Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Cultural and Morphological Variability in Rhizoctonia solani Isolates Associated with Root Rot of Ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi L.)

Babu Lal Fagodia, B. L. Mali, R. K. Fagodiya

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i530431

Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph: Thanatephorus spp.) is a plant pathogenic fungus which had a wide host range. It is best known to cause many diseases in plants such as collar rot, root rot, damping- off, sheath blight, stem canker, web blight and wire stem throughout the world. In vitro study of the various isolates of R. solani for morphological and cultural characters and results revealed that this experiment the various isolates of R. solani differed in colony characters and showed black brown colored cultures with 90.0 mm colony diameter on 7th day of incubation under uniform environmental condition. The highest growth reported was isolates CHIRs-5 and sclerotial formation was recorded in all the isolates of R. solani. Morphology of sclerotia varied from 1.9×1.5 mm of DCHIRs-1 and 1.8×1.5 mm of RUDPRs-2.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physical Soil Quality of Semi - Arid Savanna as Influenced by Acacia senegalensis in Desert Research Experimental Plot Yobe State University Damaturu, Northern Nigeria

Hamza Haruna, Galal H.G. Hussein, Mohammed B

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 7-17
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i530432

Soil is a living and dynamic natural reservoir and source of plant nutrients that play numerous key roles in terrestrial ecosystems. This study investigated the impact of three adjacent land use systems (Acacia senegalensis plantation (ACP), pilostigma raticulatum plantation (PRP) and Ground nut field (GNF) on selected soil physical quality indicators in a Northern Nigeria semi- arid Savanna. Minimum data set for assessing soil quality (Prime quality agricultural land) in this study include bulk density, organic carbon content, total nitrogen, carbon stock, available phosphorus and pH values obtained from DRMCC research field. Mean values of the data set were arranged and scored to obtain totals among the minimum data set (MDS). Soil quality is considered a key element for evaluating the sustainability of land management practices. Data generated were analyzed using ANOVA and significant means were determined using Duncan multiple range test (DMRT). ACP had significantly higher organic carbon content (9.37 gkg-1) and lower bulk density (2.16 gkg-1) than pilostigma and GNF respectively. The lower bulk density (ρb) and high organic carbon in ACP might be due to high leaf shading by acacia while the lower bulk density in ground nut field aided by trampling induced compaction resulted in its high relative field capacity (RFC), permanent wilting point (PWP) and micro-p ore spaces (PMIC) tillage in ground nut field created loose soil in the plough layer (<20 cm) which turn out to its low bulk density (ρb). Acacia plantation contained highest total nitrogen value (1.23 gkg-1); perhaps resulting Acacia leaf litter is known to have a high decomposition rate. Pilostigma plantation contained (1.22 gkg-1) nitrogen, while the least nitrogen content was obtained under ground nut field. On scoring the land use types and depth against the minimum data set, the least total was that under acacia plantation, followed by pilostigma plantation then ground nut field. Therefore, soils under acacia plantation were ranked best quality (SQ1) for cultivation purposes at 0-10 cm, followed by pilostigma land use type that were ranked SQ2. Ground nut field soils were ranked least (SQ6) in quality for use in crop production at depth of 10-20 cm.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Diversity Studies in MAGIC Population of Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) Based on Mahalanobis D2 Distance

Bidush Ranjan Swar, V. Swarnalatha, M. Rajendar Reddy, S. Vanisree

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 18-25
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i530433

Soybean MAGIC lines are highly variable breeding material which utilizes both recent and historic genetic recombination events. Present investigation was carried out to assess the genetic diversity present among 95 soybean MAGIC lines along with six checks for 10 different quantitative traits. All the genotypes were grouped into 16 clusters by performing Tocher’s clustering method using Mahalanobis D2 distance. Cluster I was the largest comprising of 30 genotypes followed by cluster II (23 genotypes), cluster X (15 genotypes) and cluster IX (9 genotypes). The maximum genetic distance (D2) was observed between cluster XI and XV (168.37) followed by cluster III and XV (164.3), cluster X and XV (149.64) as well as between cluster XII and cluster XVI (145.99). The cluster mean for most of the traits were high in cluster I and cluster XVI. Oil content contributed maximum (23.86%) towards total genetic diversity followed by number of pods plant-1 (18.97%), seed yield plant-1 (18.63%), 100 seed weight (11.05%) and number of branches plant-1 (10.16%) traits. The soybean MAGIC lines belong to the cluster XI (6-120) and cluster XV (6-30, 6-31, 6-5) were found to be the most divergent hence can be utilised in the recombination breeding programs to exploit maximum heterosis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Zn, Fe and Mg Nano Scale and Bulk Plant Nutrient Foliar Sprays in Biochemical Changes of Blackgram Genotypes under YMV Tolerance

B. Rajitha, V. Rajarajeswari, P. Sudhakar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 26-33
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i530434

Evidence-based synergistic effects of Nanoscale materials, which size typically falls below 100 nm, exhibit novel chemical, physical and biological properties which are different from their bulk counterparts. Here, we report for the first time comparision of nanoscale zinc oxide (n-ZnO), magnesium oxide (n-MgO), and iron oxide (n-FeO) with their respective bulk concentrations on biochemical variability of blackgram genotypes under yellow mosaic virus condition. Oxides of nano scale Zn, Mg and Fe materials were prepared by using a modified sol-gel method. Characterization was performed by using X- ray diffraction (XRD), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Analysis and High- Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). Average sizes of ZnO, MgO and FeO (78.8, 60.8 and 12.4 nm respectively) and potentials (-36.7,-33.0 and -18.0 mV respectively). A field study was conducted during summer 2018 in split-plot design with two blackgram genotypes as main treatments (TBG-104 and LBG-623) and nine sub treatments (Control, ZnSO4 @ 0.2 %, n-ZnO @ 200ppm, MgSO4 @ 0.2 %, n- MgO @ 100ppm, FeSO4 @ 0.2%, n- FeO @ 200ppm, ZnSO4 @ 0.2 % + MgSO4 @ 0.2 % + FeSO4 @ 0.2 %,  n-ZnO @ 200ppm + n- MgO @ 100ppm + n- FeO @ 200ppm) as foliar sprays with three replications. YMV infection was observed at 25 DAS. The foliar treatmental sprays were imposed at 30 and 50 DAS.

Results of the field study revealed that combined application of nanoscale treatmental spray ZnO @ 200 ppm + MgO @ 100 ppm + FeO @ 200 ppm resulted higher YMV tolerance interms of high chlorophyll content, total phenols, total proteins and lower total soluble sugars, followed by combined bulk treatmental spray ZnSO4 @ 0.2% + MgSO4 @ 0.2% + FeSO4 @ 0.2% and nano scale Magnesium Oxide @ 100 ppm. Here we concluded that either of these three foliar sprays can be recommended to blackgram crop prone to YMV condition to sustain plant growth and final yields. But, there should be study on the impact of different shape, size of nano particles on plant system and the promotery effects of nano scale Oxides of Zn, Mg and Fe particles at cellular level and transport mechanism in plant system needs to be understood.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance Assessment of Drip System of Irrigation used for Cultivating Tomato in Premises of the Centre of Excellence Protected Cultivation, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India

Vijay Sahu, Jeet Raj, Sanket Kolambe, . Aman

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 34-40
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i530435

A technical report was conducted for checking performance assessment of drip irrigation system which was used for cultivating tomato in premises of the Centre of Excellence Protected Cultivation, Raipur (Chhattisgarh). A uniformity coefficient was found for drip irrigation system which ranges from 73.2 % to 83.6%. The coefficient of variance varies between 0.0055 to 0.0068 for the measured discharges of four laterals laid in the field. It shows that there is the least variation between the obtained flow rates of different laterals under study. The application efficiency of four different lateral lines operating at a pressure of 1.25 kg/cm2 was calculated and it found to be more than 90.00 %, excluding lateral line (L2). Almost same amount of flow variation (8-9%) is found in lateral lines L1, L3 and L4, although Lateral line (L2) discharges 11.00 % more water among others. The maximum flow variation was found for the lateral line (L3) and the least flow variation was for the lateral line (L1). The distribution efficiency of all the laterals was found more than 97.45 %.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Organic Sources on Physical, Chemical and Biological Properties of Soil in Inceptisols of Varanasi

Ayush Bahuguna, Sachin Sharma, Janardan Yadav

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 41-52
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i530436

After the green revolution excessive use of inorganic fertilizers increased, which resulted in affecting the activities of soil microflora and macrofauna, thus posing an environmental risk and decreasing crop production. The use of organic sources which include biochar, carpet waste, FYM (Farmyard manure) and PGPR (Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria) may act as an important tool to sustainably increase soil organic matter, crop yield and improve soil health on a long-term basis. The results of application of biochar, carpet waste, farm yard manure (FYM) and PGPR showed that the combined application of biochar, carpet waste and PGPR significantly improved soil properties such as organic carbon, nitrogen(N), phosphorus(P), potassium(K), dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase activity and microbial population. The enzymatic activity of soil was highly positively correlated with the physicochemical properties of soil. Therefore, it can be concluded that the combination of biochar, carpet waste, FYM and PGPR may increase and sustain the soil properties and crop productivity over time.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Various Tillage Practices and Residue Retention on N, P and K Content in Seed and Straw of Different Wheat Varieties in Rice-wheat System

Kapil Malik, O. P. Lathwal, A. K. Dhaka, Mansukh Singh Jatana, . Ravi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 53-59
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i530437

A field trial was conducted at rice research station, Kaul (Kaithal) of CCSHAU, Hisar during the Rabi season to study theeffect of tillage practices and residue retention on nutrient content in seed and straw of different wheat varieties. The six wheat varieties viz; HD 2967, HD 3086, WH 1105, WH 711, WH 1124 and WH 1142 were grown under four tillage systems: turbo seeder with full residue retention, turbo seeder with intact residue, zero tillage with no residue and conventional tillage with no residue methods. The nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) content in seed and straw were not influenced by different sowing techniques during both the years but nitrogen content was significantly affected during second year of study. However, the maximum N, P and K content (%) in seed and straw of wheat was achieved with turbo seeder sowing wheat under full residue retention and minimum content was recorded in conventional tillage with no residue retention during both years. Among varieties, significant difference was observed in term of nitrogen and potassium content in seed and straw. WH 1105 recorded significantly higher N content (%) in grain while more N content (%) in straw was found in WH 1124 during 2018 and 2019. While K content (%) in seed was more in WH 711 which was at par with WH 1142 and WH 1105 whereas, K content(%)in straw was more in WH 1124 variety being at par with WH 1142 in both years of study. However, Phosphorus content (%) in grain and straw of different wheat varieties was not differed significantly during 2 years of experiment.In conclusion, the different sowing methods had non- significant effects on the nutrient content but varietal genotype of wheat had more influence nutrient content in seed and straw under different sowing techniques.