Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Zinc Fertilization on Yield, Yield Attributes and Quality Parameters of Finger Millet Varieties under Rainfed alfisols of Southern Zone, Andhra Pradesh

G. Mrudula, P. Sandhya Rani, B. Sreekanth, K. V. Nagamadhuri, M. Martin Luther

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i930460

Aims: To study the effect of zinc fertilization through soil and foliar at different stages of finger millet on yield, yield attributes and quality in two major finger millet varieties under rainfed alfisols of southern zone, Andhra Pradesh

Study Design:  Split-plot design

Place and Duration of Study: Wetland farm, S.V Agricultural College, Tirupati and during kharif season of 2019 and 2020 (Two seasons)

Methodology: Zinc fertilization to two major finger millet varieties viz., Vakula and Tirumala through soil and foliar application at different crop stages with following treatments viz.,  Control (No fertilizers and manures); RDF (60 -30-20 kg N-P-K + FYM @ 4 t ha-1);  RDF + soil application of ZnSO4 @ 25 kg ha-1 as basal; RDF+Soil application of chelated-ZnSO4 @ 5 kg ha-1; RDF+foliar application of 0.2% ZnSO4 at ear head emergence stage; RDF+foliar application of 0.2% ZnSO4 at grain filling stage; and RDF+foliar application of 0.2% ZnSO4 at ear head emergence and grain filling stage. The yield, yield attributes and quality parameters viz., protein, zinc and iron content in grains were determined by adopting standard protocols.

Results: The application of zinc significantly (p<0.05) improved the yield and quality parameters over control. The foliar application of 0.2% ZnSO4 at ear head emergence and grain filling stage was significantly (p≤0.05) improved the yield and yield attributes of finger millet over RDF. The grain yield, straw yield, no. of productive tillers per plant, no. of fingers per plant were increased to 57.0%, 83.2%, 44.6% and 51.7%, respectively over RDF i.e., 60-30-20 kg N-P-K + FYM @ 4 t ha-1. The quality parameters namely protein, grain zinc and iron also increased up to 40.7%, 69.5% and 43.2%, respectively over RDF.

Conclusion: Application of zinc sulphate at ear head emergence and grain filling stages enhanced the yield, yield parameters and quality parameters compared to other treatments of tirumala variety under rainfed alfisols of southern zone of Andhra Pradesh.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L) Varieties under Protected Condition

M. Anand, P.R. Kamalkumaran, M. Velmurugan, A. Sankari

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 13-19
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i930461

The present investigation was undertaken to elevate different carnation varieties for the performance of Growth, yield and post-harvest quality under protected condition. The experiment was conducted in Horticultural Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, The Nilgiris, India . The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Block Design (RBD) with Eleven   varieties of Carnation viz., Big one, Turbo, Solex, Hunza, Easy Golem, Express Golem, Red King, Golem, Gioele, Big mama and Happy Golem. observation were recorded for plant height (cm), days to first flower, flowering duration, length of flower stem (cm), diameter of flower (cm), Number of flowers per plant and Calyx splitting (High : 60% and above, Medium: 30 – 50%, Low : less than 30%), Strength of flower stem, vase life solutions viz., AOA (25ppm), AOA (50ppm), CoCl2 (10ppm) ,CoCl2 (20ppm) and plain water  for 30 minutes. The cultivar Happy Golem recorded maximum plant height of 100.50cm and the minimum plant height of 77.0 cm was noticed in Golem. Maximum number of shoots  per plant was recorded in the cultivar Gioele (7.98 ) followed by Hunza (7.50) and minimum number of shoots per plant was observed in the entry Golem (5.30).Maximum number of leaves (195.20) and Leaf length (13.55 cm) was recorded in the entry Gioele. The Days to first flower ranged between 130.01 to 139.20 days from planting. The cultivar Turbo (130.01) recorded early to initiate the flower bud followed by Golem (130.10) .The cultivar Red king recorded maximum flowering duration of 13.50 days followed by big mama (13.20 days)) and minimum flowering duration was observed in Happy Golem (10.47 days).The Cultivar Gioele recorded the highest stalk length of 93.00 cm and the lowest stalk length of 68.50cm was observed by Golem. With respect to yield parameters maximum number of flowers per plant was recorded in Gioele (7.50 nos) followed by Red king (7.17 nos) and Hunza (6.97 nos) and Minimum number of flowers per plant was recorded in Golem (5.11 nos). Maximum number of A and B grade flower stems are produced in the Variety Gioele. Among the cultivar for prolonging the vase life of Carnation,  treatment comprising of AOA @50ppm recorded maximum vaselife of 19 days by cultivar, minimum flower diameter (5.3cm) and maximum total water absorbed (45.0 ml) and found to be the best to increase the shelf life of  carnation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Screening of Chilli Pepper for Fungal Contamination and Aflatoxin Production

Sasireka Rajendran, Ganapathy Shunmugam, Paranidharan Vaikuntavasen, Jeevanand Palanisamy, Srinivasan Subbiah

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 20-25
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i930462

Improper postharvest management of red chili pepper results in the invasion of Aspergillus spp. It is the most common pathogen that infects chili resulting in the production of aflatoxin - the most potent biological toxin. The present study was aimed to study the occurrence of naturally occurring fungal pathogens in the commercially available chilli pepper in India. About twenty samples were collected from retail stores and commercial markers of Tamil Nadu, India. Isolation and purification of the naturally occurring fungal pathogens were carried out using a potato dextrose agar medium. Results showed that the samples were contaminated with Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus, and A. niger. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was done to morphologically confirm the pathogens. SEM analysis also showed the internal structural damage caused by the pathogens.  Followed by the isolation, all the samples that contained A. flavus were tested for aflatoxin production using the thin layer chromatography (TLC) method. It was found that a total of 16 chilli samples were tested positive for aflatoxin production. It could be seen that the tropical climatic conditions of India increased the probability of aflatoxin production in the chilli pepper.

Open Access Original Research Article

Principal Component Analysis for Yield in Blackgram(Vignamungo L. Hepper) under Organic and Inorganic Fertilizer Managements

A. Kavitha Reddy, M. Shanthi Priya, D. Mohan Reddy, B.Ravindra Reddy

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 26-34
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i930463

The present investigation on thirty black gram diverse genotypes for 12 yield and yield attributing traits under organic and inorganic fertilizer managements was carried out to study genetic variation among traits and genotypes in the respective environments that would equip the selection criteria using principal Component Analysis. First four vectors with threshold Eigen value greater than one (>1) contributed to 77.56% and 70.74% variation under organic and inorganic fertilizer managements respectively. Characters viz., number of clusters per plant (0.395), number of seeds per pod (0.354), days to maturity (0.336), number of pods per plant (0.300), harvest index (0.244), plant height (0.073) and seed yield per plant (0.015), whereas under inorganic fertilizer management number of primary branches per plant (0.43), followed by number of pods per plant (0.43), seed yield per plant (0.31), number of pods per cluster (0.29), number of clusters per plant (0.29) explained the maximum variance in first principal component (PC1) under organic conditions. Based on comparison of trait contribution to total variability under PC1 under both the managements it can be concluded that the traits viz., number of clusters per plant, number of pods per plant and seed yield per plant were the potential traits that accounted for maximum share towards variability. These traits may be taken into consideration as selection criteria in breeding programmes aimed at developing high yielding varieties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optical Characteristics, Thermal use Efficiency, Yield and Yield Attributes of Bt Cotton under Different Plant Spacing and Fertilizer Levels

Amit Singh, M. L. Khichar, Ram Niwas, . Mamta, Kapil Malik, . Rahul, . Manjeet

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 35-41
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i930464

Field trail was conducted at the Research Farm of Cotton Section, Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding, CCS HAU, Hisar (Lat 2910' N, Long 7546' E and 215.2 m msl) during Kharif season of 2015. The experiment was conducted in split-split plot design with three replications. Three varieties viz. V1=RCH 602, V2=RCH 650 and V3=Bunty were kept in main plots while three spacing viz. S1=67.5 cm × 45 cm, S2=67.5 cm × 60 cm and S3=67.5 cm × 75 cm with three fertilizer levels i.e. F1=RDF, F2=125 % of RDF and F3=150 % of RDF application of the recommended dose were kept in subplots. Recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) was N:P:K=175:60:60 kg ha-1. Optical characteristics, thermal use efficiency (TUE) were computed along with yield and yield attributes were also studied. V1 (86.6 %), S3 (84.8 %) and F3 (85.1 %) absorbed maximum PAR among all the cv., plant spacing and fertilizer levels. TUE was found higher in the V1 (0.35 g/m²/℃ day), S3 (0.34 g/m²/℃ day) and F3 (0.29 g/m²/℃ day) among all the cv., plant spacing and fertilizer levels. Number of bolls plant-1 were found higher in V1 (21.0), S3 (14.7) and F3 (16.0) among all the cv., plant spacing and fertilizer levels. Among all the cv., plant spacing and fertilizer levels boll weight (g) were found higher in V2 (3.89 g), S2 (3.66 g) and F2 (3.62 g). Sympodial branches plant-1 at harvest were found highest in V1 (23.7), S1 (21.0) and F1 (21.4) among all the cv., plant spacing and fertilizer levels. In seed cotton yield V1 (1248.7 kg ha-1), S3 (1120.7 kg ha-1) and F2 (1094.3 kg ha-1) have the maximum yield as compare to other cv., plant spacing and fertilizer levels.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Weed Management Practices on Yield Attributes, Economics and Phytotoxicity of Kharif Maize

Y. Lavanya, K. Srinivasan, C. R. Chinnamuthu, P. Murali Arthanari

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 42-49
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i930465

A field experiment was conducted during 2018 and 2019 at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Agriculture College and Research Institute, Coimbatore to study the impact of weed management practices on yield attributes, economics and phytotoxicity of kharif maize. Ten treatments were tested in randomized block design with three replications viz., pre emergence (PE) atrazine at 0.5 kg a.i. ha-1 fb hand weeding (HW) at 20 DAS, PE atrazine at 0.5 kg a.i. ha-1 fb power weeder (PW) at 20 DAS, PE atrazine at 0.5 kg a.i. ha-1 + pendimethalin at 1 kg a.i. ha-1 (Tank mix), PE atrazine at 0.5 kg a.i. ha-1 + pendimethalin at 1 kg a.i. ha-1 fb HW at 20 DAS, early post emergence (EPoE) topramezone at 25.2 g a.i. ha-1, PE atrazine at 0.5 kg a.i. ha-1 fb EPoE topramezone at 25.2 g a.i. ha-1, EPoE tembotrione at 122 g a.i. ha-1, PE atrazine 0.5 kg a.i. ha-1 fb EPoE tembotrione 122 g a.i. ha-1, hand weeding twice at 20 and 45 DAS and control (weedy check). Among the different weed management practices significantly higher yield attributes viz., cob length, cob girth, weight of cob, No. of grain rows cob-1, No. of grains cob-1, grain yield cob-1 was found with hand weeding twice at 20 and 45 DAS and it was at par with atrazine at 0.5 kg a.i. ha-1 as PE  fb topramezone at 25.2 g a.i. ha-1 as EPoE and atrazine at 0.5 kg a.i. ha-1 as PE + tembotrione at 122 g a.i. ha-1 as EPoE. Maximum net return and B:C ratio were recorded under atrazine at 0.5 kg a.i. ha-1 as PE fb topramezone at 25.2 g a.i. ha-1 as EPoE followed by atrazine at 0.5 kg a.i. ha-1 as PE + tembotrione at 122 g a.i. ha-1 as EPoE. However, among the different herbicidal treatments used, all the herbicidal treatments were found to be safe to the maize crop without any caused phototoxic effect on maize during both the years of experimentation. Now-a-days, increased labour scarcity and costs are encouraging farmers to adopt labour and cost- saving options by using chemical method.

Open Access Original Research Article

Agromorphological Determinants Favoring the Spread of Anthracnose Disease in Cashew Agroforestry Farms in Côte d'Ivoire

Brou Kouassi Guy, Silue Souleymane, Doga Dabé, Oro Zokou Franck, N’goran Yao Claude François, Kouassi Koffi II Nazaire, Dogbo Denezon Odette

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 50-60
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i930466

Cashew cultivation faces several health problems. Among these problems, anthracnose causes extensive damage to twigs, leaves and fruits and causes loss of yield. The spread of this disease is thought to be determined by certain agromorphological features of the cashew tree. The objective of this study was to search for these agro-morphological determinants that influence the spread of anthracnose disease in agroforestry systems in Côte d'Ivoire. To achieve this objective, 30 cashew trees spread across 26 agroforestry cashew orchards in the Korhogo, Sinématiali and Boundiali departments were chosen and geolocated. The factor studied was the clone, consisting of 30 cashew genotypes, with 15 modalities. The collected data was subjected to descriptive analysis, correlation test, PCA and hierarchical ascending classification (CAH). The results showed that the wingspan, leaf area and size of cashew trees are determinants that promote the spread of anthracnose disease. Following this result, the CAH made it possible to screen the genotypes into three groups. These results could contribute to management of anthracnose disease in agroforestry, to enhance and intensify this cropping systems.