Open Access Short Research Article

Effect of Plant Population on Yield of Selected Maize (Zea mays L.) Varieties in Mwea and Bura in Kenya

Daudi Dindi Aleri, Josiah M. Kinama, George N. Chemining’wa

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 32-40
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i430427

The objective of the study was to determine the effect of plant population on the growth and yield of maize. The study was conducted during the short rainy season of December 2018 and April 2019 in Mwea, Kirinyaga County and Bura, Tana River County, in Kenya. An experiment was set in a split-split plot design with three replications. Five selected maize (Zea mays) varieties commonly grown in these areas namely: Pioneer, DH04, Sungura, SC Duma and DH02 were grown under three plant population densities namely: 53,333, 66,666 and 88,888 plants ha-1 under irrigated conditions. Cob length, ear height, plant height, above ground biomass and grain yield data was collected. Plant population had significant effects on the grain yield and yield components of the selected maize varieties. The plant population of 53,333 plants ha-1 gave significantly higher above ground biomass in Mwea than population of 88,888 plants ha-1, though not significantly different from population of 66,666 plants ha-1. In Bura, the plant population of 88,888 plants ha-1 gave significantly higher above ground biomass than that of 66,666 and 53,333 plants ha-1 respectively. An increase in plant population reduced the grain yield of the selected maize varieties but increased the above ground biomass of the varieties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study the Impact of Vermicompost, Zinc and Iron on the Performance of Hybrid Maize (Zea mays L.)

Hanuman Prasad Pandey, A. K. Sachan, R. K. Pathak, U. S. Tiwari, R. K. Pandey, Ritu Pandey

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i430424

A field experiment was conducted on student instructional farm (SIF) of Chandra Shekhar AzadUniversity of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur, U.P. during kharif season 2019 and 2020, the present experiment having 32 treatments replicated thrice in factorial randomized block design on same laid out at same location. Hybrid maize variety Pioneer 3377 was sown at 60 × 20 cm (row×plant) during both the years, Soil application of Zinc (5.0 kg) and Iron (10 kg) along with 2.5 tonne vermicompost ha-1 gave significant increase (except plant population) in plant population m-2 (9.23 & 9.26), Plant height (195cm & 198 cm), number of cobs plant-1 (1.80 & 1.82), number of cobs m-2 (18 & 18) over control during 2019 and 2020.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Different Nitrogen forms on Soil Fertility and Cowpea Productivity under Conditions Saline Soil

M. H. Abdel Aal, Enga M. Niel, A. A. Abd El-Khalek

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 12-24
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i430425

The field experiment was carried out at the south-west portion of Shall El-Tina region, north Siena Governorate Egypt. The study investigated evaluations of different nitrogen fertilizers sources (ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulphate and urea fertilizers) and rates (100%, 75% and 50% recommended dose of all different nitrogen forms) alone or combined with bio-fertilizer (Rhizobium radiobacter sp.) strain on improve nutrients available and contents in cowpea productivity in newly reclaimed saline soil conditions during two summer seasons 2019 and 2020. The studies treatments were disturbed among the experimental plots in split design. The obtained results showed that using ammonium sulphate fertilizer was more effect on EC, pH, and available N, P, K, Fe, Mn and Zn values by increasing application rates compared with other treatments. Moreover, data recorded the applied ammonium sulphate75% with bio-fertilizer was increase of plant height, weight of 100 seeds, weight of pods (g plant-1), seeds yield (ton fed-1) have been affected by inoculation with bio-fertilizer combined with different nitrogen forms and different application rates than other treatments. The highest values of N, P, K, Fe, Mn and Zn concentrations and uptake in seeds were obtained with ammonium sulphate application combined with bio-fertilizer compared with other treatments. The increase of chlorophyll, protein contents in cowpea plants with decreasing soil salinity, while the increase of proline content was increasing soil salinity. The application of ammonium sulphate at application rate 75% N combined with bio-fertilizer improves soil properties and cowpea productivity under saline soil conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Integrated Application of Inorganic Fertilizers and Vermicompost on Rice Productivity at Farmer Field

Risikesh Thakur, A. K. Shrivastava, S. Sarvade, S. K. Rai, G. K. Koutu, N. K. Bisen, Mohmmad Imran Khan

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 25-31
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i430426

Rice (Oriza sativa) is one of most important kharif cereal crop. The availability of nutrients in the soil for plant utilization is known to be affected not only by the inherent soil characteristics but also by the use of fertilizers and management practices followed for crop production. Therefore, a study on the response of integrated application of inorganic fertilizers and organic manure (vermicompost) on rice productivity at farmer field was carried out at Balaghat district of Madhya Pradesh. In between the technology intervention, human recourse development components were also included to excel the farmers understanding and skills about the demonstrated technology on nutrient management aspects. The demonstrations were conducted at different farmers' field at villages viz. Koppe, Chillod and Lendejhari on rice (variety JRB-1) during kharif season 2018-19 and 2019-20 under Indian Council of Agricultural Research funded Project on Farmer FIRST, College of Agriculture, Balaghat (M.P.). Based on the basic soil properties of farmer’s field, the present experiment included four treatments viz., T1 - 100% NPK + 2 t Vermicompost ha-1, T2 - 100% NPK, T3 - 100% NPK (– S) and T4 – Farmer’s practice. Results indicated that the highest average yield of rice was achieved in the treatment T1-100% NPK + Vermicompost. Whereas, lowest yield was recorded in T4-farmer’s practice. Highest rice yield was observed with 100% NPK + vermicompost (47%),followed by 100% NPK (44%) over farmer’s practice. Hence, the integrated use of inorganic fertilizers with vermicompost enhance rice productivity at farmer’s field. Integrated nutrient applications are also more beneficial when the rate of nutrient application is below the normal rate.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficiency and Response to Phosphorus Use of Corn Cultivars in the Tropical Climate

Weder Ferreira dos Santos, Lucas Carneiro Maciel, Osvaldo José Ferreira Junior, Gabriel Mesquita da Rocha, Joênes Mucci Peluzio, Layanni Ferreira Sodré, Lucas Alves de Faria, Adriano Silveira Barbosa, Diogo Claudio da Silva

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 41-48
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i430428

Aims: The present study evaluated the efficiency and response to phosphorus (P) use of corn cultivars in the tropical climate in southern Para State, Brazil.

Study Design: Two experiments were carried out, in low P (50 kg ha-1) and high P (200 kg ha-1) applications in Randomized block design (RBD), three replicates, and fourteen cultivars were used for the experiment.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was carried out in the 2019-20 harvest at Sitio Vitoria (8º18'32" S, 50º36'58" W), located in the municipality of Santa Maria das Barreiras, a southern region of Para state, Brazil.

Methodology: Phosphate fertilization was used in the sowing groove. In low P, 50 kg ha-1 of P2O5 were applied, and in high P were 200 kg ha-1 of P2O5. The source was simple superphosphate (18% P2O5). The dose in high P was defined to achieve high yields and considering the nutrient content in the soil, in low P the dose was well below. Nitrogen and potassium fertilization in cover were divided: 50% in V4 and 50% in V8. Doses of 150 kg ha-1 of N and 90 kg ha-1 of K2O were used, and fertilizers were used: urea (43% N) and potassium chloride (60% K2O).

Results: The highest means were: 8,710 kg ha-1 efficiency and 29.78 kg kg-1 response. The efficient cultivars were: ORION, BR 2022, CR 120, AL BANDEIRANTE, M 274, BRS 3046, and AG 8088. And those considered responsive were: BM 3061, BR206, CATIVERDE 02, BR 205, ANHEMBI, BR 2022, and BRS 3046.

Conclusion: The cultivar BR 2022 and BRS3046 showed high efficiency and also a response to phosphorus use.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Levels and Ecological Risks of Some Selected Potentially Toxic Metals in Soils around Onne Dumpsite, Rivers State, Nigeria

P. Audu, G. I. Oyet, B. S. Chibor

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 49-62
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i430429

The concentrations of selected potentially toxic metals and other soil physico-chemical variables in soil receptacles of a solid waste dumpsite at Onne, Nigeria were assessed to ascertain the levels of contamination and ecological risks. Surface soils (0 – 20 cm depth) from four sampling areas (north, south, east and west) of the dumpsite were analyzed for Cd, Pb, Ni, As and Cr, using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Single and integrated ecological risks indices were calculated using established models. Results revealed the mean values (mg/kg) of Cd (1.00 – 3.09), Pb (125.37 – 285.48), Ni (10.37 – 16.17), As (0.26 – 0.87), Cr (52.16 – 77.17). Assessment of ecological risk indices for north, south, east and west showed {PLI (2.38, 1.27, 1.17 and 1.33), EF (1.01, 16.0, 13.90 and 56.0), Cd (21.50, 11.10, 9.49 and 10.90), PERI (392.0, 132.0, 148.0  and 157.0), PIAvg (5.17, 2.55, 2.27 and 2.56), PINemerow (7.75, 3.80, 3.18 and 3.38) } respectively. These implied that the soils around the dumpsite area were polluted due to enrichment of the selected metals and therefore of low quality. Ecological risk reduction strategies were also recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Smart Hydroponic Greenhouse (Sensing, Monitoring and Control) Prototype Based on Arduino and IOT

M. A. Abul-Soud, M. S. A. Emam, Sh. M. Mohammed

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 63-77
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i430430

Aims: Sensing, monitoring and control the micro-climate measurements and environmental conditions of greenhouse prototype to create a smart hydroponic greenhouse for maximizing the food production as well as minimizing the ecological footprint under the climate change impacts, Coved 19 crisis, and natural resources shortages.

Study Design: Factorial with 3 replicates.

Place and Duration of Study: Central Laboratory for Agriculture Climate (CLAC), Agriculture Research Center, Egypt during 2020.

Methodology: Two systems of hydroponic culture, nutrient film technique (NFT) and deep flow technique (DFT) that cultivated by lettuce plants were established under greenhouse (polycarbonate) prototype (0.8 * 1.2 * 0.6 m) designed with artificial grown light and cooling system. Based on Arduino Mega 2560 that programmed via the Arduino IDE program, different sensors and actuators were used to establishing the smart greenhouse. Internet of things (IoT) via Node MCU ESP 8266 that programmed to transmitted the data every 30 min. to the internet web google platform (Firebase) for presenting the real-time records and hosting the data. Vegetative characteristics; yield parameters and N, P, and K contents of lettuce plants were measured.

Results: the smart greenhouse worked according to the programming of Arduino Mega and Node MCU with high efficiency. Google firebase platform displays the real-time records and hosts about 100 thousand different sensor records during the lettuce season. Decreasing the distance between the lettuce and artificial lightning source led to increasing the intensity of light that had a positive impact on lettuce growth but it wasn't sufficient to give a high quality of lettuce yield under the experiment. NFT system gave higher values of average No. of leaves and fresh weight of lettuce plants than DFT system that presented higher plant length.

Conclusion: Integrated monitoring and control system and IOT provide a wireless sensors network that offered a high capability of accessing huge data anywhere and anytime. Smart management of nutrient solution (TDS, pH, temperature, and level), without smart control, were not useful enough regarding the rapid solution changes and the need for a high response.

Open Access Original Research Article

Lignin-Degrading Microorganisms from Organic Soils

Yalavarthi Nagaraju, . Mahadevaswamy, S. B. Gowder, S. Triveni

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 78-85
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i430458

The most prevalent aromatic polymer in nature is lignin, produced by higher plants and thought to make up 30-35 percent of the non-fossil organic carbon on the planet. Lignin hydrolyzing enzymes such as lignin peroxidase, laccase, manganese peroxidase, and others produce a variety of aromatic monomers, including ferulic and vanillic acids. However, very little research has been done on the role of microbes in lignin degradation. In the present work, we have isolated 25 ligninolytic bacteria and 25 ligninolytic fungi from organic soils of Koppal, Raichur districts of Karnataka. The bacterial isolates were identified as Pseudomonas putida, Bacillus subtilis, based on biochemical tests, and fungi were identified as Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma viridae, Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Pleurotus ostreatus based on morphological characters. The ligninolytic activity of bacterial isolates was high when compared to fungal isolates. All the isolates produced detectable amounts of lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, and laccase under in vitro conditions. In dye decolorization test, fungal isolates KGST-1, KGST-2, and KKSP could decolorize Ramazol Brilliant Blue R and Congo red.