Open Access Original Research Article

Conservation Agriculture Practices on Physiological Indices of Rice in Rice Based Cropping System

C. Durga, S. Anitha

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1430495

A field experiment was conducted at Agronomy farm, Kerala Agricultural University during 2019-2021 to develop an eco friendly conservation method for upland rice based cropping system. Rice-okra cropping system with conservation practices were compared with conventional practice. Treatments consisted of planting methods like flat bed and raised bed with eitherinsitugreen manuring or brown manuring and with minimum soil disturbance. Various conservation practice significantly influenced the physiological parameters of rice under rice based cropping system. Highest leaf area index crop was recorded in direct seeding rice in flat bed + in situ green manuring at all stages of crop growth and it was statistically superior over other treatments. The crop growth rate, relative growth rate and net assimilation rate up to 60DAS recorded highest in direct seeding rice in flat bed +insitugreen manuring but at 90-120DAS the highest was found in direct seeding rice in raised bed + green manuring. Growing green manure crops along with ricecrop raised in flat bed or raised bed had significant influence on the growth indices of rice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Lysinibacillus acetophenoni and Pseudomonas stutzeri with High Salt effect, Recovered from High Salinity Soil Area (Indo-Gangetic Plain of India)

Parul Bhatt Kotiyal, Soni Singh, Sunita Rawat, Vikesh Vyas, Himani Negi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 17-26
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1430497

Soil salinity has affected many soil microbial communities as well as economic value of forest ecosystem for many years. The plant growth-promoting bacteria have developed several different mechanisms that have a positive influence on plant development and growth. Designated strain L-PB424 and P-PB466 was isolated and identified from saline soil of block Ashabutter khair forest in Punjab North zone in India, were investigated for their plant growth-promoting characters such as production of indole acetic acid, phosphate solubilization, Ammonium production and fermentation of polysaccharides. Comparative analysis of 16SrRNA gene sequences revealed that L-PB424 was closely related to Lysinibacillus manganicus DSM 26584 strain Mn1-7 (98.76%), on the other hand strain P-PB466 was closely related to Pseudomonas songnenensis strain NEAUST5-5. This research paper is a study in evaluation and variety of possible halophlic/halotolerant bacterial strains in salt-affected soils of block Ashabutter khair forest in Punjab North zone in India. The use of Halophilic bacteria in saline soil is interesting for future analysis and biotechnological development.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anatomization of Soil Fertility Status of Chaka Block, Yamuna River Bank, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh, India

Iska Srinath Reddy, Arun. A. David, P. Srinidhi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 27-34
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1430500

The present investigation was carried at Sam Higginbottom university of Agriculture Technology and Sciences in the department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry lab. In this study, a total of 24 soil samples were collected from eight different villages on 01 November 2020 in Chaka block of Prayagraj district and from each village 3 soil samples were collected and analyzed for their Physico-chemical parameters by using standard laboratory techniques. According to the critical limits of soil nutrients the results observed, 70 to 80% soil samples were in low to medium range for  Nitrogen (N) (51-648 kg ha-1), Phosphorus (P) (0 – 48 kg ha-1) and Potassium (K) (78.4 – 392 kg ha-1). The micro-nutrients (Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu) of soil samples are observed deficiency range due to inverse relationship with pH i.e., increase in pH causes reduction in availability of Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu. According to the Nutrient Index Values,   Chaka block was found to be medium category for Organic carbon (2.25), Nitrogen (1.70), Phosphorous (2.29), and Manganese (1.70). Low category was found in Potassium (1.37), Sulphur (1.29), Zinc (1.08) and Iron (1.41). High category was found in Copper (2.66). The results showed that  improvement has to be done for improving soil fertility and quality by practicing the improving cropping pattern, decomposition of organic waste, mulching and tillage practices.

Open Access Original Research Article

Socio-Economic Profile, Motivational Sources and Reason behind Joining the Farmer Producer Companies by the Dairy Farmers in India

Sunil Kumar, Gopal Sankhala, Priyajoy Kar, Devendra Kumar Meena

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 35-44
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1430501

Collective action approaches plays a significant role in solving marketing problems like providing the remunerative price of the product, eliminates the intermediaries from the agriculture value chain, and enhance the direct marketing between farmers and consumers. In these references, a new collective action approach being popularised in India i.e., farmer producer company. So, it is important to study the socio-economic characteristics of dairy farmers, motivational factors, and the reasons behind joining the FPCs. Hence a study was conducted from January 2020 at the three states i.e. Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, and Madhya Pradesh of India to investigate the socio-economic profile, motivational factors, and the reasons behind joining the FPCs among farmers. Primary data was collected through a semi-structured interview schedule using a sample of 360 farmers selected from twelve dairy-based FPCs of three states. Data were analyzed through frequency, range, and percentage. It was found that most farmers were middle-aged, possess small landholding, educated up to graduate level. The most important reason behind taking the membership of FPCs was to enhance the family income through FPCs, better price realization by FPCs, and quick payment settlement. Due to the above reasons, most of the farmers want to join FPCs in study areas. The result of the present study helps to enhance the membership of farmer Producer Company through formulating a suitable strategy that should attract the farmer to joining the farmer producer company. This also helps to identify the motivation sources and their credibility among farmers for convincing them for joining FPCs. It was also found that the participation of farmers in dairy-based farmer producer companies is largely dependent on the socio-economic characteristics of the dairy farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Productivity Enhancement of Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica L.) through Critical Agronomic Interventions under Southern Agro-Climatic Zone of Andhra Pradesh

Karanam Navya Jyothi, V. Sumathi, D. Subramanyam, P. Sudhakar, T. Giridhar Krishna, G. Karuna Sagar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 45-51
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1430502

A field experiment was conducted during kharif, 2016 and 2017 at S.V. Agricultural College farm, Tirupati to study the influence of spacing, nutrient and weed nutrient management practices on growth and yield of foxtail millet. Significant effects were noticed on growth and yield components viz., plant height, number of panicles m-2, weight of the panicle, grain weight panicle-1, grain and straw yield of foxtail millet. Among different plant geometries tried, closer spacing of 20 cm x10 cm registered taller plants, higher number of panicles m-2, higher grain and straw yield, where as the weight of the panicle, grain weight panicle-1 were found to be highest with 30 cm x10 cm. Among the micronutrient management practices, foliar application of ZnSO4@ 0.5% twice at the time of flowering and at grain filling stage along with 100% RDF registered taller plants as well as higher grain yields.Hand weeding at 20 DAS and 30 DAS outperformed other weed management practices. This was followed by pre-emergence application of butachlor @ 1 kg a.i ha-1 with one hand weeding at 30DAS.The study concluded that the closer spacing of 20cmx 10cm, foliar application of ZnSO4 at the time of flowering and 20 days after flowering along with RDF and hand weeding twice at 20 DAS and 30 DAS resulted in higher productivity of foxtail millet.

Open Access Review Article

Integrated Pest Management In Coffee

Jeniffer Ribeiro De Oliveira, Weslley do Rosário Santana, Jalille Amim Altoé, Paula Abiko Navarro Carrion, Winy Galacho Baldan, Alex Silva Lima, Luã Víthor Chixaro Almeida Falcão Rosa, Raquel da Silva Gomes, André Cayô Cavalcanti, Alan de Lima Nascimento, Vinícius de Souza Oliveira

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 9-16
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1430496

Coffee (Coffea sp.) Is a crop of great economic relevance, it stands out as one of the most important agricultural commodities for the country. As with any other high value-added crop, coffee crops suffer from the attack of many pests, and proper management of these pests is critical to successful production. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a pest management system that associates the environment and population dynamics of the pest, considers the use of all available plant protection methods and the integration of appropriate measures to maintain the population level of thepest below the level of damage in an economically, environmentally and ecologically viable way. The purpose of this literature review was to gather information on research involving the integrated management of pests in the coffee crop.

Open Access Review Article

Role of Selenium in Regulation of Plant Antioxidants, Chlorophyll Retention and Osmotic Adjustment under Drought Conditions: A Review

Zaffar Mahdi Dar, Mushtaq Ahmad Malik, Malik Asif Aziz, Amjad Masood, Ab. Rouf Dar, Shamshir ul Hussan, Zahoor A. Dar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 52-60
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1430504

Environmental change is ascending as one of the most unpredictable issue, the effects of which are observable as rise in the onset of regular abiotic stresses like no or irregular precipitation, ascend in worldwide normal temperature, floods and so on. Among all the abiotic stresses, drought stress has become a sector of interest for decades. Drought stress can be chronic in locations with low water accessibility or irregular precipitation during the time of plant development consequently decreasing its growth and yield through its impact on plant photosynthetic rate, increased load of reactive oxygen species, changes in plant water relations and so on. A great deal of examination has been done to study the varieties of changes in the plants at the morphological, physiological and cellular level to identify the methodologies for enhancing plant drought resistance. In this regard "selenium" (Se) is considered exceptionally significant for improving plant growth and development. Spraying drought stressed plants or pre-treating the seeds with low dosage of Se have been shown to be associated with upgraded plant drought resistance. The present study is aimed to frame a review on the regulation of plant defense system, chlorophyll retention and plant water relations so as to provide comprehensive understanding into the changes caused by the application of Se which inturn are liable for improved plant drought tolerance.