and NPK Improve Soil Chemical Properties and Growth Response of Jatropha

E. O. Azu Donatus, B. A. Essien, O. U. Nwanja, P. E. Nweke

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 10-21
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i230410

The present study investigated the combined effect of rice husk dust (RHD) ( and 5 ton ha-1) and NPK 10:10:10 fertilizer (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 ton ha-1) arranged factorially in Randomized Complete Block Design(RCBD)on selected soil fertility indices (pH, organic carbon, organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, exchangeable bases, exchangeable acidity and effective cation exchange capacity) and growth parameters of Jatropha (number of leaves, plant height, number of branches and stem girth) in an ultisol of southeastern Nigeria. Results showed significant (P<0.05) improvement in all soil chemical properties and growth parameters of plant compared to control which had no treatment. However, the effects varied with treatment levels and interactions. While the effects increased with rate of application, interactions consistently showed superior effect on all parameters studied. Thus, combining rice husk dust (RHD) and NPK may increase the soil fertility and growth of Jatropha. Treatments combination of5tonha-1 RHD and 3tonha-1 NPK and 5tonha-1 RHD and 5tonha-1 NPK relatively gave the most appreciable result in soil chemical properties and growth of Jatropha respectively, thus are recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Depth-Wise Fertility Status of Cultivated Soils in Low and Mid Hill Regions of Himachal Pradesh

Gazala Nazir, V. K. Sharma, Deepika Suri, . Anjali

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 22-30
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i230411

Detailed knowledge of the soil nutrient status is required in site-specific crop production systems. Moreover, the vertical distribution of plant nutrients is most important for plant production. Therefore, the study was conducted to assess the depth-wise soil fertility status of low and mid hill zones of Himachal Pradesh based on thirty-one (31)soil profiles. Geo-referenced depth-wise soil samples were collected. These thirty-one (31) soils sampling sites were selected to represent the cultivated soils (Entisols, Alfisolsand Inceptisols) under major land-use systemsof low and mid-hill zones of Himachal Pradesh. The results of the soil nutrient status revealed that low to medium content of available N, P and S, low to medium content of available K except fewsubsurface horizons in Inceptisolswas found in most of the soils of low hill zone. Under different land-use systems in mid-hill zone, medium to high content of available N and K, low to medium of available P, low to high of available Swas found in most of the soils. Generally, surface soils had a higher mean values of N, P, S, Cu and Zn and lower values of K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Mn. Alfisols had higher value of all the nutrients as compared to Entisols and Inceptisols.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chlorophyll Content in Leaves of Wheat as Influenced by Inorganic, Organic and Integrated Sources of Nutrient Application

Megha Vishwakarma, P. S. Kulhare, G. S. Tagore

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 31-45
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i230412

Field experiments were conducted during winter season of 2018-19 and 2019-20 with three sources of nutrient  viz., inorganic, organics (FYM, VC and biofertilizers) and their integration as main treatments and five levels [S1-0 (0-0-0 kg NPK ha-1), S2-100% (120-60-40 kg NPK ha-1), S3-150% (180-90-60 kg NPK ha-1), S4-200% (240-120-80 kg NPK ha-1) and S5-Soil Test based (STV) NPK i.e. 149-176-33 kg ha-1 in split plot design with three replications. The chlorophyll content (‘a’, ‘b’ and total) in leaves and Soil Plant Analyzer Development (SPAD) value were recorded at crown root initiation (CRI), tillering, jointing and milking stage of wheat. The pooled data of findings revealed that the treatment with inorganic sources showed significant increase in the SPAD readings (9.62, 15.54, 23.77 and 29.83), chlorophyll ‘a’ (0.76, 0.83, 1.47 and 0.63 mg g-1 leaf tissue), ‘b’ (0.44, 0.78, 0.87 and 0.57 mg g-1 leaf tissue) and total (1.19, 1.64, 2.25 and 1.14 mg g-1 leaf tissue) chlorophyll content in leaves over organic source at all the growth stages.

All the levels of nutrient were significantly increased the chlorophyll content and SPAD value over control at all the stages except chlorophyll ‘a’ at jointing and milking stage. However, amongst the levels 150% and 200% NPK were found significantly superior to 100% NPK for SPAD value (8.32 and 8.71 at CRI and 12.56 and 12.19 at tillering), chlorophyll ‘a’ (0.73 and 0.70 mg g-1 leaf tissue at CRI), chlorophyll ‘b’ (0.46 and 0.45 mg g-1 leaf tissue at CRI, 0.68 and 0.71 mg g-1 leaf tissue at tillering and 0.53 and 0.59 mg g-1 leaf tissue at milking), respectively.

The interaction results suggested that the 200% NPK with inorganic and integrated sources significantly superior to 100% NPK for chlorophyll ‘a’ content at jointing and milking stage. The application of 150% and 200% NPK with inorganic source were found significantly higher over the same level of NPK with integrated source of nutrient for total chlorophyll content and SPAD value at all the growth stages except 150% NPK for total chlorophyll at jointing and milking stage and SPAD value at milking stage. The correlation between SPAD value and chlorophyll ’a’, ‘b’, total were found significantly and positively at all growth stages. Coefficient of determination values between SPAD and chlorophyll content showed linear relationship at all the growth stages.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth and Yield Response to Application of Organic and Inorganic Nutrient Sources in Lemon [Citrus limon (L.) Burm.] cv. Assam Lemon

Songthat William Haokip, Barun Singh, KH. Anush Sheikh, Kripa Shankar, Raju Debbarma, Jonathan Lalrinngheta, Th. Nengparmoi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 46-52
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i230413

Citrus is a perennial fruit crop which is highly responsive to nutrient applied and thus require adequate amount of nutrition for obtaining optimum growth and yield. In recent years, it has been observed that organic in combination with inorganic sources of nutrient have gained popularity due to the negative impact of excessive use of chemical fertilizers on soil and environment. The experiment was conducted with seven treatments and three replications consisting recommended dose of fertilizers (RDF) and RDF in combine with Organic manure and Vermicompost at different percentage during the year 2019. The treatment, T4 with 60% N of RDF + 40% N from FYM (farm yard manure) gave the best result in improving plant growth and yield. The maximum plant height increment (15.04%), highest percentage in canopy spread increment, North-South (22.17%) and East-West (20.35%), maximum fruit set percentage (37.78%), highest number of fruits (40.22) per plant and maximum yield (8.52 kg) per tree were recorded from T4 (60% N of RDF + 40% N from FYM) which indicated that the application of 60% N of RDF + 40% N from FYM may be recommended to obtain maximum yield and best quality fruit in Assam lemon.

Open Access Original Research Article

Kriging: An advanced Geostatistical Tool to Interpolate the Textural Variation Influences the Yield and Productivity of Tapioca (Manihot esculenta) in Namakkal District, Tamil Nadu, India

V. Sabareeshwari, P. Christy Nirmala Mary, P. P. Mahendran, P. Saravana Pandian, A. Gurusamy, R. Subhashini

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 53-59
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i230414

Soil texture is a vital variable that reflects a number of soil properties such as Bulk Density, Particle Density, Infiltration Rate, Hydraulic conductivity, Water holding capacity, nutrient storage and availability as well as transport and binding and stability of soil aggregates. For better tuber development in cassava soil texture plays vital role.  The main objective of this study is to produce kriged maps (Ordinary kriging map and semivariogram) to interpolate the soil texture for Tapioca growing soils of Paramthy block, Namakkal District at unsampled locations. In this study, nearly 54 surface samples were collected covering 19,149 ha of agriculture land with dominant cultivation of Tapioca. This study helps spatial interpolation of unsampled location of soil texture i.e. sand, silt and clay content which rules the soil physical, chemical and hydrological properties. The average standard error for sand and clay are 0.2 and 0.19 respectively. The results such as provided maps and their associated variance can be used as data source for the development and implementation of further land management and soil water conservation plans in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Levels of Sulphur on Growth and Yield of Onion (Allium cepa L.) Under Drip Irrigation

M. Mustafa Haris, Khuwaja Safiullah Osmani, M. Mobin Younusi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 60-65
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i230415

A Field experiment was conducted to study the effect of different levels of sulphur on growth and yield of onion under drip irrigation on years (2013-2014) at RHREC, College of Horticulture, Bangalore. The experiment was conducted with a Randomized block design with four replications. The treatments comprised of 7 combinations (0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 kg S/ha) in which sulphur was supplied through gypsum. The results indicated significantly higher bulb yield (61.96t ha-1) and yield components like average bulb weight, bulb yield per plot and marketable bulb yield was obtained due to application of recommended dosage of fertilizer plus 45 kg S ha-1. The growth components viz., plant height, number of leaves, collar thickness and neck thickness showed significant with the application of result in the recommended dosage of fertilizer plus 45 kg S ha-1. Compared to other levels of sulphur.

Open Access Review Article

Recycling of Crop Residues for Sustainable Soil Health Management: A Review

Sunil Kumar Dadhich, Govind Kumar Yadav, Kamlesh Yadav, Chiranjeev Kumawat, Mahesh Kumar Munalia

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 66-75
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i230528

Burning of crop residues have become a challenging issue for scientist’s community as well as policy makers worldwide as it directly affects environment, soil health and the productivity of crops. Microbial mediated recycling of crop residues into an amorphous dark brown to black colloidal humus like substance under conditions of optimum temperature, moisture and aeration is need of the hour. Crop residue recycling increases sequestration of organic carbon in soil which ultimately leads to improve soil physical, chemical and biological health. Organic carbon acts as a reservoir for nutrients, needed in crop production. Crop residue management recycling is a cost-effective option for minimizing agriculture's input with maximizing output. Besides supplying nutrients to the current crop, their residual effects on succeeding crops in the system are also important. This review emphasizes on crop residue recycling by different techniques. This review paper maybe helpful to the policy makers and researchers.