Open Access Method Article

Rapid Methods for Identification of Plant-Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria

Sangita Sahni, Bishun Deo Prasad

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 12-17
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1530506

The growing human population has put enormous pressure on agriculture to increase production and productivity, which has resulted in the widespread usage of agrochemicals. The indiscriminate use of agrochemicals has harmed soil fertility and resulted in significant environmental contamination, impacting human health. The discovery and implementation of bacterial isolates with Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) have enormous potential for reducing the usage of chemical fertilizers, insecticides, and herbicides. However, the identification of bacterial isolates is a prerequisite to utilize them for agricultural purposes. Traditional methods involve culturing microbes using a range of nonselective and selective enrichment methods, followed by biochemical confirmation among others. Traditional methods involve culturing microbes, followed by morphological biochemical confirmation etc. In the present investigation, we describe a fast and effective approach for isolating and identifying bacterial isolates, followed by phylogenetic analysis and submission to GenBank.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Precision Nitrogen Management through LCC on Nutrient Content and Uptake of Maize (Zea mays L.) under Temperate Conditions of Kashmir

Suhail Fayaz, Raihana Habib Kanth, Tauseef Ahmad Bhat, M. Anwar Bhat, Bashir Ahmad Alie, Zahoor Ahmad Dar, Zaffar Mehdi, Showkat Maqbool, Khalid Rasool

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1530505

Field experiment was conducted at Faculty of Agriculture, SKUAST-Kashmir, Wadura, Jammu and Kashmir during kharif seasons of 2019 and 2020 to assess the effect of precision nitrogen management through LCC on nutrient content and uptake of maize (Zea mays L.) under temperate conditions of Kashmir. The experiment comprised of three maize hybrids (SMH-2, Vivek-45 and Kanchan-517) assigned to main plots and seven Precision N management viz. nitrogen splits @ 20 and 30 kg N ha-1 managed through LCC (LCC scores of 3, 4 and 5), recommended nitrogen level and control in subplots. The treatments were replicated thrice in a split plot design. The results revealed that LCC ≤ 5 @ 30 kg N ha-1 recorded highest dry matter accumulation and periodic N uptake at all the stages of growth and highest P and K uptake by grain and straw at harvest. Further, highest dry matter accumulation and uptake of NPK was recorded in cultivar SMH-2 as compared to Vivek-45 and Kanchan-517 during 2019 and 2020 respectively. LCC based N application proved effective in increasing dry matter and nutrient content of maize hybrids.

Open Access Original Research Article

Soybean Physiology and Yield Response to Seed Rate and Sowing Method

S. Madhana Keerthana, R. Shiv Ramakrishnan, Nidhi Pathak, Dibakar Ghosh, G. K. Koutu, Sachin Nagre, A. S. Gontia, Radhesham Sharma, Ashish Kumar, Stuti Sharma, R. Vinoth, Vikash Jain

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 18-27
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1530507

The soybean crop is highly sensitive to climate change associated events viz., global warming, drought, and water-logging at the time of highly sensitive flowering and grain filling stage, causing a shortfall in production and supply of quality seed to the country. Under prevailing high-density planting, at the seed rate of 70 kg ha-1 and flatbed sowing method, plant growth is restricted due to limitation of radiation and nutrients. Hence, the seed rate and sowing method need revision in an era of climate change. Therefore, we hypothesized that adopting a lower seed rate under ridges and furrow sowing would improve seed yield and quality over the prevailing seed rate of 70 kg ha-1 and flatbed sowing method. In order to test our hypothesis, an experiment was conducted to study the effect of various seed rates and sowing methods on growth and productivity of soybean. Studies revealed that a seed rate of 70 kg ha-1 shows superiority in terms of seed yield (3873.70 kg ha-1) which was at par with 60 kg ha-1 (3359.40 kg ha-1). Lower seed rate of 60 kg ha-1 was superior in terms of seed yield per plant (8.99 g plant-1), biological yield (6310 kg ha-1), Harvest index (35.69%), dry matter accumulation in pods at 61 DAS (1.74 g). Ridges and furrow sowing method was found superior for biological yield (26.33 g plant-1) and (6958.90 kg ha-1), dry matter accumulation in pods at 61 DAS (1.84 g), Leaf Area Duration at 71 DAS (19535.00 cm2.days). Interaction studies revealed that 60 kg ha-1 seed rate with ridge and furrow stand superior in terms of seed yield per plant 10.65 g plant-1 which was attributed to maximum harvest index (29.58%), dry matter accumulation in pod at 61 DAS (2.13 g), Leaf Area Duration at 71-81 DAS (22069.00 cm2.days). In contrary, highest seed yield(4018.89 kg ha-1) was observed for seed rate of 70 kg ha-1 with flat bed sowing. Hence it can be concluded that, under low productive environment the efficient dry matter accumulation, leaf area development and number of branches under low density planting will not compensate for the higher plant stand induced yield increment due to high density planting. Therefore, higher seed rate of 70 kg/ha with ridge and furrow sowing will be recommended to the farmers to get higher yield of soybean under rainfed and low productive environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Treated Sewage Water Irrigation on Yield and Quality of Mulberry

M. Arun Kumar, S. Chandrashekhar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 28-35
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1530508

Aim: Evaluation of raw and treated sewage water irrigation on yield and quality of V1 mulberry.

Study design: The Experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications and six treatments comprises of different proportions of raw sewage water, treated sewage water and borewell water.

Place and duration of study: The study was conducted during Rabi 2019 in pre-established irrigated V1 mulberry garden at Department of Sericulture, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

Results: Data recorded on quality parameters of mulberry revealed that raw sewage water irrigation significantly increased the leaf nutrient content such as N (3.68%), P (0.4%), K(1.91%), S (0.34%), Zn (30.08 ppm), Mn (103.75 ppm), Fe (373.75 ppm) and also leaf yield (804.31 g/plant) is significantly increased in 100% raw sewage water irrigation, whereas higher leaf Ca (2.06%) and Mg (0.71%) content was recorded in 100% borewell water irrigated plot, and the lowest leaf N (2.82%), P (0.28%), K (1.33%), S (0.17%), Zn (18.03 ppm), Mn (75.75 ppm), and Fe (336.5 ppm) content was found lower in 100% borewell water irrigation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Irrigation Levels and Plant Growth Regulators on Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) under Poly House

. Anita, R. K. Narolia, S. R. Bhunia, P. K. Yadav

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 36-41
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1530509

An experiment was conducted during the winter season of 2017-18 at College of agriculture, Bikaner to study the effect of irrigation levels and plant growth regulators on Cucumber under naturally ventilated Poly house condition. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with three replications. The treatments comprised of four drip irrigation levels (0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 ETc or crop evapotranspiration) assigned to main plots and three plant growth regulators viz; water spray, NAA or Naphthalene Acetic acid (100 ppm) and GA3 (50 ppm) assigned to sub plots. The objectives of this study were to find out the effects of irrigation levels as well as plant growth regulators on yield attributes of cucumber and their interactions. Results indicated that earliness i.e. days to first flowering (35.40) and first harvest (52.00) were recorded maximum with 1.0 ETc as compared to other irrigation levels. The same treatment (1.0 ETc) significantly gave maximum fruit length (21.07 cm), number of fruits per vine (12.02), fruit weight (103.29 g), fruit yield (728.76 q ha-1) and net returns (765035.9 ha-1) with B:C ratio (2.46). However, water use efficiency (3.61 q ha-1 cm-1) was found maximum with 0.4 ETc. Among various plant growth regulators GA3 (50 ppm) recorded significantly higher yield attributes namely fruit length (21.63 cm), number of fruits per vine (12.34), fruit weight (99.48 g) and fruit yield (729.23 q ha-1). Water use efficiency, net returns and B:C ratio also exhibited higher values (2.57 q ha-1 cm-1, 765307.7ha-1 and 2.46, respectively) with same treatment. Similarly, earliness i.e. days to first flowering (34.19) and days to first harvest (50.70) were recorded with GA3. The treatment combination 0.8 ETc + GA3 (50 ppm) gave maximum value for fruit yield (793.93 q ha-1) per hectare.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Paddy Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Morphological Characteristics to Nitrogen Fertilizers in Taveta, Kenya

Isaac Righa Chawana, James Gacheru, Marianne Maghenda, Justin Maghanga, Anne Kelly Kambura, John Kimani, Mwamburi Mcharo

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 42-50
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1530510

This study investigated the effect of applying nitrogenous fertilizers on the morphological traits in six paddy rice varieties in Taveta, Kenya. The six paddy rice varieties, including local control, were tested during the 2018 and 2019 seasons. The experiments were laid out in a split-plot design with three replications. The main plot was the fertilizer treatment while the subplot was the varieties tested including NIBAM-11, K2-9, MWIR-2, R-1081, Silewa, and a local control Saro. The fertilizer treatments were no fertilizer, farm yard manure (FYM) alone, FYM+Urea fertilizer, and FYM+CAN fertilizer. Significant differences (P < 0.05) among varieties were observed for all the morphological traits that were assessed. Silewa was the tallest plant (111 cm), had the highest number of grains per panicle (163), and also the highest 1000-grain weight (29.2 g). Fertilizer treatments had significant effects on plant height, leaf length, number of tillers, panicle length, and number of grains per panicle. FYM+Urea resulted in the highest number of grains per panicle while FYM alone resulted in the highest 1000- grain weight (25.56 g). Varieties significantly interacted with fertilizers for the number of grains per panicle. Leaf length had significant direct association with 1000-grain weight (r = 0.427) and grains per panicle (r = 0.874). It can be recommended that there is an opportunity to use farm yard manure alone or in combination with an inorganic fertilizer to improve yield traits while reducing dependence on inorganic fertilizers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Salinity Dynamics in Subsoiled Soils of the Northwest of the Argentine Pampean Plain

Roberto R. Casas, Juan E. Baridón

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 51-59
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1530511

Aims: The objective of the present work was to evaluate the annual evolution of the electrical conductivity and the reaction of the soil, in a Natraqualf of the northwest of the Argentine Pampean Plain, treated with a subsoiler and sowing of wheatgrass.

Methodology: Four treatments were established in plots of 400 m2: natural pasture; pasture with wheatgrass (Thynopirum ponticum); natural pasture with subsoiling and wheatgrass pasture with subsoiling. Soil samples were extracted at depths of 0-15 cm, 15-30 cm and 30-45 cm, in January, April, July and October. The edaphic parameters analyzed were: pH, electrical conductivity and bulk density. In October, the dry matter production was determined by treatment. The monthly variation of the depth of the groundwater and its chemical characteristics was measured.

Results: The depth of the water table fluctuated between 1.30 m and 0.70 m. The implantation of wheatgrass combined with subsoiling produced a decrease in electrical conductivity from 23.7 dS.m-1 to 3.4 dS.m-1 at 0-15 cm, and from 18.3 dS.m-1 to 7.9 dS.m-1 at 15-30 cm. Soil pH decreased almost one unit in the first 30 cm of depth of the treatments that included wheatgrass. The bulk density was reduced from 1.39 to 1.03 g.cm-3 in the treatment with subsoiling and wheatgrass, and 1.09 g.cm-3 in the wheatgrass treatment without subsoiling. The salt concentration and reaction of the soil at more than 30 cm did not show significant changes in the course of the work.

Conclusion: The implantation of wheatgrass, combined with the use of a “mole plow” subsoiler, in the studied soil, produces a significant decrease in the salt content and soil pH in the first 30 cm of depth. At more than 30 cm the salt concentration and reaction of the soil is determined by the groundwater.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determining the Tolerance of Selected Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Genotypes to Drought and Salinity using Chlorophyll, Phenol and Yield as Screening Tools

M. B. Abiola, O. J. Oyetunji

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 60-73
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1530512

Aims: To ascertain and compare the tolerance of the selected cassava (Manihot esculenta) genotypes to drought and salinity using chlorophyll, total phenolic acid content and yield attributes as the screening parameters.

Study design: The design was factorial consisting of ten cassava genotypes, three treatments (and control) with six replications laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD).

Place and duration of study: Department of Botany, University of Ibadan, between January and July, 2019.

Methodology: There were a total of 240 experimental units, 60 units in each group. It was semi-field as the plants were potted, treatments controlled while still exposed to natural environmental factors such as direct sunlight, air etc. All plants were watered for 6 weeks before exposing them to the physiological stresses of drought (D), salinity (S) and their interaction (D×S). The designated plants were subjected to S by applying 100mM of NaCl solution, D by with-holding water for 2wks interval, (D×S) by combining the two stresses and the first block (the first 60 units) serve as control.

Results: With respect to total chlorophyll content (TCC) at the final stage, the highest TCC was synthesized by TMEB419 (42.84 mg/g) under drought (D), IBA120008 (48.23 mg/g) and (39.80 mg/g ) under salinity (S) and under drought and salinity (D×S) respectively while the least TCC was recorded in genotypes I070593 (4.37 mg/g) under D, I920326 (21.86 mg/g) under S and I098510 (15.65 mg/g) under D×S. With respect to total phenolic acid content (TPC), the most tolerant genotype was the salt-stressed I070593 (4.201 mg/g) among all the stressed genotypes and their controls while the least tolerant was combined stressed I980581 (1.89 mg/g). With respect to tuber yield (fresh weight), cassava genotype I980581 is the most tolerant in all the stresses (174g under D, 350g under S and 224g under D×S) while the least tolerant were TMEB693 (23.97g) under D, IBA120008 (39.53g) under S and I010040 (16.80g) under D×S.

Conclusion:  In conclusion, genotype I980581 is the most tolerant under all the stresses while the least tolerant were TMEB693 under D, IBA120008 under S and I010040 (D×S).

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Biofertilizers and Biochar on the Plant Growth and Productivity of Soybean (Glycine max)

Saiteja Atluri, Deepshikha Thakur, Dinesh Bukke, Naleeni Ramawat

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 74-86
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1530513

The field experiment was conducted in Organic farm of Amity university Noida, Uttar Pradesh, during the kharif season, to evaluate the sole and conjoint effect of biofertilizers and biochar on the yield, growth and productivity of Soybean (Glycine max). The five treatments viz. T1 (Control), T2 (Biochar), T3 (Biochar + Rhizobium), T4 (Biochar + Azospirillum) and T5 (Biochar + Rhizobium + Azospirillum) were used. Plant growth parameters like shoot length, root length, number of leaves, pod length, pod girth, plant height, crop yield and soil parameters were observed for the effect of various treatments. Among the all treatments the treatment T3 (Biochar with Rhizobium) maximum shoot length (52.30), root length (17.30) followed by T4 (Biochar + Azospirillum) and plant productive are maximum mean of number of pods was recorded in T3 (Biochar + Rhizobium) i.e. 32.6, whereas minimum (30.1) was recorded in T1(control) followed by T4(Biochar + Azospirillum) i.e.32.41, T5 (Biochar + Rhizobium + Azospirillum) i.e. 31.05 and T2 (Biochar) i.e.31.31   has shown significant effect on plant growth characters and plant yield. These results indicate that the   conjoint use of biochar and Rhizobium have potential to enhance the crop performance and simultaneously improves the soil properties for sustainable farming without reliance on synthetic agrochemicals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Constraints Encountered by Rural Youth for Establishment of Agri-Enterprises and Elicit Suggestions to Overcome Them

Md. Mubeena, T. Lakshmi, P. L. R. J. Praveena, A. V. Nagavani, B. Ramana Murthy

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 87-99
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1530514

India is with a high level of youth unemployment. Markets have insufficient jobs to absorb young job seekers. The purpose of the study was to identify constraints and suggestions that are faced by the rural youth who are engaged in agri-enterprises. A sample of 240 youth involved in agripreneurshipwasgiven questionnaires. The findings of the study indicated that the youth faced many challenges while establishing their agri-enterprises.The primary constraint faced by rural youth were economic constraints followed by technical constraints, psychological constraints, extension-related constraints, social constraints,and other constraints. The constraints perceived and the suggestions given by the rural youth for the establishment of agri-enterprises to overcome their constraints were observed and depicted.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Investigation of Whole Versus Sliced (Cut) Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Tubers Performance in Pankshin, North Central, Nigeria

S. T. Dayok, A. T. Gani, F. I. Fodim

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 100-104
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1530515

Potato is a highly perishable crop and storage facilities for the crop are also limited. Consequently, to keep planting materials (seed) from the end of one cropping season to the beginning of another pose a great challenge to growers. This study was conducted during the 2019 cropping season in Pankshin, Plateau state, Northern Guinea savanna zone, Nigeria to compare the performance of whole seed tubers (T1) and slice seed tubers (T2) of potato. The treatments were laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD), each replicated thrice. Individual plots have a dimension of 3 m x 5 m with distance of 1 m between blocks and 0.5m between plots. Parameters evaluated were rate of plant germination from cultivated tubers, plant height and fresh yield.  The data were analysed using T – test. Results showed that there was no significant difference between whole seed potato and sliced tuber seed for all the parameters tested.  This study suggests that in areas where seed tubers are scarce, growers should cut there potato seed tubers to enable them have more seeds for planting. Storage facilities should be provided to farmers by government and spirited individuals or groups in order to reduce the high costs of seeds for planting. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Phosphorus and Sulphur Application on Growth and Yield Attributes of Mungbean (Vigna radiata L)

Kamlesh Kumar Yadav, Vineet Kumar, . Raju, Anuj Kumar, Vipin Kumar Sagar, Sandeep Kumar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 105-111
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1530516

A field experiment was conducted during summer season of 2015 at the Crop Research Centre of Department of Agriculture, Mata Gujri College, Sri Fatehgarh Sahib to study Response of phosphorus and sulphur application on Growth and yield attributes of mungbean (Vigna radiata L). The number of plants in meter row length was recorded highest with the application of 40 kg /ha followed by 20 kg S/ha and control. The highest plant height was recorded with the application of 40 kg S/ha which was statistically at par with application of 20 kg S/ha it was significantly superior over the control during all observation stages of crop. However at 30 and 60 DAS, the number of branches per plant recorded maximum with the application of 40 kg P2O5/ha followed by 60 kg P2O5/ha and control. At harvest, the application of 60 kg P2O5/ha recorded highest number of branches per plant but was statistically at par with other levels of phosphorus. The maximum number of grains per pod was recorded with the application of 60 kg P2O5/ha which was statistically at par with 40 kg P2O5/ha. It was found that the pod length was maximum with the application of 40 kg S/ha followed by 20 kg S/ha and control. The maximum grain yield was recorded with the application of 60 kg P2O5/ha which was significantly superior to other treatments.