Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Water Regime and Fertilization on the Vegetative Parameters of Two Varieties of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench, Malvacea) in the Daloa Region, Côte d’Ivoire

Beugré Manéhonon Martine, Kouame N’Guessan, Kouassi N’dri Jacob, Kouamé Ahou Leatitia, Kouadio Yatty Justin

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1230481

This study aims to evaluate the effect of water stress and organo-mineral fertilization on the morphological parameters of two varieties of okra.  The treatments used (fertilizers) are: T0 (controls without amendment), T1 (4 kg chicken manure), T2 (4 kg sawdust, T3 (1 kg NPK 15-15-13 fertilizer). Three (3) types of water regimes were applied, R3 (watering 3 times per week), R5 (watering 5 times per week), and R7 (watering 7 times per week). The results obtained in terms of fertilizers applied to the soil did not show any significant influence on plant growth (p> 0.05). As for the other results, they showed that 100% of the parameters studied were influenced by the variety effect, while 33% were influenced by the watering frequency effect. Four parameters were influenced by the interaction between variety and frequency of watering, which shows that the variety used and frequency of watering play an important role in okra production. Both the organic and mineral fertilizers applied to the soil showed no significant effect on the measured parameters, which could be as a result of non-decomposition of organic matter and insufficiency in the amount of mineral fertilizers required to supply the plant needs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Endogenous Hormones in Habanero Pepper Seeds

H. Ramírez, U. A. Macías-Castillo, A. I. Melendres-Alvarez, M. C. Castillo-Robles, A. Zermeño-González, D. Jasso-Cantú, J. A. Villarreal-Quintanilla

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 9-18
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1230482

Aims: Habanero pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivation is growing worldwide, mainly as a result of its high demand and nutritive contribution to human society. The presence of endogenous gibberellins and cytokinins in seeds of various vegetable crops has been related to a good germination; however, little is known on habanero pepper. The aim of this study was to search for the presence, identification and amount of gibberellins and cytokinins in seeds of habanero pepper cv “Jaguar”.

Study design: Laboratory analysis for gibberellins and cytokinins were organized in solvent solutions groups with three technical replicates using a complete randomized design and results when applicable were analyzed using the statistical program 'RStudio' (version 10) and data obtained subjected to a comparison of means with the Tukey (P≤0.05) test.

Place and duration of study: The experiment was conducted at the Department of Horticulture in Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro, Saltillo, Mexico, during 2020-2021.

Methodology: Lots of 50 grams dry weight of “Jaguar” habanero pepper seed samples were freeze dried and prepared with several organic solvents for the extraction, purification and identification of gibberellins and cytokinins using the techniques of GC-MS and GCMS-SIM respectively.

Results: Gibberellins A1, A4, A7, A9, A15, A17 and A44 were found in habanero seed tissue. The cytokinins zeatin and zeatin-riboside were also detected in analyzed habanero samples. 

Conclusion: The endogenous gibberellins A1, A4, A7, A9, A15, A17, A44, and the cytokinins zeatin and zeatin-riboside are present in habanero pepper cv “Jaguar” contributing to an improve seed viability, ensuring health and overall plant yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Surface Coatings on Shelf Life and Quality of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) CV. Allahabad Safeda

Sirisilla Saharika, Veena Joshi, A. Kiran Kumar, P. Prasanth

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 19-28
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1230483

Aims: To evaluate the potentiality of surface coatings for achieving extended shelf life with enhance fruit quality attributes in Guava under ambient storage condition.

Study design: The lab experiment conducted in complete randomized design three replications on Allahabad safeda of Guava.

Place and duration of study: The experiment was conducted during November 2019 at College of Horticulture, Sri Konda Laxman Telangana State Horticultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad.

Methodology: Guava freshly harvested fruits were coated with three Surface coatings viz. Aloe vera (12.5%, 25% & 50%), Chitosan (0.5%, 1.0% & 1.5%), citric acid (1%, 2% & 3%). The coated fruits were stored at ambient room condition. Periodically effects of surface coatings were observed for physiological loss in weight, Shelf Life (days), Firmness (Kg/cm 2), Total Soluble Solids (%), Titrable Acidity (%), Ascorbic Acid (mg/100g), Total Sugars (%), Reducing Sugars (%), Non-Reducing Sugars (%).

Results: Surface coating physical parameters, fruits treated with T5-Chitosan (1%) showed minimum physiological loss in weight during storage, and least decay percentage. Among the treatments, highest shelf life (9.98 days), highest firmness (2.76 kg/cm2) was recorded in T5-Chitosan (1%) which was on par with T2-Aloe vera (25%) (9.67 days & 2.71 kg/cm2) while lowest shelf life was recorded in T10-Control (6.45 days). Among the treatments, T5- Chitosan (1%) recorded highest TSS (10.33 oB), highest ascorbic acid content (122.32 mg/100g), highest total sugar content, reducing sugar and least non reducing sugar content (9.72%, 6.02% & 2.84%) respectively followed by T2-Aloe vera 25% while least was noticed in T6-Chitosan 1.5% on 10th day of storage.

Conclusion: surface coating of Chitosan1% substantially improved the shelf life with retaining better fruit quality attributes under ambient conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth, Nutrient Uptake and Yield of Wheat as Influenced by Foliar Sprays of Cattle Urine and Nitrogen

S. V. Khatate, A. V. Patil, A. B. Jadhav, D. H. Phalke, S.T. Pachpute

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 29-41
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1230484

The experiment was conducted to study the effect of levels of nitrogen and foliar sprays of cattle urine on growth, yield, nutrient uptake and quality of wheat in Inceptisol at Division of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry and Animal Husbandry and Dairy Science, College of Agriculture, Pune during Rabi (November) 2018. The experiment was conducted with three levels of nitrogen (0, 75 and 100%) through urea and five levels of cattle urine spray (CUS) (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10%) (20, 40 and 60 days after sowing (DAS)) replicated thrice in Factorial Completely Randomized Design.

Application of 75% N through urea recorded higher plant height, number of tillers, number of functional leaves, leaf length, leaf width, chlorophyll content. However, application of 7.5% cattle urine foliar sprays (at 20, 40, 60 DAS) recorded significantly higher plant height, number of tillers, number of functional leaves, leaf length, leaf width, chlorophyll content. Further, similar both the treatments recorded significantly higher spike length, number of spikelets per spike, number of grains per spike, test weight of wheat. Interaction effect of 75% N through urea along with 7.5% cattle urine foliar sprays (at 20, 40, 60 DAS) recorded significantly higher plant height, number of tillers, number of functional leaves, leaf length, leaf width, chlorophyll content at 30, 50 and 70 DAS of wheat. Significant interaction effect with similar treatment were also recorded significant results for spike length, number of spikelets per spike, number of grains per spike, test weight of wheat.

Application of 75% N through urea recorded significantly higher grain (80.03 g pot-1) and straw (100.00 g pot-1) yield of wheat. While foliar spray of cattle urine @ 5% recorded significantly higher grain (72.06 g pot-1) and straw (92.41 g pot-1) yield of wheat. Significant interaction effect among combine application of 75% N through urea along with foliar spray of cattle urine @ 7.5% taken at 20, 40 and 60 DAS reported significantly higher grain (87.67 g pot-1) and straw (114.50 g pot-1) yield of wheat.

Nitrogen (3.08 gm pot-1), phosphorus (1.12 gm pot-1) and potassium (3.72 gm pot-1) uptake by wheat was found significantly higher with the application of 75% N through urea than 100% N application. While three foliar spray of cattle urine @7.5% taken at 20, 40 and 60 DAS recorded significantly nitrogen (3.15 gm pot-1), phosphorus (1.09 gm pot-1) and potassium (3.54 gm pot-1) uptake by wheat. But interaction effect for combined application was found non significant for the uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.

Open Access Original Research Article

Digital Terrain Characterization of Nilona Micro Watershed of Darwha Block of Maharastra

R. Rakesh, Ashay D Souza, Sudipta Chattaraj

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 42-50
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1230485

Watershed characterization is the first step in the sustainable management of    watershed resources. Morphometric analysis of a watershed using Digital Elevation Model (DEM) provides a quantitative description of the drainage system which is an important aspect   of the characterization of watersheds. The study was conducted in Nilona micro-watershed covering an area of 1297.35 ha in Darwha tehsil of Yavatmal district, Maharashtra. The terrain attributes and drainage configuration were derived from the Cartosat-1 data, 10m resolution Digital Terrain Model (DTM) using ArcGIS. Surface soil samples of 118 locations were collected from grid points located at regular interval of 325 m. The digital terrain analysis  showed that slope varies from 0 to 45.9 percent, with a mean value of 4.5%. Most of the area of Nilona micro-watershed was classified as gentle sloping. Profile curvature   varies from -5.1 to 4.6 m m-1, respectively indicating the coexistence of erosive as well  as depositional landforms. Overall, the study documents the utility of   site-specific modeling and geo-statistical interpolation based predictive mapping for watershed planning.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Different Maize–Soybean Intercropping Patterns on Yield Attributes, Yield and B: C Ratio

Mahipal Dudwal, R. P. Singh, B. L. Verma, Babulal Choudhary

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 51-58
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1230486

A field experiment was carried out to study the “Effects of different maize–soybean intercropping patterns on yield attributes, yield and B: C ratio” at the Agricultural Research Farm, Bhagwant University, Ajmer. Treatment consists of Sole maize (60x20 cm), Sole Soyabean (30x10 cm), Maize-Soybean (1:1) (60X20 cm), Maize-Soybean (1:1) (75X20 cm), Maize-Soybean (1:1) (90X20 cm), Maize-Soybean (1:2) (90X20 cm) and Maize-Soybean (2:6) (Paired row 45/180 cm). There were four replicated blocks and plot sizes measuring 7 m x 4.5 m laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Results of the experiment showed that the maize-soybean intercropping patterns had significant effect on maize stover and grain yields. Sole maize recorded significantly higher yield than intercropped maize under varying geometry and row proportion. However, it was at par with maize intercropped with soybean in 1:1 row proportion with 60 x 20 cm .The intercropping patterns affected significantly the PAR intercepted and the leaf area index. The soybean sole crop intercepted significantly more light and leaf area index (LAI) than all other treatments and/or crop. Further,, the yield of sole soybean was significantly superior over other intercropped treatments. The highest benefit cost ratio revealed that higher return per unit money invested for inputs used for raising crops. The highest B: C ratio was recorded with maize + soybean in 2:6 paired row (3.57) intercropping system. The least B: C ratio was recorded in sole soybean (2.45).

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutrient Uptake Studies under Varying Drip Irrigation Regimes and Fertigation Levels in Rabi Cauliflower in Telangana State

G. Sidhartha, Md. Latheef Pasha, M. Umadevi, V. Ramulu

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 59-72
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1230487

A field study was conducted with different drip irrigation regimes and NK fertigation levels on cauliflower at Hyderabad, Telangana during rabi 2019-2020. The experiment was laid out in a split plot design with three drip irrigation regimes viz., 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 Epan as main plots and three drip NK fertigation levels of control (N0K0), 50 % recommended dose of NK (N40 K50) and 100 % recommended dose of NK (N80 K100) as sub plots altogether nine treatments and replicated thrice. Drip irrigation scheduled at 1.0 Epan recorded significantly higher curd yield (18.7 t ha-1) than 0.8 Epan (17.1 t ha-1) and 0.6 Epan (15.0 t ha-1). NPK and S uptake were significantly higher in irrigation scheduled at 1.0 Epan than 0.8 and 0.6 Epan during all stages except at 30 DAT and harvest where S uptake was found to be non significant among different irrigation levels. Drip fertigation at 100 % recommended dose of NK recorded significantly higher curd yield (23.8 t ha-1) than 50 % recommended dose of NK (19.7 t ha-1) and N0K0 (7.2 t ha-1). Drip NK fertigation levels significantly increased the NPK and S uptake with each increment in NK fertigation level from N0K0 to 100 % recommended dose of NK at all stages.