Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Rice to Sulfur and Zinc Applications Under Fallowed and Continuously Cropped Soils in Northern Ghana

Vida Bisilki, Israel K. Dzomeku, Joseph Xorse Kugbe, Wilson Dogbe, James Nana Ofori, Elisha Njomaba

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i330417

The influence of zinc and sulfur on growth and yield of rice was studied for two soils; fallowed and continuously cropped. It was a 2 x 4 x 4 factorial experiment laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replicates, using lixisols of northern Ghana. Sulfur was applied as Sodium Sulfate (Na2SO4) at 0, 10, 20, 30 kg S/ha, two days after transplanting. Whilst zinc was applied as Zinc oxide (ZnO) at 0, 4, 8, 12 kg Zn/ha before transplanting. All soils received same rates of NPK (90-60-30 Kg/ha). An initial physico-chemical analysis conducted on the soils revealed that, both were sandy loam in texture and low in zinc but moderately high in sulfur. The fallowed soil was high in all other measured soil nutrients except nitrogen when compared to the cropped soil. The experimental results showed that, rice growth (tiller number, plant height), grain yield parameters (panicle count, percentage filled grains, grain yield) and straw yields are maximized by at least inclusion of sole Zn at 8 kg Zn/ha for both soils, with optimum yield recorded under the combined application of 12 kg Zn/ha and 30 kg S/ha for both land use types. Treatments that received 12 kg Zn/ha and 30 kg S/ha had more than twice (50% increase) the yield obtained for treatments that received sole NPK. Yield in both soils responded significantly to additional amounts of sulfur and zinc, indicating that even in a fallowed soil, zinc and sulfur may be inadequate for crop growth, hence their inclusion is needed for better improvement of the rice crop. The fallowed soil recorded the highest grain yield than the continuously cropped soil. The findings revealed the need to consider sulfur and zinc inclusion in NPK fertilizer formulation for maximization of rice production in soils of northern Ghana.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morphological and Physiological Responses of Arachis hypogea L. to Salinity and Irrigation Regimes in Screen House

Pascal Tabi Tabot, Nchufor Christopher Kedju, Besingi Claudius Nyama, Achangoh Josaiah Abeche

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 21-31
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i330418

Aims: The K3237-80 groundnut variety from IRAD Nkolbisson is widely preferred in the Central African sub region for its sizable seeds and high yields, thus its contribution to livelihoods and food security. Apart from yield rating studies, responses to abiotic stress have not been done for this variety. The aim of this research was to investigate the responses of K3237-80 groundnut variety to salinity and water stress in screen house, in order to predict growth and yield performance under predicted conditions of soil salinity and rainfall variability.

Materials and Methods: The experimental design was a 4 by 3 factorial design. There were three levels of irrigation corresponding to 1100 mm, 2200 mm and 3300 mm crossed with four salinity levels of 0, 4, 8 and 12 ppt. Treatments were maintained till maturity and growth, yield and physiological parameters measured. Data were subjected to Factorial Analysis of Variance through the GLM approach, in the MINITAB Version 17 statistical package, followed by Spearman Rank Correlation and Factor analyses, all at α = 0.05.

Results: It was found that this variety is mildly tolerant to salinity, as growth and yield decreased at salinity levels above 4 ppt. It is however resistant to irrigation water variability which explains why it does well in all five agroecological zones of Cameroon. Both salinity and irrigation treatments significantly influenced WUE, transpiration rate and TUE (p<0.05). Water use efficiency decreased from 3.23 g/l in plants irrigated with freshwater to 1.76 g/l in plants treated with water of 12 ppt salinity. Transpiration rate increased from 0.04 l/hr/plant at 0ppt to 0.06 l/hr/plant at higher salinities, while transpiration use efficiency correspondingly decreased significantly. Correlation analysis revealed that growth, yield and biomass parameters of A. hypogea are highly salinity-driven, while transpiration and water use efficiency are highly irrigation-dependent.

Conclusion: Therefore groundnut can be grown to maturity at salinity of up to 12 ppt, the trade-off is reduced growth and yield, caused by disruptions in photosynthesis and water relations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Varietal Performance of Anthurium (Anthurium andreanum) on Growth and Flowering in the Subtropical Zone of West Bengal

Tapas Kumar Chowdhuri, Raghunath Sadhukhan, Tushar Ghosh

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 32-37
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i330419

An investigation was conducted to evaluate genotypes of Anthurium by maintaining in the pot at Horticultural Research Station, Mondouri, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, West Bengal during three consecutive years 2015-16, 2016-17 and 2017-18. The experiment was laid out in Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with fourteen anthurium cultivars and replicated thrice. Significant differences were found between all the parameters studied. From the pooled data of three years, it was observed that Tropical Red, Agnihotri and Marina recorded better suckering ability. The highest plant was recorded in Tropical (42.4 cm) closely followed by KalingPong Pink (41.2 cm) and Nitta (39.8 cm). A maximum number of flowers plant-1 year-1 was noticed in Tropical (8.3) and lowest in Alexis (2.1). Ozaki Red recorded the largest flower (9.5 x 7.6 sq. cm), which was followed by Tropical (9.02 x 8.6 sq. cm), Tinora (8.9 x 7.3 sq. cm), and Alexis (8.9 x 8.6 sq. cm). The longest flower spike length was observed in Agnihotri (38.2 cm) followed by Tropical. Spike extended maximum vase life in Pistache (10.1 days) closely followed by Tropical (9.9 days). Overall, among the fourteen cultivars, Tropical was the best cultivar regarding both yield and quality flower production for commercial cultivation in the sub-tropical conditions of West Bengal.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Different Levels of Sulphur and Potassium and their Interactions on Different Quality and Storage Parameters of Potato

Muzamil A. Rather, M. A. Chattoo, T. A. Bhat, F. Mushtaq, M. Rashid, M. Shah, A. Sultan

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 38-46
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i330420

Quality and storage attributes are major concern for potato cultivators as well as processors. Therefore an investigation was carried out to study influence of different levels of sulphur and potassium on different quality and storage parameters of potato. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications of two factors with four levels of each factor. The two factors were S (sulphur) and K (potassium) with four levels as, S0 (control or no sulphur), S1 (20 kg S ha-1), S2 (40 kg S ha-1) and S3 (60 kg S ha-1) where as potassium levels were, K0 (control or no potassium), K1 (100 kg K ha-1), K2 (125 kg K ha-1) and K3 (150 kg K ha-1). Maximum value (1.48 g cc-1) for specific gravity, Soluble solid content (6.31 0Brix), vitamin C (16.58 mg 100 g-1), crude protein content(1.93%) and Dry matter content (23.09%) in tubers were recorded with S3 (60 kg ha-1) , besides significantly lower values of physiological weight loss (17.50%), sprouting (16.93%) and rotting (15.04%) were also recorded with S3 (60 kg ha-1) level followed by S2 (40 kg S ha-1). Significantly maximum values of quality traits like specific gravity (1.79 g cc-1), Soluble solid content (6.92 0Brix), vitamin C (21.62 mg 100 g-1), crude protein content (2.35%), Dry matter content (25.49%) in tubers were recorded with K3 (150 kg K ha-1), further significantly lower values of physiological weight loss (13.89%), sprouting (11.47 %) and rotting loss (9.92%) were recorded with S3 (150 kg K ha-1). Conjugation of 150 kg K ha-1 K+ 60 kg S ha-1 recorded maximum values of quality traits specific gravity (1.80), soluble solid content (7.63 0Brix), vitamin C (22.10 mg 100 g-1), crude protein content (2.49%) and dry matter content (25.92%), however S content of 0.367% was recorded with K3S3(150 kg K + 60 kg S ha-1), besides significantly lower values of physiological weight loss (13.47%), sprouting (10.44%) and rotting loss (5.43%) followed by S3K3 treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Enhancing Quality of Fodder Sorghum through Application of Fe Chelates

S. S. Sangeetha, D. Jawahar, T. Chitdeshwari, C. Babu, L. Lakshmanan

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 47-52
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i330421

Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Monech) is one of the important fodder crops for ruminants and it is a dual-purpose crop used as a food and fodder but one of the great limiting factors with the forage sorghum is that it is having an anti-nutritional factor cyanogen, which is extremely toxic to the animals feeding on them. The present experiment was conducted at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore to study the effect of iron on the quality of fodder crop. The experiment was laid in Factorial CRD with 3 factors namely seven sources of Iron (Fe glycinate citrate, Fe tartrate, Fe glutamate, FeSO4, Fe-EDDHA, Fe malate) four levels (FeSO4 - 0, 25, 37.5 and 50 kg ha -1 and Fe chelates - 0, 1, 2.5 and 5 kg ha -1) and two different soils (non-calcareous and calcareous). The experiment was carried out with 2 replications. It was seen that application of Ferrous citrate at 5 kg ha -1 has shown the maximum reduction in cyanogen content and it has shown an increase in crude protein and decreased crude fibre content, which are desirable qualities in fodder crop. The variation in above parameter may be due to the fact that Fe is a constructive component of different enzymes (hematian, cytochroms, propyrin and ferrichrome) that favourably improves the nutritional environment of crop and final yield. All treatments supplied with micronutrients irrespective of the soil has shown decreased cyanogen levels below the threshold of 200 ppm, which is safe for feeding cattle as green forage under normal cultivation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Fertilizer Types on the Growth and Yield of Maize (Zea mays)

C. O. Oluwagbemi, A. C. Oni, J. F. Adeegbe, A. S. Ajakaye

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 53-60
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i330422

This study was conducted to evaluate the growth and yield of maize to compost, organomineral fertilizer, and mineral fertilizer at Iyaganku and Moniya farm sites in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Treatments consisted of Organomineral fertilizer (A), Compost (B), Fresh compost (C), Mineral fertilizer (D = N.P.K. 15:15:15), and Control (E = no fertilizer). Experimental design was randomized complete block design replicated four times. Compost treatments (45 kgNha-1) were applied at one week before sowing while N.P.K. 15:15:15 fertilizer (300 Kg N ha-1) was applied two weeks after sowing. The growth and yield data collected were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) of GENSTAT Discovery software. Significant means were compared using Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at p = 0.05. The results of the analysis revealed no significant difference in the number of leaves and stem girth at 8 weeks after sowing (WAS) at Iyaganku. Tallest maize plants were recorded from plots treated with A and B. Also, treatments showed no significant difference in the dry weight (g/cob) of husked and unhusked maize at harvest. At Moniya, plots treated with A produced high number of leaves while lowest number of leaves were recorded from control plots and plots treated with B, C, and D. Similarly, no significant difference was observed in stem girth, plant height, dry weight (g/cob) of husked and unhusked maize at harvest between control plots, and plots treated with C, and D. Larger stem girths, tallest plants, dry weight (g/cob) of husked and unhusked maize at harvest were observed in plots treated with A and B. The results from Moniya farm site suggest that organomineral fertilizer and compost have the potential to enhance the growth and yield of maize in studied location.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effects of Plant Density on the Productivity of Tomato Hybrids in a Newly Developed Low Cost Naturally Ventilated Greenhouse

Sanjay Kumar Singh, B. P. Shahi, B. R. Singh, Manoj Kumar Singh, Shalini Singh, Mukesh Kumar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 61-72
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i330423

Looking into the variations in the design of greenhouses and cost factor, a two-span saw tooth type low cost naturally ventilated greenhouse (NVG) of 250 m2 area was designed and developed. The galvanized iron (GI) framed NVG covered with 200µ ultra-voilet (UV) stabilized plastics sheet, consisted of cross and ridge ventilation, shade net, fogging and drip irrigation systems. Effect of spacing and tomato hybrid on yield and yield attributing traits of tomato were studied under NVG. Twenty-three days old seedlings of four tomato hybrids viz. Rupali, Pusa Hybrid-2, Naveen 2000 and Avinash-2 were transplanted at three different spacing (60 x 60 cm, 45 x 45 cm and 60 x 45 cm) inside the NVG. The results showed that increasing the spacing significantly increased the number of fruits, average fruit weight, fruit yield per plant, yield per unit area (kg/m2) and marketable fruit yield per plant. It was noted that the significantly highest fruit yield was recorded under wider spacing of 60 x 60cm over other spacings. Among the different tomato hybrids, Naveen-2000 significantly produced higher yield (12.55 kg/m2) and yield attributes over other and statistically at par with Avinash (12 kg/m2). The developed NVG was indigenous, simple to erect and performed well for tomato crop production. The efforts will enhance the application of greenhouse in arid and semi-arid regions of India.