Open Access Original Research Article

Design of Dugout Type Farm Pond at the Farm of Chhattisgarh Engineering College, Durg Chhattisgarh

Jeet Raj, . Aman, Suryakant Sonwani, Sanket Kolambe

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i630438

To increase food security in a drought-prone area, the water harvesting, capture and storage of rainwater are technologies proven for uses during dry periods. Erosion control and groundwater revive are extra favorable circumstances of water harvesting techniques that contribute to agricultural development and resource conservation. The contour map of the study area is used to select the location for the creation of the farm pond. Clay loam is found in soil texture analysis. For clay loam soil, the study area with a depth of 3.5 m and a side slope of 1.5:1 may be suitable. The available rainfall was computed for 75% probability by using empirical formula is found to 1.41483 ha-m. The tube well draft was calculated to be 0.8640 ha-m. The capacity of the designed farm pond is 0.6639 ha-m. The proposed pond facilitated total supplemental irrigation of 8.5 cm depth to an area of 6.5 ha paddy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Inorganic Fertilizers and Farm Yard Manure on Agronomic Characteristics of Upland Rice Straw in Taita Taveta Highlands, Kenya

Simon Wekesa, Anne Kelly Kambura, Marianne Maghenda, James Gacheru, John Kimani, Mwamburi Mcharo

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 28-40
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i630441

The study evaluated upland rice varietal agronomic characteristics and differences due to effects of fertilizer treatment and season at Taita Taveta University, Ngerenyi campus. The experiment was conducted during the short rains of 2018 and long rains of 2019. The experiment was a Randomized Complete Block Design with 3 replications. Individual plots measured 2.5 m by 2 m. Varieties evaluated were 17KH09010093B, WDR73 Hybrid, NERICA 1, NERICA 10 and Komboka. The treatments included were farm yard manure (8 tons ha-1), DAP at 75 kg ha-1, NPK (17:17:17) at 65 kg ha-1, and no fertilizer. Plant height, panicle length, leaf length, number of tillers, fresh weight, and dry weight were assessed. Variety, fertilizer and season had significant effects (P=0.05) on the morphological variables. NERICA 10 was the tallest variety at a mean of 72 cm in 2018 and a mean height of 61 cm in 2019. DAP treated plants were the tallest in both 2018 and 2019. Varieties were significantly different (P=0.0004) for panicle length. NERICA 10 had the longest panicles. Varietal effect was significant (P<0.001) for leaf length. NERICA 1 had the longest leaves in both seasons. DAP had the greatest effect on leaf length. Varieties differed significantly (P<0.001) in number of tillers per plant. Variety 17KH09010093B had the highest number of tillers per plant of 34.78 obtained in 2018. DAP resulted in the highest number of tillers. Variety and fertilizers interacted significantly (P=0.007) for foliage weight. WDR73 Hybrid out-yielded other varieties (149.31g) in fresh foliage weight. DAP resulted in the highest fresh morphological yield followed by NPK. There were significant differences in dry foliage weight among varieties and between seasons (P<0.001). Variety 17KH09010093B had the highest dry weight. Further studies on the socio–economics of fertilizer use should be conducted to provide reliable recommendations for upland rice production as forage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Irrigation Levels and Intervals on Groundnut (Arachishypogaea L.) Cultivars under Drip System

Mahendra Kumar Rojh, S. R. Bhunia, Hansraj Shivran, Akshika Bhawariya, Shiv Chand Bawaliya, . Ramniwas, RameshwrLal Mandeewal

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 41-45
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i630442

The field experiment entitled “effect of irrigation levels and intervals on groundnut (Arachishypogaea L.) Cultivars under drip system” was conducted at Instructional Farm, S.K. Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner during Kharif 2019. Irrigation level of 0.80 PE gave higher dry matter accumulation, pods plant-1 (44.13), kernels pod-1 (2.38), pod yield (3117 kg ha-1), haulm yield (4081 kg ha-1), biological yield (7199 kg ha-1), test weight (446.58 g) and oil yield (978.32 kg ha-1) followed by 0.60 PE. Alternate day irrigation intervals gave higher dry matter accumulation, crop growth rate, pods plant-1 (43.55), kernels pod-1 (2.36), pod yield (2993 kg ha-1), haulm yield (3986 kg ha-1), biological yield (6980 kg ha-1), test weight (443.22 g) compared to 3 days irrigation intervals. Groundnut cultivars HNG-123 gave higher pods plant-1 (43.45), kernel pod-1 (2.39), pod yield (2925 kg ha-1), haulm yield (3977 kg ha-1), biological yield (6902 kg ha-1) and test weight (470.58 g) compared to all other cultivars.

Open Access Original Research Article

Long-term Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management Practices on Growth, Yield and Nutrient Uptake of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana G.) in Alfisols under Different Cropping Systems

. Shilpa, B. G. Vasanthi, Hari Mohan Meena

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 46-53
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i630443

A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of long-term integrated nutrient management (INM) on growth, yield and nutrient uptake of rainfed finger millet during kharif 2019 at field unit of All India Co-ordinated Research Project for Dryland Agriculture at University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, India. The experimental plot in the field was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with 10 treatments and four replications. Growth parameters such as plant height (112.44 cm), number of productive tillers per hill (4.75), number of ear heads per hill (4.49), number of fingers per ear head (7.25), total dry matter production per hill (77.39 g) and yield parameters like grain yield (28.27 q ha-1) and straw yield (32.63 q ha-1) were found to be higher with application of FYM @10 t ha-1 + 100% RDF under finger millet- groundnut rotation (T9). Similarly, T9 also recorded higher uptake of nitrogen (37.03 and 26.40 kg ha-1), phosphorus (6.78 and 4.57 kg ha-1) and potassium (30.17 and 48.68 kg ha-1) in grain and straw of finger millet, respectively. It implies that INM over long period of time tend to supply the plants with sufficient amount of essential nutrient elements while creating favourable physico-chemical properties of soil for healthy environment. It also safeguards soil nutrient balance in long term to an optimum level for sustaining the desired crop productivity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spatial Pattern of Soil Carbon Density in Cultivated Land of Different Domains of Madhya Pradesh

G. S. Tagore, Y. M. Sharma, R. Sharma, G. D. Bairagi, A. K. Dwivedi, P. S. Kulhare, Megha Vishwakarma

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 54-77
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i630444

Present study was conducted in the Department of Soil Science JNKVV, Jabalpur during 2018-2020. GPS based 531 soil samples were collected from each domain viz., Bhopal, Jabalpur, Vidisha and Hoshangabad of 10.1 Agro ecological sub region (AESR). The samples analyzed for soil organic carbon (SOC) and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) then soil organic carbon density (SOCD), total organic carbon density (TOCD), soil inorganic carbon density (SICD) and total carbon density (TCD) in Mg C ha-1 were calculated. The results of SOCD, TOCD, SICD and TCD ranged from 4.73 to 25.12, 9.22 to 48.98, 1.00 to 21.29 and 11.08 to 68.80 Mg C ha-1 with mean value of 12.19, 23.78, 7.58 and 31.36 Mg C ha-1 in AESR 10.1 and Coefficient of variation (CV) 37.58, 37.58, 50.88 and 31.24 %. The overall trend in SOCD was Bhopal > Vidisha > Jabalpur > Hoshanagabad and SICD was Vidisha > Hoshanagabad > Jabalpur >Bhopal while TCD was in trend of Bhopal > Vidisha > Hoshangabad> Jabalpur.

Geo-statistical indicated that Ordinary Kriging used and all variogram were in isotropic form. In Bhopal domain, Gaussian model best fitted for of SOCD, TOCD, and TCD but spherical model for SICD. In Jabalpur domain, exponential domain best fitted for TCD and TOCD but for SICD, spherical model and for SOCD, Gaussian model is best fitted. In Vidisha domain, exponential model best fitted for all. In Hoshangabad domain, exponential model is best fitted for SOCD and TOCD and Gaussian and J-Bessel model best fitted for TCD and SIC, respectively. The nugget/ sill (N/S) ratio was <25% which exhibit strong SD only for SICD in Bhopal domain. The N/S ratio was found to be >25% but <75% which showed moderate SD, for SOCD, TOCD and TC, TOCD, SICD and TCD; SOCD, TOCD, SICD and TCD and SOCD, TOCD, SICD and TCD in Bhopal, Jabalpur, Vidisha and Hoshangabad domain, respectively. The correlation range (m) for SOCD, TOCD, SICD and TCD are 5448.413, 4809.535, 360.522, and 5113.050; 7201.044, 6601.044, 611.651, and 8438.711; 5734.559, 7334.398, 1323.773, and 7881.289 and 5418.684, 5433.206, 8887.656, and 1836.274 in Bhopal, Jabalpur, Vidisha and Hoshangabad domain, respectively. The carbon density was found in order of Jabalpur> Hoshangabad >Vidisha > Bhopal.

Open Access Review Article

Sustainable Issues and Crop Diversification of the Rice-Wheat Cropping System for Higher Productivity and Resource Use Efficiency: A Review

Kuldeep Singh, Sachin Dhanda, Kartik Sharma, Dheeraj Panghaal

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 9-21
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i630439

The rice-wheat cropping system (RWCS) played a significant role in national food security. This system is having a huge potential to feed the increasing population of India. But with continuous adoption of the rice-wheat system, different issues and challenges have emerged and resulted in the decline or stagnated the productivity of this system. In these conditions’ diversification of the RWCS can be a viable option for higher productivity, profitability and efficient and sustainable use of available natural resources. This review mainly highlighted the major issues associated with the rice-wheat cropping system in India along with the alternate cropping system for crop diversification by substitution various crops viz. legume, maize, oilseed, fodder, vegetables and cash crop to tackle them. The comparison of various cropping system in term their crop productivity, economics analysis, water and nutrient productivity, and maintaining soil health.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Response of Neem Seed and Leaf Extract on Crop Protection and Production

Sudhanshu Verma, . Pooja, Shani Kumar Singh, Swati Swayamprabha Pradhan, Abhishek Singh

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 22-27
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i630440

Neem products including conventional preparations and formulations have been used widely for improving the growth, yield, and management of insect pests attacking especially on field crops. Phytochemicals are extracted from distinguish parts of the neem plant vary significantly due to abiotic and biotic factors from collection of the raw material to extract preparation and product formulation. Content of highly active ingredient, insect species and growth stage, type of formulation, and combined of products with another control method. In this manuscript, the direct and indirect actions of neem extract on growth, yield, and insect pests are delineated and realistic implications for future strategies are discussed.