Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Moisture Content of Soil at Different Stages of Plant Growth under Different Irrigation Treatments

B. Naveena, G. Ravi Babu

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i730445

Drip irrigation is artificial technique of providing water to the roots of the plant at very low rates (2-20 litres/hour) from a system of small diameter plastic pipes fitted with emitters or drippers. A few low cost automation systems were developed and evaluated their performance with drip irrigation on sweet corn on the sandy soils of College of Agricultural Engineering, Bapatla. It was observed that single row drip irrigation showed better results compared to flood irrigation and paired row drip irrigation. The results indicated that the soil water distribution pattern showed the highest water content near the drip line for all scheduling techniques.As increase in time of operation Wetting diameter and Penetration depth increased in relative to time. With comparison of different irrigation systems, the soil moisture content value of before irrigation and after irrigation is better in single row drip system.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Zinc Fertilization on Yield, Quality of Soybean and Zinc Pools in a Typic Haplusterts

Sushmita Jain, G. S. Tagore, B. L. Sharma

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 11-19
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i730446

Field experiment was conducted at the research Farm of JNKVV, Jabalpur (M.P) during the Kharif season of 2018 with three main treatments as single year application, alternate and each year zinc addition and five levels of Zn (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 kg ha-1 as sub treatments in a split plot design. Results revealed that alternate year Zn application increased seed yield by 1.48 t ha-1 over single year. The difference recorded in between alternate year and single year Zn application was 0.33 t ha-1. Treatment 5.0 kg Zn ha-1 had significantly increased seed yield by 1.43 t ha-1 over control. The difference recorded in between 5.0 kg Zn ha-1 and in control Zn application was 0.38 t ha-1.

The each year Zn application and 10 kg Zn ha-1 gave the highest protein (40.30%) and oil content (20.17%) in seed. Results explained that the higher release of Zn pools were observed with the each year Zn application and 10 kg Zn ha-1. The order of prevalence of Water soluble and exchangeable-Zn< Complexed-Zn<Amorphous Sesquioxide < Crystalline Sesquioxide bound-Zn< Residual-Zn.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Zinc Fertilization on Tomato (Solanumlycopersicum L.) Yield, Zinc use Efficiency, Growth and Quality Parameters in Eastern Dry Zone(EDZ) Soils of Karnataka, India

P. N. Siva Prasad, C. T. Subbarayappa, A. Sathish, V. Ramamurthy

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 20-38
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i730447

The present investigation was carried out with one green house experiment at the University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore during 2016-17 and two field experiments during 2017-18 at tomato growing soils of eastern dry zone (EDZ), Karnataka to assess the impact of zinc on tomato. Results suggested that all parameters were significantly improved in both deficient and sufficient soils upon the addition of external zinc along with RDF. The treatment T9 in high zinc soils significantly improved the quality parameters like TSS (6.00⁰Brix), titratable acidity (0.39%), Vitamin C (53.71 mg 100 g-1), lycopene (13.24 mg 100 g-1) and shelf life (24 days) when compared with other treatments. The zinc uptake and zinc use efficiency was recorded higher in T9 as 238.91 g ha-1 and 2.47% which is more than that of RDF. But in low zinc soils treatment T10 significantly improved the quality parameters like TSS (5.80⁰Brix) which is on par with T9 (5.90⁰Brix), titratableacidity (0.47%), Vitamin C (55.24 mg 100 g-1), lycopene (13.30 mg 100 g-1) and shelf life (23 days).The zinc uptake and zinc use efficiency was recorded higher in T10as 291.53 g ha-1 and 2.64% which is more than that of RDF.

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening of Mungbean (Vignaradiata L. Wilczek) Genotypes for Resistance to Mungbean Yellow Mosaic Virus under Field Condition

Yugandhar Gokidi, M. N. Singh, Ashok Singamsetti, Swathi Lekkala

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 39-45
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i730448

Greengram [Vignaradiata(L.) Wilczek] is an economically important grain legume crop next to chickpea, pigeon pea and urad gram. Among the biotic factors, Mungbean Yellow Mosaic Virus (MYMV) is reported to be the most destructive viral diseases, which may reduce the seed quality as well as the yield losses up to 100 per cent. It is transmitted through whitefly (Bemisiatabaci) in a persistent manner throughout Asia, including India. A set of forty-two diverse mungbean genotypes were sown in two replications using a Randomized Block Desigh (RBD) during the summer season of 2015. The infector row method was adopted to evaluate a set of mungbean genotypes to know the difference in the level of resistance against MYMV infection under field condition during summer, 2015. Percent Disease Incidence (PDI) was calculated at 30 DAS and 50 DAS respectively. It varied from 2.18 to 64.77% and 5.38 to 76.87% at 30 DAS and 50 DAS respectively in summer, 2015. On the basis of disease severity recorded, the mungbean genotypes were classified in to five disease infection categories. Out of the forty-two mungbean genotypes, thirteen genotypes viz., Pusa 0672, IPM 205-7, HUM 8, KM 2245, IPM-2-03, ML 1464, KM 2241, PDM-139, TARM-1, HUM 26, Meha, HUM 16 and IPM 409-4 were found to be resistant and may provide the source of resistance against MYMV to develop mapping population for molecular breeding, development of molecular markers, QTL identification for MYMV resistance, as well as development of MYMV resistant varieties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Adoption of Intercropping Practices by the Cotton Farmers in Mancherial District of Telangana State

Shivakrishna Kota, M. Rajeshwar Naik, R. Uma Reddy, I. Thirupathi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 46-52
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i730449

World food production shortages and estimates in the supplies of the future have promptly increased the interest in the adoption of improved crop production activities and increased the food production and helps to cope with the threats of climatic variations and food security. Intercropping is a method that efficiently uses the space and time of cultivation. In this concept of cotton-based intercropping with pulses, where cotton yields are more along with additional survivable returns to the farmers from other crops. Though the concept has beneficial effects, but the adoption of intercropping in cotton by the farmers is low due to lack of clarity about the concept of intercropping. The present study mainly focused on estimating and clarifying the decision of the farmers on the adoption and non-adoption of intercropping in cotton and the benefits of the intercropping practices by the cotton farmers in developing the conceptual framework. Logistic regression model was used to present an econometric analysis of the diffusion process. The results from the present study revealed that variables like farm size, education status and exposure to extension service and capital were statistically significant at 1% level and showing a positive influence on the adoption of intercropping in cotton. Whereas age, farming experience was statistically significant at 1% level and showing the negative influence on the adoption of intercropping in cotton and yield is the other variable showing the negative influence on the intercropping. Further, in the extension systems more stress is need upon the capacity building of the farmers for optimum harnessing of the benefits of new generation technologies in cotton cultivation.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Potential of Soilless Culture Systems in Producing Tomato and Cucumber under Greenhouse Conditions

M. A. Abul-Soud, M. S. A. Emam, A. M. H. Hawash

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 67-85
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i730451

Aims: Assess The sustainable production of tomato and cucumber under greenhouse conditions for meeting the challenges of natural resources shortage, food security and economic.

Study Design:  Two experiments performed in complete randomized blocks with three replicates.

Place and Duration of Study: Central Laboratory for Agriculture Climate (CLAC), Agriculture Research Center, Egypt, during two autumn seasons of 2018 and 2019 (tomato) and two spring seasons of 2019 and 2020 (cucumber).

Methodology: Different soilless culture systems for producing tomato and cucumber under greenhouse were investigated: Hydroponic systems (Nutrient film technique (NFT) and deep flow technique (DFT)); and substrate systems (Dutch bucket, pot, container, and horizontal bag). Vegetative characteristics, yield parameters, N, P, and K contents, and environmental impact assessment were measured.   

Results: Substrate systems gave the highest vegetative growth characteristics, yield parameters, N, P and K contents of tomato and cucumber leaves, as well as the highest power use efficiencies compared to hydroponic systems. Container and bags systems gave the highest results of tomato and cucumber vegetative growth, respectively, but the highest yield and net profits records belonged to bags and pots respectively.  Bags substrate system gave the highest net profit yield (10.1Kg/ plant and  21881 LE / greenhouse) of tomato plant under plastic house followed by container system that presented the highest yield (10.6 Kg/ plant) but the total cost mainly substrate cost contributed to reduce its net profit yield. While for the highest yield and net profit of cucumber, the pots system (8.1Kg/ plant and  13243 LE / greenhouse) followed container system (7.65Kg/ plant and  9045 LE / greenhouse) and bags system (7.15Kg/ plant and  10270 LE / greenhouse) were recommended. The lowest yield, the highest average power use, cost and efficiency and lowest total cost were estimated by NFT system in both of tomato and cucumber investigations.

Conclusion: The substrate systems presented more sustainability for tomato and cucumber production under plastichouse conditions. Bags substrate system gave the highest net profit yield of tomato plant under plastic house followed by container system that presented the highest yield but the total cost mainly substrate cost contributed to reduce its net profit yield. While for the highest yield and net profit of cucumber, the pots system followed container system and bags system  were recommended. The lowest yield, the highest average power use, cost and efficiency and lowest total cost were estimated by NFT system in both of tomato and cucumber investigations.

Open Access Review Article

Carbon Dynamics in Climate Smart Agriculture Precision Land Leveling Practices on Topsoil Microbial Community Changes and Soil Organic Carbon in Cereal Based Cropping Systems of Sub-Tropical India: A Review

R. K. Naresh, M. Sharath Chandra, Aryan Baliyan, B. Naveen Kumar, Pradeep Kumar Kanaujiya, Shakti Om Pathak, Pradeep Kumar Singh, Navneet Kumar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 53-66
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i730450

The role of soil microorganisms in the biogeochemical process and nutrient cycling of soil is critical and is colossally impacted by agronomic management practices. In order to establish climate-smart precision land leveling practices in cereal based cropping systems, comprehension of the land bacterial local area and supplement nutrient dynamics under differentiating management practices is of most extreme significance. Climate smart agriculture (CSA) practices are gaining traction in subtropical India as a viable alternative to conventional cereal-based cropping systems for reversing natural resource depletion. Sustainable soil management alternatives that sequester carbon in the soil, reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and help intensify production, all while enhancing the natural resource base. Aggregate-associated soil organic carbon (SOC) contents in 0-15 cm depth were recorded highest SOC at 15-30 cm depth in Precision Land Leveling (PLL) systems as 9.4% for both M-P-MbPLL and M-W-MbPLL. Highest PON change in arable cropping system (30.9 & 40.1%) was found in O-W-Mb with precision land levelling plots followed by R-P-O with precision land levelling plots (26.1 & 35.8%) as compared to R-W and S-W system. The values of LFOC in surface soil were 194.7, 187.9, 176.2, 170.9, 168.5, 150.6, 132.8 and 123.8 mgkg−1 in R-P-O, R-C-O, M-W-Mb, O-W-Mb, M-P-Mb, R-P-Mb, R-W and S-W with precision land leveling treatments. Therefore, adopting Climate Smart Agriculture Precision Land leveling practices can dramatically boost system productivity in cereal-based cropping systems by improving SOC and soil biological quality. The overview literature accrued indicate that CSA based totally totally management has a remarkable impact on top soil resilience in phrases of relative abundances of bacterial groups, soil organic carbon & to be had plant nutrients and as a result may additionally play a vital function within the sustainability of the extensive cereal based cropping systems.