Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Tillage Practices and Nitrogen Sources on Nitrogen Availability and Uptake of Rice

Polagani Nagarjuna, B. Venkateswarlu, M. Sreerekha, P. R. K. Prasad, K. Jayalalitha

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1330488

Aim: Evaluation of tillage practices and nitrogen sources on nitrogen availability in soil and nitrogen uptake of rice

Study design: The experiment was laid out in strip-plot design with different tillage practices in horizontal strip and different nitrogen sources in vertical strip and was replicated thrice.

Place and duration of study: The field experiment was conducted during the kharif season of 2019 and 2020 at the Agricultural College Farm, Bapatla, ANGRAU, Lam, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh.

Methodology: The experiment was performed with twenty treatments in strip-plot design. The horizontal strip comprised four different tillage practices and vertical strip with five different nitrogen sources. Rice variety “BPT-5204” was taken as the test variety. Observations of the crop and soil during the experimentation were recorded at regular intervals. The significance of the treatment impact was examined by the test.

Results: Among tillage practices, higher nitrogen uptake by rice grain (85.30 and 86.96 Kg ha-1) and straw (41.21 and 41.91 Kg ha-1) during 2019-20 and 2020-21, respectively was recorded in conventional tillage (T4) which was found statistically on a par with dry seeding on puddled soil (T1) (81.15 and 82.79 Kg ha-1, 38.59 and 39.20 Kg ha-1 during 2019-20 and 2020-21, respectively) and significantly superior over reduced tillage (T2) and minimum tillage (T3). Among nitrogen source, application of 50% STBN through fertilizer + 50% N through cured poultry manure (N5) registered the highest uptake of nitrogen in grain and straw (85.38 and 87.02 Kg ha-1. 42.09 and 42.76 Kg ha-1 during 2019-20 and 2020-21, respectively) and it was found significantly on a par with 75% STBN through fertilizer + 25% N through cured poultry manure (N4) and significantly superior over 50% STBN through fertilizer + 50% N through FYM (N3), 75% STBN through fertilizer + 25% N through FYM (N2), and 100% STBN through fertilizer (N1) treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

SSR Based Genetic Diversity in Magic Lines of Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill)

V. Swarnalatha, Bidush Ranjan Swar, M. Rajendar Reddy, S. Vanisree

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 8-16
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1330489

Soybean MAGIC lines are recently developed by tailor made source of germplasm that have undergone heavy genetic recombination. The present study was carried out in Kharif 2018 to Rabi 2019 - 20 to assess its extent of genetic diversity at molecular level in 95 soybean MAGIC lines along with six checks by using 30 SSR markers from which 27 were found polymorphic. A total of 106 alleles were generated with an average of 3.53 and a range of two to six alleles per loci. The value of observed heterozygosity was varying from 0.00 to 0.099 indicating a higher frequency of homozygotes among the accessions. Maximum PIC was 0.955 for Staga001 followed by 0.948 (Satt168, Satt453, Satt534), 0.947(Satt565) and 0.945(Satt371). The range of Jaccard’s similarity coefficient was varying from 0.089 to 1, most of the values were between 0.2 to 0.3 with an average of 0.3 indicating considerable diversity exists among the genotypes. A total of six main clusters were formed by UPGMA clustering method. Cluster II was the largest comprising 48 genotypes which were grouped into four sub-clusters. Clustering based on SSR markers revealed a very precise grouping of the genotypes based on their relatedness than their phenotypic data alone. Hence it can be successfully deployed for selecting desirable genotypes which can be utilized in future breeding programs for exploiting heterosis or in the introgression of genes for biotic and abiotic stress tolerance in soybean crop.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutrients Status in Arabica Coffee (Coffea Arabica L) Soils of Non-Traditional Area (NTA)

S. A. Nadaf, A. R. Bora

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 17-22
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1330490

Coffee growing areas in Andhra Pradesh and Orissa (non-traditional area - NTA) are characterized by undulating topography with terraced slopes having narrow valleys with scattered coffee farms across the elevation of the Eastern Ghats of Vishakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh) and Koraput (Orissa) districts. Under this situation plant available nutrients will become non-available and the nutrients are stored in several pools as inorganic and organic forms in soil exchange complex are very much essential for coffee plants for its growth and development. Hence, a study was conducted to know the soil nutrient status of coffee growing region of NTA. A total of 693 surface soil samples were collected at depth of 22cm randomly from each coffee growing mandals of NTA and assessed the nutrient status (soil pH, OC, available P and K) at Regional Coffee Research Station, Narsipatnam. Results of the soil test results indicated that most of the Arabica coffee soils of NTA are acidic in reaction (72 %) and soil pH > 6.0 in these soils was 28 % in the tested soils. Plant available phosphorous (P) in the soil is low with 33 % soils and 46 % of the soils are medium in range. However, only 21 % of the soils tested are high in available phosphorous content in these soils. The majority of the soils of this region are high in available potassium about 54 % and 31 % of the soils are medium in range but only 15 % of the soils are low in available K status. Coffee soils of NTA are rich in organic carbon status and almost 47 %. 33 % of the tested soils are medium in range but 19 % of soils were low in organic carbon status. Soils are slightly acidic in reaction and were rich in organic carbon and available potassium status.

Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Carbon Fractions at Different Soil Depths as Influenced by Land use Practices under Cropping Systems in a Vertisol

Arpit Suryawanshi, H. K. Rai, Aditi Chourasia, G. D. Sharma

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 23-30
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1330491

The experimental field study was conducted at Borlaug Institute for South Asia (BISA) Research Farm, Lakhanwada, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India to evaluate the soil carbon fractions (very labile, labile, less labile and non-labile or recalcitrant carbon) in different land use practices with soil depths under cropping systems in Vertisols after harvest of Kharif and Rabi season crops of year 2015-16 and 2016-17. The experiment was conducted under Split plot design considering land use practices as main plot treatments [L1: Uncultivated, L2: rice-wheat system with conventional agriculture (CT), L3: rice-wheat system with conservation agriculture (CA), L4: soybean-wheat system with CT, L5: soybean-wheat system with CA, L6: maize-wheat system with CT and L7: maize-wheat system with CA] and depth (0-5 cm, 5-15 cm and 15-30 cm) as sub-plot treatments replicated thrice. Very labile carbon fraction was obtained highest in L3 (rice-wheat system with CA) and lowest under L6 (maize -wheat system with CT) treatment after harvest of Kharif and Rabi season crops during 2015-16 and 2016-17and it was significantly higher at 0-5 cm soil depth  than those in 5-15 cm and 15-30 cm soil depths. Similar trends were also obtained in case of labile, less labile and non-labile fraction of carbon i.e. the applied land use practices had significant effect on all the carbon fractions under study and found to be maximum under L3 (R-W system with CA) and minimum in L6: (M-W system with CT) treatment after harvest of both the season crops during both years of experiment. Whereas, the interaction effect of land use practices and soil depths on the carbon fractions was found statistically non-significant during both the seasons and years.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Interactive effect of Carbon Dioxide and Temperature on Plant Growth using Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Technology

Naseema Rahman, Jonali Goswami, Ranjan Das

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 31-36
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1330492

Remote sensing is a powerful tool for monitoring spatiotemporal variations of crop health status in terms of morpho- physiology status helping for precision farming. In comparison with multispectral, hyperspectral imaging with narrow bands are capable of acquiring a subtle variation in spectral response of target crop like garlic under high CO2 and temperature conditions. The present results indicate the potential of spectral information for evaluating various stress conditions as well as status of crop conditions through the use of band rationing technique, mainly NDVI in comparison to the use of individual spectral bands. The present investigation revealed that plant grown under CTGT II (550 ppm CO2 + 4°C elevation of temperature) shows significantly good health in all garlic varieties with high LAD and NDVI. On the other hand, the higher temperature stress treatment brought about significant reduction in the LAD and NDVI. This adverse effect was lesser under CTGT II than CTGT III which indicated that all varieties, Ekfutia Assam in particular, exhibited certain degree of tolerance against high temperature stress. Hyperspectral remote sensing technique acts as an important tool in real time monitoring, early warning and quick damage assessment due to various abiotic stresses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterising Rice (Oryza indica) Ecology in East and Southern Eastern Plateau of Odisha using Multi Source Remote Sensing

M. Satya Swarupa Rani, Anima Biswal, B. S. Rath

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 37-47
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1330493

Rice is the most important crop of Odisha occupying 41.24% of net sown area in Kharif season and contributing 65.85 % of total food grain production of Odisha state and this is being cultivated in various types environmental and ecological condition. Assessment of rice phenology is prime for management and yield prediction. In view of characterizing rice ecology in East and South Eastern Plateau from 2008 – 2018 to know the time series analysis , remote sensing tools were used . MODIS can0 acquire data over a wide area with high spatial and temporal resolutions easily providing regional scale information .In order to study the seasonal /annual as well as spatial variability of kharif rice vigour and wetness spectral vegetation indices like NDVI(Normalised Difference Vegetation Index),LSWI(Land surface water index) derived from 15 day composite 250 m data were analysed at block level for Odisha state. For studying the start of season variability, SASI index was used. The season maximum NDVI, LSWI were computed for the year 2008-2018 for kharif rice in East and Southern eastern coastal plain zone of Odisha and graphs were generated which shows the variability of the kharif rice vigour and wetness.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Genetic Diversity using D2 Statistics in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under Late Sown Conditions

Velugoti Priyanka Reddy, Gaibriyal. M. Lal, Subhadra Pattanayak, Jakkam Mahipal Reddy

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 48-53
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1330494

An experiment was conducted during Rabi, 2019-20 at Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj (Allahabad) consisting of 36 chickpea genotypes obtained from ICAR-Indian Institute of Pulses Research, Kanpur, U.P in RBD with three replications. The data was recorded on 13 traits to study the genetic divergence. Analysis of variance revealed that there was considerable genetic variability in the available germplasm for all the characters studied. Divergence analysis revealed that highest inter cluster distance (1505.25) was found between clusters I and V indicates that there is ample scope for selection of better parents.