Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Iron and Aluminum on the Aggregate Stability of Some Latosols in Central and Southern Liberia (West Africa)

Georges Martial Ndzana, Louise Marie Bondje Bidjeck, Primus Azinwi Tamfuh, Alex Dortie Kolleh, Damien Henri Odigui Ahanda, Etienne Bekoa, Kashif Ali Kubar, Thierry Mamert Abodo Koa, Abdoulaye Amadou, Monique Abossolo-Angue Abane, Lucien Dieudonné Bitom

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 11-18
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1630517

Problem: Latosols of Liberia are marked by intense surface leaching, strong acidity, low soil organic matter (SOM) content, and low nutrients status, caused by low aggregate stability, which are limiting factors to crop production.

Aim: to evaluate the effect of soil organic carbon (SOC) different forms of Fe and Al on the aggregate stability of latosols.

Methodology: Composite surface (0-20 cm depth) samples of four latosols at different localities in Liberia (Lat1, Phebe; Lat2, Felela; Lat3, Salala; Lat4, Todee) were collected and analyzed for aggregate stability parameters and factors by standard laboratory methods.

Results: the studied soils are sandy clayey, very acidic and poor in SOC. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) ranges from 10.28 to 14.80−1. Dominant forms of Al and Fe are free Fe (Fed) and Al [1], followed by amorphous Fe (Feo) and Al (Alo) and chelated Fe (Fep) and Al (Alp). The highest levels of water dispersible clay (WDC) and clay dispersible index (CDI) in Lat1 and Lat2 implied that these two soils are less stable compared to Lat3 and Lat4. The Fe and Al in all forms seem to contribute to soil aggregate stability. The SOC, although very low, also contributes to soil aggregate stability. SOC correlated positively with WDC, CDI and ASC, indicating the impact of SOC both as an aggregating agent and as a dispersing agent, in contrast to previous studies.

Conclusion: The study reveals that Fe, Al and SOC are cementing materials which impact the aggregate stability in Latosols.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Sulphur-Supplying Ability of Soils to Support Plant Growth and Assessment of Relative Crop Response to Sulphur Application through Neubauer Technique

Sandip Hembram, Prabir Mukhopadhyay, Ganesh Das

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1630518

Sulphur plays a vital role in the nutrition of oilseeds and pulses. Along with nitrogen and phosphorus, it plays an important role in the formation of proteins  and is involved in the metabolic and enzymatic processes of all living cells. Several biological techniques have been studied in order to assess sulphur deficiency or sufficiency in different groups of sulphur fertilizer for achieving the optimum yield of crops of which Neubauer technique is generally considered as one such tool that can be used for piloting the sulphur supplying capacity of the soils to supplement its requirement for the establishment of the plant. Surface (0-15 cm) soil samples from typical rice and pulse growing fields spread over the dominant soil groups of West Bengal which belong under 16 identified soil series were collected for this study. In order to assess sulphur availability in soils Neubauer technique was employed. Under sulphur treatment, the lowest dry matter yield and uptake by shoot was recorded in Bankul soil. Among the soils, the lowest root dry matter yield at control treatment was recorded in patapahari soil and the highest was in Hijalgara soil. A similar trend was also observed in case of S uptake by the shoot. While highest dry matter yield and maximum sulphur uptake by shoot was registered in Sukhnibasa and kusmi soil respectively. Likewise for N, P and K elements, the Neubauer technique may be used as one of the biological techniques for evaluating S response to crops as well as S supplying capacity of the soil to support plant growth.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of IFFCO Nanofertilizer on Growth, Grain Yield and Managing Turcicum Leaf Blight Disease in Maize

K. Ajithkumar, Yogendra Kumar, A. S. Savitha, M. Y. Ajayakumar, C. Narayanaswamy, Ramesh Raliya, M. R. Krupashankar, S. N. Bhat

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 19-28
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1630519

Nanoscience coupled with nanotechnology emerged as possible cost-cutting approach to prodigal farming and environmental clean-up operations. Hence there is a need for a more innovative fertilizer approach that can increase the productivity of agricultural systems and more environmental friendly than synthetic fertilizers. The trial was laid out in randomized complete block design with 11 treatments in three replications. The field experiment was carried out at Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur during Kharif seasons of 2019 and 2020. In this research, we studied the recent development and potential benefits derived from the use of nanofertilizers (NFs) in modern agriculture. Nanofertilizers facilitate slow and steady release of nutrients, thereby reduce the loss of nutrients and enhance the nutrient use efficiency. In the present study, the nanofertilizers such as IFFCO nanonitrogen (nano N), IFFCO nanocopper (nano Cu), IFFCO nanozinc (nano Zn) and IFFCO sagarika were sprayed to the maize crop in different combinations with recommended dose of fertilizers. Among the different combinations of nanofertilizers with recommended dose of fertilizers the treatment T11 [50% N, 100% PK, 0% Zinc + 2 sprays of IFFCO nano N (4ml/l) mixed with IFFCO Sagarika (2 ml/l)] showed significant effect on the growth and yield parameters with maximum yield of 58.90 q/ha and highest B:C of 2.99. Whereas, treatment T10 [50% N, 100% PK, 0% Zinc + 2 sprays of IFFCO nano N (4ml/l) mixed with nano Zn (2 ml/l) and IFFCO nano Cu (2ml/l)] was found superior with regard to management of Turcicum leaf blight disease with minimum of 18.20 per cent severity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Iron and Zinc on Yield Attributes, Yield and Economics of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Babulal Choudhary, P. K. Sharma, Rameshwr Lal Mandeewal, B. L. Verma, Mahipal Dudwal

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 29-35
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1630520

A field study was conducted during Rabi season of 2019-20 on “Response of Iron and Zinc on Yield Attributes, Yield and Economics of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)” at Research Farm of Vivekananda Global University, Jaipur. The treatments comprised different combinations of recommended dose of fertilizer and micronutrients. Results showed that the yield attributes and yield net returns and benefit cost ratio of wheat was significantly increased due to application of different treatment combinations of zinc and iron. The maximum number of effective tillers m-2, grains spike-1, spike length, grain yield (4887 kg ha-1), straw yield (6718 kg ha-1) and biological yield (11606 kg ha-1) of wheat was obtained with RDF + soil application of ZnSO4 @ 25 kg ha-1 + FeSO4 @ 50 kg ha-1 (T10). Application of RDF + soil application of ZnSO4 @ 25 kg ha-1 + foliar application of ZnSO4 (0.5%) at tillering stage (T6) gave highest net returns ( 65168 ha-1) and B: C ratio (2.83).

Open Access Original Research Article

Promotor Anchored - RAPD Analysis of Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica L.) Accessions Selected For High Iron and Zinc Content

Dhiraj Gangtire, Nakul D. Magar, Vaibhav Khelurkar, Mangesh P. Moharil, P. V. Jadhav, R. N. Katkar, R. B. Ghorade, P. Suprasanna

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 36-48
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1630521

Foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) is nutri-cereal crop having it is rich in β-carotene, vitamin B-complex and micronutrients like minerals. In the present research, we have studied biochemical properties and molecular profiling to identify the core set of foxtail millet (Setaria italic L.) accessions for high Iron (Fe) and Zinc (Zn) content. Total seventy-nine accessions and selected mutants variety PS4 of foxtail millet were used. The biochemical investigation revealed that accessions M2-106, IC120407, M3-61/HB-13, and IC120255 consist of high iron and zinc content. The genetic variability among the genotypes was revealed by 28 Promoter Anchored Amplified Polymorphic (PAAP-RAPD) primers of which OPE9+GC1, OPE9+CA1, UBC001+CA1, UBC001+TA1, UBC693+G1 showed 100% polymorphism, whereas UBC693+GC1 and OPE7+G1 showed 88% and 80% polymorphism, respectively, with an average of 45.95 % polymorphism. Total alleles per locus were 3.31, whereas, the average number of monomorphic and polymorphic alleles were 1.72 and 1.56, respectively. The extent of polymorphic information content (PIC) of PAAP-RAPD loci ranged from 0.5 to 0.87 with an average value of 0.41. For PAAP-RAPD, the maximum PIC value was observed in marker UBC693+GC1 (0.87 %) and the minimum were OPE5+CA1 and OPE9+CA1 (0.5 %). Molecular characterizations result showing highest similarity (0.932) between accessions Shrilakshmi and Prasad, whereas, the lowest similarity coefficient was observed between IC120255 and M3-75/AM-1 (0.697) with PS4.UPGMA dendrogram grouped the foxtail millet accessions in five clusters which marked high diversity in M3-61/HB-13 and M3-75/AM-1. It implies that PAAP-RAPD markers are significantly screened in the foxtail millet accessions and have enumerated high genetic diversity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening of Salt Tolerant Potato Genotypes using Salt Stress and Molecular Markers

Mir Jannatul Mawa, Md. Ashraful Haque, Mohammad Mehfuz Hasan Saikat, Shah Mohammad Naimul Islam

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 49-56
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1630522

Aims: To screen potato genotypes for salt tolerance using in vitro salt stress and moleulcar markers.

Experimental Design: The experiment was arranged in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications.

Place of the Study: The experiment was conducted at the Molecular Biology and Tissue Culture Laboratories, Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur, Bangladesh.

Methodology: In vitro screening of five potato genotypes (CIP 112, CIP 117, CIP 120, CIP 127, and CIP 128) was done in an agar medium using tissue culture technique at different concentrations of salt viz. 0.0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120 mM of NaCl. All genotypes were further analysed through SSR markers using three primers. The DNA bands were visualized on gel electrophoresis and scored for polymorphic loci, gene diversity, and genetic distance. NTSYSpc program was used for constructing  unrooted neighbor-joining tree and scatter diagram.

Results: Potato genotypes CIP 112 and CIP 117 emerged as the most salt tolerant genotypes with the highest plant height, shoot dry weight, root length, and root dry weight at different concentrations of NaCl. CIP 127 and CIP 128 were poorly tolerant to salt stress. The most sensitive genotype CIP 120 produced minimum plant height, shoot dry weight, root length, and root dry weight at different NaCl concentrations. Results indicated that significant differences were found among cultivars. The banding pattern of microsatellite confirmed a distinct polymorphism among salt tolerant, moderately salt tolerant and salt sensitive lines. The clustering pattern of the potato genotypes suggests that variations occur due to genotypic variation and possibly not epigenetic adaptation under salt stress conditions.

Conclusion: The salt tolerant pototo genotypes CIP 112 and CIP 117 can be used for developing salt tolerant genotypes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Finishing Properties of Poly Urethane Coating on Bleached and Ammonia Fumigated Mango Wood Surface

Sonia Panigrahi, Sandeep Rout, Gyanaranjan Sahoo, Sachin Gupta, V. S. Kishan Kumar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 57-67
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1630523

Aims: The impact of bleaching chemicals on the gloss and film thicknesses of poly urethane (PU) coated surface of mango wood (Mangifera indica) with ammonia fumigation and an exposure towards sunlight was investigated

Study Design:  Thirty six wood samples of size 10.6 cm (length) C 7.62 cm (width) were prepared from 2.5 cm thick kiln dried mango wood (Mangifera indica). Specimens were divided into six groups, each group having 6 samples for the study.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was carried out in year 2016 at the Laboratory of Forest Product Division, Forest  Research Institute, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India.

Methodology: All the samples were sanded with 80 grit size sand paper and coated with poly urethane.  Two chemicals were used for bleaching purpose like an aqueous solution of oxalic acid (H2C2O4) was prepared with 30% concentration (by mixing 42.9 g of the solute in 100 ml of hot water) and a commercially available Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was used as such (30%). For the purpose of bleaching, these chemicals were applied on to the sanded surfaces using brush at room temperature. The bleached sample surfaces were allowed to dry before proceeding to the next step. The PU (Poly Urethane) coated samples were treated with ammonia fumigation before and after bleached with the two chemicals. Ammonia fumigation was carried out in a fumigation chamber for 24 hours for all the samples (except T1).

Results: On exposure to natural sunlight for 60 hours, all the samples showed reduction in film thickness in PU coating but in a wide range of 2.8 % to 11.4%. The highest loss of coating thickness was shown by samples which were neither fumigated nor bleached. Among the fumigated samples, those bleached with oxalic acid resulted in high film thickness loss. Samples bleached with hydrogen peroxide after ammonia fumigation resulted in least film thickness reduction. Both ammonia fumigation and bleaching in general brought down the original gloss of poly urethane coating. The gloss value reduced as expected on exposure to sunlight. Bleaching by hydrogen peroxide prior to ammonia fumigation resulted in highest loss in gloss

    Conclusion: The un-fumigated and unbleached surface resulted in minimum gloss reduction due to long exposure to sunlight.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Delayed Time of Planting on Grain Yield and Agro-morphological Traits of Elite Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Varieties

Santrupta Manmath Satapathy, V. K. Srivastava, Prasanta Kumar Majhi, Suraj Gond

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 68-79
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1630524

Aims: The present investigation entitled “Effect of delayed time of planting on Yield and Agro-morphological traits of different Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Varieties” was conducted to estimate the grain yield performance of different rice varieties under delayed planting conditions in Varanasi region of Uttar Pradesh, India.

Study Design: The experiment was laid in a Split plot design with three replications, consists of four elite rice varieties (HUR-3022, DRR-44, HUR-4-3, and HUR-105) as sub plot factor and three dates of planting (05/09/2018, 13/08/2018 and 20/08/2018) as main plot factor. Hence a total number of 12 treatments were allotted in the whole design.

Place and Duration of Study: The field trial was conducted during Kharif-2018 at Agricultural research farm under Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh.

Methodology: Materials for the studies consist of four elite rice varieties (V1- HUR-3022, V2- DRR-44, V3- HUR-4-3, and V4- HUR-105) as sub plot factor and three dates of planting (D1- 05/09/2018, D2- 13/08/2018 and D3- 20/08/2018) as main plot factor. The biometric observations were taken from the field at a regular interval of 30, 60 and 90 days after planting (DAP) and during crop harvest. The yield attributes were recorded before, during and after harvest of the crop as per the need.

Results: The variety DRR-44 was found to be a best performer on planting date 06.08.2018 and recorded significantly higher yield of 3.8 t/ha followed by HUR-3022 (2.4 t/ha) and HUR-105 (1.64 t/ha).

Conclusion: Rice varieties sown in the field showed highest grain yield when sown on 6th August as compared to 13th and 20th August. As the dates of planting delayed crop yield subsequently decreased. Higher yield level in rice can be confirmed by adjusting the planting dates with the proper climatic conditions. So that the crop phenology can coincide with the suitable weather condition to boost the photosynthetic efficiency and ultimately increase the grain yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Integrated Nutrient Management on Fodder Dual Purpose Oat (Avena sativa L.)

Vikram Shiyal, H. K. Patel, P. H. Rathod, P. M. Patel, C. H. Raval, A. P. Patel

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 80-86
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1630525

Aim: To study the effect of integrated nutrient management (INM) on growth, yield and quality of dual purpose fodder oat.

Study Design: Randomized Block Design.

Place and Duration of Study: Anand Agricultural University, Anand during Rabi 2019-2021.

Methodology: The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with four replications. The experimental treatments were consisted of ten INM treatments viz., T1 (100% recommendation dose of fertilizer; RDF’ 80-40-00 kg NPK/ha), T2 (10 t FYM/ha + 100% RDF), T3 (castor cake/ha + 100% RDF), T4 (poultry manure/ha + 100% RDF), T5 (neem cake/ha + 100% RDF), T6 (5 t FYM + 25% RDN from FYM + 75% RDF + biofertilizer), T7 (5 t FYM + 25% RDN from castor cake + 75% RDF + biofertilizer), T8 (5 t FYM + 25% RDN from poultry manure + 75% RDF + biofertilizer), T9 (5 t FYM + 25% RDN from neem cake + 75% RDF + biofertilizer) and T10 (50% RDN from FYM + 50% RDN from castor cake + biofertilizer). Amount of castor cake, poultry manure and neem cake were applied based on 10 t FYM/ha equivalent N, i.e., respectively 1.45, 3.23 and 3.27 t/ha.

Results: The results revealed that quality parameters of fodder oat such as dry matter, dry matter yield, crude protein, ADF, NDF, crude fiber contents as well as ash content of green fodder and straw were found significant superior with application of T6 and T10 treatments. Similarly, NPK content and their uptake into the seed and straw were also found significantly higher with the same treatments. The physicochemical and biological properties of experimental field soil at harvest of oat crop were also considerably improved due to application of INM treatment as compared to initial soil nutrient status.

Open Access Original Research Article

Establishment of Alternative Season for Cultivation of Photoperiod-Sensitive Traditional Rice Cultivars

Monish Roy, Bidhan Roy

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 93-107
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1630529

Aims: To find out the suitable time for cultivating the photoperiod-sensitive rice cultivars during off-season.

Study Design:  Randomized Block Design.

Place and Duration of Study: University Research Farm, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar 736165, West Bengal, India. Experiments were conducted during Boro 2017 and Kharif 2018.

Methodology: Forty nine cultivars were sown in seed beds on 28th November, 2017 for cultivation of the Boro crop and sowing was done on 30th June, 2018 for cultivation of Kharif crop. Seedlings were transplanted in randomized block design with two replications. Row to row spacing was 30 cm and plant to plant spacing was 20 cm. Standard agronomic practices compatible to the humid tropic of Terai Zone were practiced. Ten random plants from each plot were selected for recording data. Observations were recorded on yield and yield attributing parameters.

Results: High significant variation was observed for all the characters under study indicating the presence of high variability among the selected cultivars. Only the test weight between the two seasons had insignificant difference representing that there was no effect of seasons on this character. Time of sowing was standardized for sowing of the traditional cultivars in alternative season- Boro. The yield ranged from 0.35 t/ha to 2.68 t/ha during Boro and from 2.67 t/ha to 8.48 t/ha during Kharif. Ronga Komal (2.68 t/ha), Kauka (2.65 t/ha), Jaldhyapa (2.54 t/ha), Chakhao Angangbi (2.07 t/ha), Kaloboichi (1.87 t/ha), Kalturey (1.85 t/ha), Chakhao-Selection-2 (1.59 t/ha), Chakhao-Selection-1 (1.46 t/ha), Chakhao Sempak (1.43 t/ha) and Chakhao-Selection-3 (1.42 t/ha) performed well during Boro season.

Conclusion: Ronga Komal, Kauka, Jaldhyapa, Chakhao Angangbi, Kaloboichi, Kalturey, Chakhao-Selection-2, Chakhao-Selection-1, Chakhao Sempak and Chakhao-Selection-3 performed well during Boro season. Consequently, those above varieties may be recommended for cultivation during Boro season.

Open Access Original Research Article

To assess the Character Association and Path Analysis in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Germplasm Lines Grown under Late Sown Condition

Subhadra Pattanayak, Gabrial M. Lal, Velugoti Priyanka, Avneeshmani Tripathi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 108-114
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1630530

A set of twenty one chickpea genotypes were grown and asses to know the amount of genetic variability, genetic association seed yield and thirteen quantitative traits, direct and indirect effect of yield contributing characters on seed yield. Correlation coefficient analysis revealed that seed yield per plant exhibited positive and significant association with 50% pod setting and plant height at genotypic and phenotypic levels. Correlation coefficient analysis revealed that seed yield per plant exhibited positive and significant association with 50% pod setting and plant height at genotypic and phenotypic levels. Path analysis revealed that characters such as plant height, number of primary branches, number of seeds per pod, hundred seed weight, biological yield and harvest index have positive direct effect on seed yield per plant at genotypic level.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diversity Analysis in Biofortified Inbred Lines of Maize (Zea mays L.)

Priyanka Jaiswal, . Banshidhar, . Banshidhar, Dan Singh Jakhar, Rajesh Singh

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 115-123
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1630531

Thirty biofortified inbred lines of maize were evaluated for 11 parameters to study the genetic diversity by using D2 statistics during kharif 2017in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications at Agricultural Research farm, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, BHU Varanasi. In present investigation all genotypes were grouped into ten cluster. Among the different clusters of inbred lines, the cluster II with 8 inbreds emerged as the largest cluster. The intra cluster D2 value ranged from 10.82 to 44.89. The maximum intra cluster distance was observed for cluster X (D2 = 44.89). The maximum inter cluster distance was observed between cluster V and VI (D2 = 180.90) followed by cluster V and VII (D2 = 166.10), cluster IV and V (D2 = 155.60), cluster V and VIII (D2 = 135.02) and cluster I and VI (D2 = 127.66). The maximum contribution towards divergence was due to 100 seed weight (52.18%), thus, estimates of variation in seed weight could be used as a basis for selection of distantly related parents. Highest mean value for grain yield per plant (80.8) and Zn concentration (39.53) were observed in cluster IV, while the highest mean value for 100 seed weight was found in cluster V. Therefore, these clusters prove to be of prime importance for selection of parents in hybridization programme aimed at higher yield along with enhanced grain Zn concentration.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Cultivars and Nitrogen Fertilizer Rates and Application Mode on Yields and Quality Parameters of Ratoon Sugarcane in Western Kenya

George O. Achieng, P. Okinda Owuor, Chrispine O. Omondi, Gordon O. Abayo

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 124-137
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1630532

Productivity of sugarcane in Kenya has declined despite use of recommended production practices including introduction of elite high yielding and early maturing sugarcane varieties. Farmers continue to use recommended agronomic inputs for the old low yielding and late maturing varieties on these elite varieties. Nitrogen fertilizer rates in single or split doses for old varieties are still in use yet their appropriateness on new varieties remains untested culminating to decline in sugarcane productivity in Kenya. Currently, cane payment is based on delivered milling cane weight. The industry plans to change payment to a combination of quality and yields. Influence of agronomic inputs and timing of harvesting period on proposed mode of payment is unknown. Harvesting age in western Kenya remains 18-20 months after ratooning (MAR). However, optimal age that combines quality and yields is not documented. Influence of these agronomic practices on quality, yields and optimal harvesting age of ratoon crop of new (D8484) and old (CO421) varieties were evaluated in a 2x4x3 split-split-plot design replicated three times. Four rates of nitrogen as urea, all applied at 3 MAR, split once (50-50%) and applied at 3 and 6 MAR or split three times (40-30-30%) and applied at 3, 6 and 9 MAR were evaluated. Yields and quality parameters were monitored from 10th-24th MAR. Variety D8484 out-yielded (p≤0.05) CO421 throughout demonstrating its superiority. Yields reached maximum at 20 and 19 MAR for CO421 and D8484, respectively. Maximum pol and brix were attained at 18 and 15 MAR for CO421 and D8484, respectively, while commercial cane sugar (CCS) was maximum at 18 and 17 MAR for CO421 and D8484, respectively. Results demonstrated that for high returns, D8484 should be harvested between 15-18 MAR while CO421 between 17-19 MAR. The 60 kg N/ha, that produced higher (p≤0.05) output in both varieties, from 16th MAR is recommended for both varieties. Split fertilizer application did not affect productivity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morphometric Analysis of Khag Micro-Watershed in North-West Himalayas of Kashmir Using GIS and Remote Sensing Techniques

Rajnish Yadav, Mohammad Iqbal Bhat, Faisul-Ur- Rasool, Shabir Ahmed Bangroo, Roheela Ahmad, Twinkle Rachel George, Prem Kumar Bharteey

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 138-155
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1630533

Morphometric analysis is of vital importance in any hydrological research and is inevitable in development and management of watershed. Using the watershed as the main unit of morphometric characterization is the most logical choice, as well as geomorphological and hydrological processes take place within the drainage basin. A critical assessment and evaluation of morphometric parameters of Khag micro-watershed was accomplished through measurement of relief, linear and aerial aspects using Geographical Information System (GIS). The watershed boundaries, aspect, slope, digital elevation model (DEM), profile graph of topography, drainage order and drainage density mapswere generated for detailed study of micro-watershed using Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) data. The study area was designated as fourth order basin with the drainage area of 34.32 km2 and shows dendritic drainage pattern. The total length, drainage density and mean bifurcation ratio (Rb) were found to be 38.84 km, 1.13km/km2 and 1.73, respectively. The Khag micro-watershed showed the greater Rb value, which directs a strong structural control in the runoff pattern. A decrease in the stream frequency of flow was also observed with an increase in the order of flow. The shape parameters such as circulatory ratio, elongation ratio, length of over land flow, form factor and drainage texture of Khag micro-watershed were 0.42, 0.56, 0.43 km, 0.24 and 1.66, respectively. The Khag micro-watershed is elongated in shape and dendritic in drainage pattern. This can be attributed to the fact that the lithology and structural controls are more or less uniform. Relative relief and ruggedness number were 0.065 and 2.39 and are likely to subject the micro watershed to maximum soil erosion that demands, instantaneous soil conservation measure to be taken by watershed managers for its stability and sustainability. These studies area advantageous for the planning of rainwater harvesting and the management of the catchment area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Agro-Morpho-Pedological Evaluation of Soils under Hevea in Marginal Zones: The Case of the Departments of Man and Toumodi

Koffi Antoine, Essehi Jean Lopez, Soro Dogniméton, Diomandé Métangbo, Kouakou Boukhamy Wilson Lewis, Konan Djézou, Obouayeba Samuel

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 156-169
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1630534

Among the ecological conditions of the environment allowing profitable rubber cultivation, rainfall and the physico-chemical characteristics of the soil are the most important. With this in mind, a study on the adaptability of rubber trees to new agro-morphopedological zones was conducted in the departments of Man and Toumodi. The methodology used to achieve this objective is the realization of pedological pits coupled with physico-chemical laboratory analyses. The open soil profiles reveal that the soils belong mainly to the Ferralsols class with distinctive characteristics, except for those of Kimoukro which belong to the Cambisols class. The Toumodi soils, with a sandy-clay texture (15-35% clay), have a high content of coarse sand (over 40%) and good internal drainage in the surface horizons. They are less dense (≤ 1 g/cm3), with a high coarse element load (40%). These soils are chemically rich with a slightly acidic pH. For the Man soils, the sandy-clay texture, with more than 50% clay, from surface to depth, was the most representative fraction. The coarse element load (≥ 50%) and bulk density (≥ 1.5 g/cm3) were more important. These strongly acidic soils are rich in nitrogen and carbon. Exchangeable bases and CEC are important, mainly, in the upper horizons. In addition, the soil profiles observed in these two departments revealed two major pedogenetic processes: reworking and rejuvenation. At the agronomic level, vegetative growth and rubber production of rubber trees were better in Man than in Toumodi. The physico-chemical characteristics of the soils indicate that the departments of Man and Toumodi are favorable for rubber cultivation, although the soils in Man department are more suitable for cultivation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Invigoration Treatment of Different Soaking Periods on Germination Performance of Bottle Gourd Seeds

Kranti M. Pawar, Prashant Kumar Rai

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 170-188
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1630535

This present experiment was conducted in a Seed Testing laboratory, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding SHUATS, Allahabad, UP during 2021 with bottle gourd, in order to standardize the best method of invigoration of priming specific to bottle gourd. method of priming viz., halopriming were evaluated by screening a different range of durations and chemical concentrations viz., T0 – Unprimed seeds (control), T₁ - 50 ppm KNO3 (Potassium Nitrate) for 12 hrs, T₂ - 50 ppm KNO3 for 18 hrs, T₃-100 ppm KNO3 for 12 hrs, T₄- 100 ppm KNO3 for 18 hrs, T₅-125 ppm KNO3 for 12 hrs, T₆- 125 ppm KNO3 for 18 hrs. Treated seeds were placed in between germination paper and in sand at control condition where data was subjected to factorial experiment laid out in completely randomised design (CRD). In which it was found that 6th treatment 125 ppm KNO3 for 18 hrs., has the significant result as compared to all the treatments with the control, the highest germination %, seedling length, weight and vigor index I & II. This study showed that Seed priming with KNO3 found to increase the seed quality parameters. In the present study proved market price- effective and most economical method. This study helps to improve the quality and performance of seeds with the help of seed priming treatments which have effect on market price and economic, non-toxic, eco-friendly sources.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Different Types of Fertilizers on Rice Productivity in the Irrigated Perimeter of Toula (Niger)

Djabri Hassimiou Halidou, Maman Manssour Abdou, Zoubeirou Alzouma Mayaki

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 189-200
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1630536

AIM: Assessment of various fertilizers type effects on rice productivity in Niger.

Study Design: The experiment was laid by using a complete randomized block design with different types of fertilizers and was replicated four times.

Place and Duration of Study: The field experiment was conducted during the dry and wet season of 2020 on the irrigated perimeter of Toula (Niger).

Methodology: The experiment was performed with four treatments in complete randomized blocks. The treatments applied are: T1=Bokashi, T2=Compost, T3=Biochar and T4=NPK-Urea. The monitored parameters were the rice plant development cycle and agronomic characteristics. Observations of the crop evolution during the experimentation were recorded at regular intervals. The significance of treatment impact was examined by the statistical test. 

Results: The results showed that bio-fertilizers had significant effects on 1000 grain weight and the length of the vegetative cycle. As for the chemical treatments, the effects were significant on most of the rice growth parameters (height, number of grains per panicle, number of tillers per rice plant) as well as on paddy and feed biomass yield. These results also showed a positive correlation between rice growth parameters and yield irrespective of the type of treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phenotypic and Genetic Study on Native Pigeonpea Germplasm of Chhattisgarh for Yield Attributing Traits

Vipin Kumar Pandey, M. K. Singh, Prakriti Meshram, Vishal Kumar Gupta, Namita Singh, Ashish Kumar Banjare

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 201-212
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1630537

Aims: To find out genetic variation of pigeon pea Germplasms population on Chhattisgarh, with H. armigera, M. vitrata Larvae Population.

Study Design: Augmented RBD Design in 4 block with 3 check varieties.

Place and Duration of Study: College of Agriculture Raipur, IGKVV, Chhattisgarh. During Kharif 2019-2020.

Methodology: The experimental materials were used 100 local landraces of Pigeonpea and three popular standard checks. The Morphological observations on various agro-morphological characters including qualitative and quantitative characters and Incidence of major insects of Pigeonpea were recorded.

Results: outcome of the study reviled that Incidence of major insect of Pigeonpea 10 genotypes of pigeonpea are resistant and 10 are susceptible occurred. Analysis of variance indicated that the mean sum of squares due to genotypes were highly significant for all the characters with p-value of 0.001 and some traits check varieties 0.001. Results of genetic variability analysis state that’s highest genetic advance as percent of the mean for traits are days to fifty percent flowering, plant height, seed protein content, and days to maturity.

Conclusion: The Pigeonpea accession used in the study revealed significant variability for most of the morphological traits. Amongst the genotypes studied, high coefficients of variation were observed for most of the characters studied indicating the existence of sufficient variability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect on Yield and Rhizosphere Biota by use of Recommended Dose of Fertilizers in Combination with Biofertilizer Consortium on Rice Fallow Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. moench)

Kadapa Sreenivasa Reddy, Ch. Pulla Rao, M. Martin Luther, P. R. K. Prasad

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 213-219
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1630538

Aims: To evaluate the effect of manures in combination with biofertilizers consortium on  yield and rhizosphere biota in rice fallow sorghum

Study Design: The experiment was laid in a Randomized Block Design (RBD) with seven treatments and replicated thrice.

Place and Duration of Study: At Agricultural college farm, Agricultural college, Bapatla during Rabi, 2018-19.

Methodology: After the preliminary layout, Bio-fertilizer consortium contains 500ml each of Azospirillum, PSB and KRB in liquid form had been applied per acre along with Vermicompost @ 1 t ha-1 is used as carrier. A high yielding hybrid CSH-16 with a yield potential of 5 to 8 t ha-1 and matures in 110-120 days. Sowing was done manually by using a seed rate of 12 kg ha­­-1 and adopting a spacing of 45 cm x 15 cm raised well in advance in their respective treatments.

Results: Yield attributes, Grain yield and stover yields were obtained maximum with 125% RDF+ Biofertilizers consortium which was on par with 100% RDF+ Biofertilizers consortium. In case of Bacterial, fungal and actinomycetes population were also influenced significantly at harvest compared to initial population of the observed soil and recorded the highest population with 125% RDF+ Biofertilizers consortium treatment.

Conclusion: The fertilizer requirement with application of 125% RDF+ Biofertilizer can be recommended for coastal region of A.P under rice fallow rabi sorghum in no till conditions. As it resulted in high yield attributes, yields and significant improvement in rhizosphere biota for soil health enhancement.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phenotypic Characterization of Diverse Rice Fertility Restorers

S. Tiwari, G. K. Koutu, Y. Singh, N. Pathak

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 220-231
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1630539

Characterization of restorer lines of rice based on seedling and plant morphology contributes in assessment of varietal identity and further its utilization in development of hybrids. With this objective the work was carried over with 90 restorer lines with three replications during Kharif season 2018. The experiment conducted under Rice Improvement Project at Seed Breeding Farm, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur (M.P.).Out of 41  morphological traits as per DUS guidelines, variability was reported for all traits except leaf sheath anthocyanin colouration, presence of leaf auricle, presence of leaf collar, presence of leaf ligules, white colour of leaf ligules, absence of stem anthocyanin colouration of internodes, male sterility and presence of secondary branching in panicle. The genotypes Mahamaya, ANP-526 and ANP-553 revealed distinctness for most of the traits.

Open Access Original Research Article

In-vitro Efficacy of Fungicides against Rhizoctonia solani Causing Banded Leaf and Sheath Blight of Maize

Manashi Debbarma, Thangaswamy Rajesh, R. K. Tombisana Devi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 232-236
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1630540

An experiment was carried out to find out the in-vitro efficacy of systemic and contact fungicides against the pathogen of maize banded leaf and sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani f. sp. sasakii) by using poisoned food technique. The present experiment was conducted in College of Post Graduate Studies in Agricultural Sciences, Central Agricultural University, Umiam, Meghalaya for the evaluation of different fungicides against the pathogen R. solani f. sp. sasakii. Eight systemic (Carbendazim, Tebuconazole, Propiconazole, Myclobutanil, Azoxystrobin, Metalaxyl, Tricyclazole, Pyraclostrobin), three contact (Mancozeb, Captan and Chlorothalonil) and combination of systemic and contact fungicide (Carbendazim + Mancozeb) were used for the experiment with different concentrations. Among twelve fungicides, Carbendazim was found to be the most effective at concentration of 0.1 % with 95.96 % growth inhibition. Suimilarly, Metalaxyl at concentration of 0.28 % was found to be the least effective with growth inhibition of 55.55 %. The results showed significant differences between different fungicides to inhibit the growth of R. solani.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Biofumigation on Fusarium wilt of Eggplant caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melongenae

V. Govardhan Rao, D. N. Dhutraj, K. D. Navgire, K. T. Apet, C. V. Ambadkar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 237-245
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1630541

Eggplant is the most traditional vegetable crop in India and susceptible to a number of diseases, among which Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melongenae (FOM) that reduce yield and quality. The present study on effect of biofumigation on Fusarium wilt of eggplant caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melongenae under natural field conditions showed that the biocidal volatiles released by Brassica tissue incorporation decreased the wilt incidence greatly from 14.57(Radish) to 50.88(Mustard) per cent reduction over control and significantly enhanced the Yield 30.43 (Radish) to 51.95 (Mustard) per cent increase over control and also enhanced the yield parameters viz., leaf area (10.15 to 35.87), plant height(13.01 to 26.39), root length(23.10 to 49.29) per cent increase over control respective.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Potency of Unassociated Trichoderma spp and the Fungicides Antagonistic of the Late Blight of Potato by Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) De-Bary

Anuj Bansal, S. K. Biswas, Deepak Baboo, Vikram Singh

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 246-253
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1630542

The potato (Solanum tuberosum) is one of the most important vegetable crops in the world, belonging to the family Solanaceae and is an important starchy food crop in both sub-tropical and temperate regions. Potato plants are subjected to attack by numerous diseases wherever the crop is grown. Among them, late blight of potato caused by Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de-Bary is of major cause of concern in potato production at present. An experiment was conducted in the Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur. The antifungal activity of different fungicides was evaluated in-vitro through the food poison technique. The experimental finding showed that radial growth of mycelium of Phytophthora infestans was inhibited by fungicides over control. At 100 ppm, the minimum radial growth of mycelium was found in Equation Pro treatment as 5.3, 8.2, 11.4, 14.2, 16.2, 18.4 and 22.6 mm over control against 12.3, 19.1, 26.1, 35.9, 42.5, 51.4 and 64.8 mm at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 days after inoculation respectively. Similarly, at 500 and 1000 ppm the minimum radial growth of mycelium was found in Equation Pro treatment. Efficacy of bio-control agents on the radial growth of Phytophthora infestans was evaluated using Dual Culture Methods. Among the different concentrations, 1000 ppm was found most effective than 100 and 500 ppm. Among the different bio-agents, Trichoderma harzianum able to reduced maximum radial mycelial growth of fungus showing 4.6, 8.8, 10.1, 13.2, 15.6, 19.3 and 23.5 mm against 12.3, 19.1, 26.1, 35.9, 42.5, 51.4 and 64.8 mm at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 days after inoculation, respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Dry Matter Accumulation and Nutrient Uptake by Maize (Variety-MS 2) under Poplar Agroforestry System

Gyanaranjan Sahoo, Afaq Majid Wani, Pravat Kumar Roul, Asim Chandra Dash

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 254-260
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1630543

Aims: To evaluate the influence of farmyard manure, vermicompost, mustard oil cake, poultry manure, and inorganic fertilisers (N, P, K) on maize dry matter buildup and nutrient uptake by plants, as well as to demonstrate how maize may be produced in a poplar agroforestry system.

Study Design: Randomized block design.

Place and Duration of Study: Forest Nursery, College of Forestry, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh, India, between July 2019 – October 2019 and  July 2020 – October 2020.

Methodology: The research was laid out in Randomized Block Design replicated thrice with twelve treatments viz., T1 (Control), T2 (100% Recommended dose of fertilizer), T3 (75%) RDF), T4 (50%) RDF), T5 (75%) RDF + (25%) RDF through FYM), T6 (50%) RDF + (50%) RDF through FYM), T7 (75%) RDF + (25%) RDF through Mustard Oilcake, T8 (50%) RDF + (50%) RDF through Mustard Oilcake and T9 (75%) RDF + (25%) RDF through Vermicompost, T10 (50%) RDF + (50%) RDF through Vermicompost, T11 (75%) RDF + (25%) RDF through poultry manure and T12 (50%) RDF + (50%) RDF through poultry manure. These treatment combinations were applied prior to sowing of maize. After harvesting of maize in October, the said observations i.e. dry matter accumulation and nutrient uptake by maize plant were calculated.

Results: In the effect of twelve treatments, T9 (75% RDF + 25% N through Vermicompost) considerably influenced and recorded highest dry matter accumulation and nutrient uptake by maize, followed by T11 during two consecutive years, while T1 (control), where no fertiliser or manure was applied under a poplar agroforestry system, recorded the lowest.

Conclusion: by application of vermicompost in combination with chemical fertiliser considerably improved growth characteristics and output. All of the treatments had a considerable impact on maize growth and yield. The optimum result was found to be 75 % RDF + 25 % Vermicompost (T9) in the current study. Our results indicated that, organic fertilizer can be a superior supplement of inorganic fertilizer to produce healthier growth and yield of maize.

Open Access Review Article

Legume-Maize Intercropping System: An Alternative Pathway for Sustainable Agriculture

Faisul-Ur- Rasool, M. I. Bhat, Z. A. Dar, B. A. Lone, Latief Ahmad, S. A. Hakeem, Z. Rashid, S. Naseer, S. Bashir, S. Majid, S. Nissa

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 87-92
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1630527

Intercropping provides ample scope to include two or more crops simultaneously in same piece of land thus targeting higher productivity from unit area on sustainable basis. Maize, a cereal crop of immense importance, planted in wide rows offers the possibility for adoption of intercropping. The intercropping system with maize and legume is beneficial in multiple aspects. The success of maize-legume intercropping system largely depends on choice of crops and their maturity, density, and time of planting. Advantage of maize-legume intercropping system is promoted in the form of higher yield and greater utilization of available resources, benefits in weeds control [1,2], pests and disease management [3], fixation of biological nitrogen by legumes and transfer of N to associated maize [4,5], insurance against crop failure to small holders, and control of erosion by covering a large extent of ground area [6]. Though maize-legume intercropping system exhibits limitations like less scope of farm mechanization, dependence on more human workforce, and chance of achieving less productivity from maize, the system implies more advantages for small holders in developing countries where human workforce is not a constraint.