Open Access Original Research Article

Yield Improvement and Nutrient Uptake of Little Millet (Panicum sumatrense) for Agronomic Interventions

B. Himasree, S. Hemalatha, V. Sumathi, P. Sudhakar, K. V. Nagamadhuri

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1730544

Field experiments were conducted during kharif, 2019 and kharif 2020 at S.V. Agricultural College Farm, Tirupati with three different times of sowing of little millet (second fortnight of June, first fortnight of July and second fortnight of July) in combination with three methods of establishment (Broadcasting, Sowing at 30 cm × 10 cm and transplanting 20 days old seedlings) and three nitrogen levels (20 kg N ha-1, 30 kg N ha-1 and 40 kg N ha-1). The results of the experiment revealed that among the three times of sowing, second fortnight of June sowings recorded higher grain yield, straw yield and nutrient uptake of little millet while lower values of these were obtained with July second fortnight sown crop during both the years of study. Transplanted little millet resulted in superior grain yield, straw yield and nutrient uptake compared to broadcasting and sowing at 30 cm × 10 cm. Maximum values of grain yield, straw yield and nutrient uptake were observed with application of 40 kg N ha-1 while minimum values of these parameters were obtained with application of 20 kg N ha-1. Transplanting little millet during second fortnight of June along with the application of 40 kg N ha-1 achieved higher grain and straw yield besides nutrient uptake by grain.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Agroforestry Systems on Mineral Fertility of Soils under Cocoa Trees in Toumodi, Côte D'ivoire

N'ganzoua Kouame Rene, Kouame Amany Guillaume, Voui Bi Bianuvrin Noel Boue, Bakayoko Sidiky

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 10-22
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1730545

Aims: To evaluate the impact of different agroforestry systems on the mineral fertility of soils under cocoa trees.

Place and duration of study: The experiment was conducted in the field from June to August 2020 in three types of cocoa-based agroforestry systems identified in Toumodi (Côte d'Ivoire) between the northern latitudes 6°19'37 and 6°34'51 and the western longitudes 5°19'58 and 5°20'02. in the forest-savanna transition zone

Methodology: Agroforestry systems define a method of setting up plantations associating various trees with cocoa trees. The choice of cocoa plantations was guided by the density of trees associated with cocoa trees defining a typology of agroforests (simple, mixed or complex). Thus, in each agroforestry system considered, three delimited plots of 100 m2 were randomly placed to make a floristic inventory of the species encountered and each time to take elementary soil samples in the first horizons at 0-20 cm and 20 - 40 cm depth to constitute the composite samples for chemical analyses in the laboratory.

Results: The study identified and recorded floristically, 17 families (Anacardiaceae, Apocynaceae, Arecaceae, Bombacaceae, Caricaceae, Combretaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Invingiaceae, Lauraceae, Meliaceae, Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Musaceae, Myristicaceae, Rutaceae, Sterculiaceae, Verbenaceae) distributed in 27 local plant species of which 55.55% of the species and a density of 55 trees/hectare in SAGS, 70.37% of the species and a density of 155.33 trees/hectare in MAGS and 81.40% of the species 224.33 trees/hectare in CAGS. These arboricultural species introduced or maintained in the plantations are generally species with shade, food, economic or medicinal interests. In terms of the chemical fertility generated, it appears that the contents of major elements and trace elements, as well as the clay-humus complex of the soils under cocoa trees were globally satisfactory and more important in the superficial horizons at a depth of 0-20 cm than in the underlying horizon of 20-40 cm, whatever the type of agroforestry system considered, but much more so in MAGS than in CAGS and SAGS in decreasing order. The different positive (R=0.80) or negative (R=-0.80) correlations established between the mineral elements in the surface horizons contribute to enrich the soil by synergistic or antagonistic effects in the agroforestry systems of Toumodi, Côte d'Ivoire.

Conclusion: The study showed that each forest agroforestry system has distinct characteristics that can be summarized mainly by its floristic diversity and density of associated trees. They are all not only preservers of a certain level of biodiversity and chemical fertility of the soils under cocoa trees, but much more so at 0-20cm than at 20-40cm. However, AGM would be more likely to improve production in a sustainable way by its capacity to establish a nutritional balance in the soil. It can be recommended during the establishment of cocoa plantations in Côte d'Ivoire.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Genetic Diversity in Morphological Traits of Mango Genotypes Using D2 Statistics

Swosti S. Das, K. Kishore, D. Lenka, D. K. Dash, K. C. Samal, D. Samant, C. M. Panda, S. C. Sahoo, S. N. Dash

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 31-42
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1730547

An experiment was conducted during 2018-2020 to study the genetic diversity in 24 morphological traits using D2 statistics in mango genotypes of eastern tropical region of India. Present study reveals that the clustering pattern based on D2 statistics grouped 40 genotypes of mango into 7 clusters, out of which cluster VI (7397.45) shows the highest intracluster value followed by cluster III (5346.99) and cluster V (4130.4), indicating considerable genetic divergence among the accessions of this cluster. While maximum inter- cluster distance was observed between the cluster VI and VII (300180) followed by cluster II and VI (289267.7) and cluster I and VI (214380.5) indicated that the accessions belonging to these groups were genetically most diverse and can be used as a parent in hybridization programme. Wide range of genetic diversity observed among cluster VI and cluster VII, can either be utilized for breeding programmes for genetic improvement in mango or directly adopted as a variety. Fruit yield exhibited significant contribution towards the genetic divergence (60.77%) followed by fruit weight (26.79%), stone percentage (4.74%), peel percentage (2.31%) and pulp percentage (2.05%).

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Tillage and Weed Management Practices on Yield and Nutrient Uptake of Maize

M. Samrat, M. Madhavi, T. Ram Prakashand Prathiba

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 43-50
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1730548

A field experiment entitled ‘Influence of tillage and weed management practices on yield and nutrient uptake of maize’ was conducted during Rabi-2018 at all India coordinated research project on Weed Management, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Hyderabad to study the effect of different tillage and weed management practices on nutrient uptake of maize. The soil of the experimental field was sandy clay loam in texture with moderately alkaline pH, low in available nitrogen, medium in available P and high in available K. The field experiment was laid out in split plot design with (five tillage practices) in main plots and (three weed management practices) in sub plots. The results revealed that highest total nitrogen uptake was recorded with conventional tillage (Transplanted rice) – zero tillage (maize) and it is on par with conventional tillage (transplanted rice) – conventional tillage (maize) treatments. The highest total phosphorus and total potassium uptake was recorded with conventional tillage (transplanted) – conventional tillage (maize) and it was on par with conventional tillage (Transplanted) – zero tillage (maize). Integrated weed management was found to be significantly superior with nutrient uptake followed by chemical weed management.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Genetic Diversity for Selected Genotypes in Rice

Ch Sai Nayan Raju, Gabrial M. Lal, Ch. Damodar Raju

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 51-59
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1730549

The present investigation was undertaken to study the 54 rice genotypes to estimate the diversity, among selected rice genotypes for yield and its component characters. The experiment was carried out during Kharif, 2020, in a randomized block design with three replications at the Indian Institute of Rice Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad voluntary center (Kampasagar), in Telangana State. The data was collected on characters viz and salt-tolerant score 0-9 scale. The 54 genotypes of rice were grouped into twelve clusters. Clusters with their genotypes are presented in. Cluster I had 15 genotypes, Cluster II had 13 genotypes, whereas Cluster III had 4 genotypes Cluster IV, V had 4 genotypes and cluster VI had 6 genotypes cluster VII had 1 genotype cluster VIII had three genotypes cluster Ⅸ, Ⅹ, Ⅺ had 1 genotypes cluster Ⅻ had 3 genotypes Highest inter-cluster distance was exhibited between clusters VIII and Ⅺ. and lowest cluster divergence found between the clusters Ⅳ and VII Greater the distance, wider the genetic diversity among the genotypes of those clusters. For high heterotic recombinants performing genotypes would be used as parents in the recombination breeding program. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutrient Concentration, Uptake and Protein Content in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under Various Integrated Nutrient Management Practices in Central India

Sumit Mukati, Y. M. Kool, Deepak Thakur, Deepak Singune

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 23-30
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1730546

Present field experiment was conducted at farmer’s field in Ringondiya village, Madhya Pradesh during rabi season 2018-19 to study the effect of integrated nutrient management practices on performance of chickpea, basic soil properties and nutrient availability. The nutrient concentration, uptake and protein content of chickpea (cv. JG-322) was evaluated under seven treatments viz., T1-Control, T2-100% N:P:K (20:50:20), T3-50% N:P:K + FYM @5 t ha-1, T4-50% N:P:K + vermicompost @2 t ha-1, T5-50% N:P:K + PSB @4 kg ha-1, T6-50% N:P:K + FYM @5 t ha-1 + PSB @4 kg ha-1 and T7-50% N:P:K + vermicompost @2 t ha-1 +PSB @4 kg ha-1 replicated thrice in a randomized block design. The N, P, K and S concentration in seed and straw, nutrient removal by seed, straw and total and protein content at harvest stage were determined. The results revealed that the integrated nutrient management practice significantly improved the nutrient concentration, uptake and quality of chickpea.

Open Access Original Research Article

Life Table of Rhodobium porosum on Rose Cultivars in Subsurface 'Ebb and Flow' Irrigation System

Guilherme S. Avellar, Wellington G. Campos, Livia M. Carvalho, Elka F. A. Almeida, Márcia N. O. Ribeiro

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 60-69
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1730550

Fertilization is a limiting factor in plant development and indirectly affects the population density of phytophagous insects. This study tested the performance of the aphid Rhodobium porosum (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on three rose cultivars exposed to two nutrient solutions in subsurface 'ebb and flow' irrigation systems in greenhouse. The performance of R. porosum was determined by means of the life table and fertility. Both cultivar and fertilization affected many life history and population traits of the aphid. The lower insect fertility and survival were observed in the nutrient solution usually recommended for fruit-type vegetables and on the 'Tineke' rose cultivar, because this combination caused lower net reproductive rate R0 (0.52 female), finite rate of increase λ (0.9469 female/day), innate capacity to increase in number rm (-0.0516 female/female/day), as well as longer time interval between each generation T (16.62 days). The lowest performance of the R. porosum on 'Tineke' rose cultivated in the nutrient solution 1 suggests that this seems to be the best combination to reduce problems with aphid attack in soilless rose cultivation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Water Management, Systems of Cultivation on Grain Yield and Energy Budget of Rice Varieties

G. V. Venkataravana Nayaka, G. Prabhakara Reddy, R. Mahender Kumar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 70-81
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1730551

Aims of Study: This research focused on assessing the grain yield and energy performance of four rice cultivars under different irrigation regimes and systems of cultivation for suitability of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana.

Experiment Design: The split-split plot design with three replications was performed for this study. The treatment comprised of two irrigation regimes viz., Alternate Wetting and Drying (AWD) and saturation as the main plot treatments, three systems of cultivation viz., System of Rice Intensification (SRI), Drum Seeding (DS) and Normal Transplanting (NTP) as the subplot treatments, and four cultivars namely DRR Dhan 42, DRR Dhan 43, MTU-1010, and NLR-34449 as the sub-sub plot treatments.

Place and Duration of Study: An experiment was conducted at the Indian Institute of Rice Research, Hyderabad, during the Autumn 2017 and 2018.

Result: Among the irrigation regimes, AWD recorded higher grain yield than saturation, Gross output energy, and net energy as compared to saturation. SRI significantly recorded higher grain yield over the NTP method. Among the different rice cultivars, DRR Dhan 43 registers remarkably higher grain yield than other cultivars during 2017 and 2018. The cultivar DRR Dhan 43 recorded higher gross output energy, net energy compared to other rice cultivars.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimizing Phosphorus and Row Spacing Management for the Production of Lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus) in Vertisols of Ethiopia

Gebrekidan Feleke, Almaz Meseret, Sisay Eshetu, Bizuwork Tafes

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 82-93
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1730552

Poor agronomic management such as nutrient management and plant density are critical challenges of lentil production in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the effects of different row spacing and phosphorus (P) applications on the seed yield of lentil at Ude and Minjar, in 2017 up to 2019. The experiment was conducted in completely randomized block design with three replications. The treatments were comprised of a factorial arrangement of three levels of row spacing (20, 30 and 40 cm) and four levels of P fertilizer (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg P2O5 ha-1). The result revealed that at Ude, the row spacing x P fertilizer interactions was a significant effect on the biomass, seed, and haulm yield of lentil. However, at Minjar; only the main effects of row spacing and P fertilizer had a significant effect on biomass, seed, and haulm yield. Phosphorus agronomic use efficiency was significantly influenced by the interaction of row spacing and P fertilizer. As a result, the highest phosphorus agronomic use efficiency was recorded at 30 kg P2O5 ha-1coupled with 20 cm row spacing at both locations. The economic analysis revealed that 20 cm row spacing and 30 kg P2O5 ha-1fertilizer managements gave the highest net benefit and acceptable marginal rate of return (MRR) as compared to other practices at both locations. Therefore, 20 cm row spacing and 30 kg P2O5 ha-1rate of fertilizer would be recommended to enhance the productivity of lentil in the study areas.

Open Access Original Research Article

Per-se Performance of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum L.) Genotypes for Plant Growth, Yield and Seed Quality Parameters in Prayagraj Agro-climatic Conditions

Krishna Sai Thammineni, Arun Kumar Chaurasia, Pradeep Kumar Shukla, Anche Hareesh Babu, Retineni Dileep

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 94-99
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1730553

Buckwheat is one of the most important alternative food crops it being a rich sources of protein and high nutritious value. The field experiment was conducted during rabi season in the year 2019-2020 at Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding Research farm, Naini Agriculture Institute, Prayagraj. With an objective to evaluate and identify suitable genotypes in Praygraj Agro-climatic conditions based on different quantitative and seed quality parameters. The field experiment conducted using randomized block design in field with 3 replications and complete randomized design in laboratory experiment with 4 replications. The results showed that among the 13 genotypes, EC-2018742 found to be promising genotype with 23.55 seeds infloresence-1 481.71 seed plant-1 and 725.55 g seed yield plot-1 maximum yield recorded of 17.64 q/ha, genotype EC-2018742 found to be vigorous among the 13 genotypes with high seed vigour indices were found suitable for cultivation in Prayagraj region.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Genetic Diversity in Desi Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) using D2 Statistics

Jakkam Mahipal Reddy, Gabrial M. Lal, Velugoti Priyanka Reddy, Subhadra Pattanayak, V. Rohith Guptha, C. Kalyan Sagar, P. Venkata Bala Brahmanjaneyulu

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 100-104
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1730554

A trail was conducted during rabi 2020 to study genetic diversity among 36 favorable genotypes of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) with help of Mahalanobis D2 statistics. On the basis of D2 values, 36 genotypes were arranged into 5 clusters. The intra cluster distances were lower than inter-cluster distances, specifying that genotypes comprised within a cluster shows tendency to vary less apart from each other. Out of thirteen characteristics considered, secondary branches per plant, number of pods per plant, seed yield per plant, harvest index and plant height, contributed very much in relation to genetic divergence. Wide range of variability was noticed for quantitative traits. This suggested that the selection based on these characteristics would be valuable in improving the grain yield. Therefore, a direct selection based on seed yield and component traits may be practiced to choose superior genotypes which could be utilized in breeding program for the development of high yielding chickpea genotypes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Novel Organic Liquid Nutrient and Novel Plus Organic Liquid Nutrient on Quantitative Traits of Indian Bean [Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet]

D. D. Champaneri, N. K. Patel, C. S. Desai, D. H. Desai

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 105-115
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1730555

Background: Indian bean is established as a prime vegetable crop in India and it attracts a huge market in its seasonal time period due to its multiple uses. Using of organic liquid fertilizer is demand of recent era. Concept of application of organics is vegetable crops is recent trend as it improves yield and helps to extent growth without any adverse effects on ecosystem.

Methods: In this experiment, two organic based nutrient formulations viz. Novel organic liquid nutrient and Novel Plus organic liquid nutrient were applied as a foliar spray at 30 days after sowing and 60 days after sowing on Indian bean variety Gujarat Navsari Indian Bean 22 and evaluated its effects on different growth parameters and yield parameters. The experiment was arrayed with Randomized Block Design having three replications and seven treatments i.e., No spray (T1), 0.5 % Novel organic liquid nutrient (T2), 1.0 % Novel organic liquid nutrient (T3), 1.5 % Novel organic liquid nutrient (T4), 0.5 % Novel Plus organic liquid nutrient (T5), 1.0 % Novel Plus organic liquid nutrient (T6) and 1.5 % Novel Plus organic liquid nutrient (T7).

Result: Treatment T6 executed maximum plant height and highest number of branches. Maximum fresh weight (30.87 g per plant) and dry weight (8.01 g per plant) were also registered under the same treatment T6. Similar treatment has proved to be superior for acquiring highest pod weight, maximum number of pods per plant, pod yield per plant and pod yield per individual plot. In terms of apex total pod yield per plot (3,641 g) and pod yield per hectare (5,619 kg) treatment T6 have performed the best as well. Predominantly, application of 1.0 % Novel Plus organic liquid nutrient on Indian bean [Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet] as a foliar spray had positive effects in aspects of growth as well as yield parameters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Foliar Application of Plant Growth Hormones on Yield and Quality Parameters in Ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi L. Sprague)

Y. Rajasekhara Reddy, G. Ramanandam, P. Subbaramamma, A. V. D. Dorajeerao

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 116-123
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1730556

Foliar application of plant growth regulators viz.,  GA3 -50& 100 ppm,  NAA- 50 ppm &100 ppm, Thiourea- 250 & 500 ppm, 28-Homobrassinolide- 0.1& 0.2ppm, Triacontanol - 2.5& 5 ppm and Control. All the treatments were applied as foliar sprays at 30 and 45 DAT. Days to 50% flowering (46 d) and days to harvest (100.20 d) were found earlier in ajowan with the foliar applications of triacontanol by 5 ppm (T10).The same treatment had recorded the maximum number of umbellate umbel-1(14.20). Foliar applications of thiourea by 250 ppm (T5) had record the highest values  with respect to yield, yield attributing characters viz number of umbels plant-1(228.70), number of seeds umbel-1(183.60), number of seeds umbellate-1(13.50), test weight (1.56 g), seed yield plant-1 (28.50 g), seed yield plot-1 (1425 g), seed yield hectare-1(1583.33 kg), harvest index (69.71%) and quality parameters viz essential oil (3.64%) and protein contents (19.26 mg 100 g-1).

Open Access Original Research Article

Phenology, Agrometeorological Indices and Yield of Pusa Basmati-1509 as Influenced by Sowing Dates and Nitrogen Levels under Temperate Conditions

Ashaq Hussain, Showkat A. Mughal, Intikhab Aalum Jehangir, M. Anwar Bhat, N. R. Sofi, Waseem Raja, N. A. Teli, S. Sheeraz Mahdi, Latief A. Sofi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 124-136
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1730557

The purpose of the study was to optimize the sowing date and nitrogen level in early maturing rice (Pusa basmati 1509) under temperate climate for realizing higher yield. The experiment was conducted on silty clay loam soil, neutral in reaction, low in available nitrogen, medium in available phosphorus, potassium and organic carbon. Treatments included three sowing dates viz 20th April, 30th April, and 10thMay and five nitrogen levels viz 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg N ha-1 laid out in split plot design with three replications. Among the sowing dates, 20th April took maximum no. days to reach different phenological stages and maturity. The GDD (1431) and HTU (15161 oC d-1 hr-1) requirement to reach maturity was maximum for 20th of April sowing. Significantly higher grain yield, higher HUE (2.90 kg ha-1 oC-1 d-1) and HTUE (0.273 kg ha-1 oC-1 hr-1) was realized form 1st date of sowing i.e., 20th of April. Higher doses of 120 kg N ha-1resulted in slightly more number of days to reach different phenological stages and maturity that was also reflected in higher accumulation of more GDD 1403° and HTU (14987 °C d-1 hr-1) at maturity.  Highest HUE (1.42 kg ha-1 oC-1 d-1) and HTUE (0.133 kg ha-1 °C-1 hr-1) was realized at 120 kg N ha-1. Further among the sowing dates, 20th April and 30th April had significantly higher growth parameters viz. plant height, leaf area index, tillers m-2, dry matter accumulation, leaf area index and SPAD reading as compared to 10th May. Most of the growth and yield parameters were found significantly higher at nitrogen level of 120 kg ha-1. However, most of them were at par with followed by nitrogen level of 90 kg ha-1.

Open Access Original Research Article

Laboratory Calibration of Capacitance-Based Soil Moisture Sensor to Monitor Subsurface Soil Moisture Movement in Laterite Soil

Jyothy Narayanan, K. K. Sathian

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 137-147
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1730558

Subsurface soil moisture movement in the unsaturated zone plays a critical role in the replenishment of groundwater table. This comprehension can be vital for the terrain with lateritic soil followed by the charnockite bedrock system. The conventional techniques to determine the subsurface soil moisture and its movement is cumbersome owing to high cost, large scale time consumption, field drudgery and greater possibility of manual errors. Among many other modern technologies for the measurement of volumetric water content, capacitance-based moisture sensors are capable and less expensive, thus, making them highly suitable for the research scholars worldwide. The study involves the use of TEROS 12 moisture sensors. The capacitance-based sensor TEROS 12, equipped with advanced soil moisture technique curtails the constraints in the conventional technique of soil moisture assessment and can provide precise measurements if suitably calibrated for the site specific soils. The study involves a soil specific calibration of TEROS 12 moisture sensor which was performed for the laterite soil to incorporate the sensor with the automated soil moisture monitoring system. The reliability of the sensor TEROS 12 was assessed by comparing its moisture measurements with that of the gravimetric method. The calibration was performed for three TEROS 12 moisture sensors in order to monitor the interflow at three varying soil depths in the vadose zone. The R2 values obtained from the calibration of sensors at depths of 0-0.4 m, and 0.8-1.2 m were 0.996, 0.994 and 0.992 respectively. Further, during validation it was found that the new measurements coordinated with the gravimetric measurements to a greater extent and increased the preciseness as compared to that of uncalibrated values of moisture contents, thereby establishing TEROS 12 capacitance-based sensor as a reliable and cost effective moisture sensor.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Analysis among Different Surface Sterilisation Methods for Rice Invitro Culture

sodium hypochlorite, Brijesh Kumar Singh, Md. Nasim Ali, Subhasis Samanta, Nirmal Mandal

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 148-154
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1730559

Invitro tissue culture establishment is the most important phase in rice (Oryza sativa L.) genetic improvement studies. But, invitro tissue growth demands a sterile condition conducive for unhampered nutrient supply to the explant which otherwise face competition from unwanted microbial contamination of explant origin. To eliminate such contaminants, there are several surface sterilisation techniques available for Invitro culture establishment of mature rice seed explants, which include the application of either mercuric chloride or sodium hypochlorite as sterilizing agents. Therefore, a comparative study was conducted to determine the effect of these sterilization techniques on decontaminating the rice seed explants without affecting their invitro germination potential. The most effective sterilisation was obtained with 0.2% mercuric chloride treatment for 8 minutes, which produced 93.62± 0.191% of contamination free seeds. But, the highest germination (94.53± 0.210%) was obtained with 4% of NaOCl treatment for 10 minutes. The results demonstrated that the level of contamination decreases with increasing concentration of sterilising agents and the duration of the treatment. The germination percentage decreased with increasing concentration of mercuric chloride. Sodium hypochlorite enhanced germination until a concentration increase of 4% and then the germination percentage decreased with increasing concentration and treatment duration. These findings may help in determination of most appropriate surface sterilisation technique in rice for in vitro culture.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Mycorrhizal Inoculant on the Quality of Macropropagated Seeds and the Agronomic Performance of Plantain (Musa spp.)

Don-Rodrigue Rosin Bi Voko, Jesus Amoa Amoa, Charlotte Dolou Tonessia, Ibrahim Konate

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 155-164
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1730560

The difficulties of nurserymen and producers of plantains in Côte d’Ivoire are the high mortality rate of seedlings and the delays of growth in the field. The aim of this study is to improve quality and agronomic performance of plantain seedlings produced by PIF technique (plantain seedlings production based on macropropagation). The plantain shoot bulbs were inoculated before being placed in the germinator and seedlings from germinator were inoculated again during the weaning phase at nursery with AMFs (Rhizophagus intraradices). Root mycorrhizal colonization, growth parameters such as girth, height, total leaf area, biomass and entry into production were measured in nursery and on the field. The results showed that the root colonization rate of the plants inoculated with R. intraradices inoculum was higher (30.59%) than that of the native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (2.78%). All inoculated plants survived while non-inoculated plants had 27.69% of mortality rate. Inoculated plants had higher growth than non-inoculated plants. The organs of inoculated plants also had higher biomass than non-inoculated plants. Eleven months after planting, nearly 50% of the inoculated plants had started production, while only 5.67% of the non-inoculated plants had started production. Mycorrhization improved the vigor and vegetative growth of plantain seedlings. It could therefore be used as a solution for a sustainable plantain culture.

Open Access Original Research Article

Qualitative Traits of Dry Rose Flowers ‘Taj Mahal’ as Influenced by Dehydration Methods

M. Narjinary, Arpita Mandal Khan, S. Maitra, I. Sarkar, P. K. Pal

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 173-182
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1730562

Aims: To optimize drying technique for the popular Dutch rose cultivar, Taj Mahal, by evaluating different drying methods and appraising the physical, biochemical and sensory quality of the product.

Study Design: Completely Randomized Design.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Floriculture, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Faculty of Horticulture, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, during 2019-2020

Methodology: Flowers of rose cultivar ‘Taj Mahal’, at their prime beauty i.e., half-opened bud stage, were subjected to embedded drying in silica gel at six different conditions viz. at room temperature (T1), in hot air oven at 45°C, (T2) and at 60°C, (T3) in micro-wave oven at 100% power level (T4), 80% power level (T5) and at 60% power level (T6). The quality of the ensuing dehydrated flowers was judged with respect to colour, weight, volume shrinkage and anthocyanin and carotenoid contents. Temperature during drying and time to reach optimum dehydrated condition under different drying techniques were recorded. Sensory evaluation for the quality of the products was done after six months of storage.

Results: The time taken for optimum drying ranged from 120 hours in case of room temperature drying (25.1°C) to 3 minutes in microwave oven on high power i.e., 100% (130.4°C). Significant variation in final weight of the product was recorded between 18.34% to 28% of the fresh weight. Minimum shrinkage (42.85%) was noted in room drying (T1) and hot air oven drying at 60°C (43.53%). Maximum anthocyanin concentration (3.528 mg/g) was recorded in flowers dried at room temperature, whereas, minimum among the dried flowers, was recorded in microwave oven drying at 100% power level (1.439 mg/g). Maximum Carotenoid content (16.780 µg/g) was recorded in flowers dried in hot air oven at 45°C. Out of six treatments in the present study, maximum sensory score (30.38 out of 36) was gathered by T2, which was at par with T1 and T5.

Conclusion: Dehydrating ‘Taj Mahal’ rose flowers by embedding in silica gel and drying under room temperature (25°C) for 120 hours or hot air oven at 45°C for 27.5 hours or microwave oven at 80% power level for 3.5 minutes can be recommended for commercial dry flower production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Genetic Parameter of Variability and Heritability based on Morphological Traits and Disease Parameters for Brown Spot in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

. Banshidhar, Priyanka Jaiswal, Rajesh Kumar, Bimla Rai

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 183-192
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1730563

Cochliobolus miyabeanus is a serious threat to the standing rice crop in context of production and productivity as it results in loss of both grain quality and yield. The pathogen causes brown spot disease in rice which had resulted in two severe famines in past. Hence, in this regard it is imperative to search for new and diverse resistance sources and to evaluate them with respect to genetic variability and inherent genetic potential for various morphological traits including yield and yielding attributing traits and disease estimating parameters for identifying high yielding diverse resistant lines that could be utilized in future breeding programmes aimed at development of superior cultivars against brown spot disease. Keeping this in view this study was conducted at Rice Research Farm, RPCAU, Pusa to evaluate 300 genotypes for rice for various morphological traits and disease estimating parameters along with three checks for disease response in augmented design. All the recommended package of practices was followed along with necessary prophylactic plant protection measures to raise a good crop. Data on different traits and parameters under study were recorded and analysed biometrically to assess the genetic parameter of variability and heritability. The ANOVA showed significant difference among the genotypes for most of the traits and parameters under study which reflects ample amount of variability among the genotypes. Further, the smaller difference between GCV and PCV and higher estimates of heritability and genetic advance as percentage of mean revealed higher percentage of inherent genetic potential in overall variability. The higher estimates of heritability and genetic advance as percent of mean for grain yield per plant and AUDPC suggested that the resistant lines identified in this study can be easily advanced through generation following phenotypic selection for derivation of high yielding resistant lines.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spatial Variability of Physical and Chemical Properties in Northern Himalayas of Kashmir Province

Ayman Javed, Shaista Nazir Bhat, Rajnish Yadav, Mushtaq Ahmad Wani

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 193-202
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1730564

Due to geological and pedological soil-forming factors, spatial variability of soil physical and chemical properties across the agricultural fields is intrinsic by its nature, however variability may arise from tillage and other soil management practices. The main aim of this survey was to investigate the spatial variability of soil physical along with chemical properties and the preparation of thematic maps across the study area. The physico-chemical properties determined were Particle size distribution, Bulk density, Particle density, total porosity, soil resistance, soil pH, Electrical conductivity (EC), Organic carbon (OC), Nitrogen(N), Phosphorus (P), Potassium(K). Soil samples were collected from 45 sites using Geographical Positioning System (GPS) under different land-use systems. The results showed normal distribution for Sand, silt, particle density, electrical conductivity, and soil pH. Organic carbon recorded the maximum coefficient of variation (82.2%) and soil particle density (5.66%) the minimum. Soil macronutrients were medium in range excluding phosphorus which was found inadequate in the watershed. Employing such analytic work, it is feasible to devise accurate soil management practices and an unerring soil sampling system for taking efficient management judgments that result in sustainable agricultural production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization and Taxonomy Classification of Soils of Hill Slope Land and Stream Terrace Land Located at North-Eastern Ghat Agro-Climatic Zone of Odisha, India

Tupaki Lokya, Antaryami Mishra, Subhashis Saren

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 203-209
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1730565

The present investigation was carried out to study the characterization, fertility status and taxonomic classification of some soils of North-Eastern Ghat Agro-Climatic zone of Odisha. Hill slope (pedon 1) and stream terrace land (pedon 2) two representative pedons of the Nayagarh district located in different topographic positions were studied for their physico-chemical characteristics and taxonomic classification. Results show that in pedon 1, percentage of sand, silt and clay range between 78.4 to 86.4, 3.2 to 3.4 and 10.4 to 17.4 respectively and in pedon 2, sand, silt and clay percentages range between 72 to 84, 3.2 to 7.2 and 10.8 to 18.8 respectively in different horizons. In pedons 1 and 2, pH increases along with depth from 4.80 to 5.82 and 5.80 to 7.60 respectively. Organic carbon content in pedons 1 and 2, ranges from 3.4 to 5.1 and 1.6 to 6.3 g kg-1 respectively. Cation exchange capacity decreases in pedon 1 from 13.25 to 8.66 c mol (p+) kg-1 and in pedon 2, range 7.66 to 16.65 c mol (p+) kg-1. The exchangeable sodium percentage in pedon 1 and 2, ranges from 4.53 to 9.23, and 2.56 to 6.53 per cent in different horizons respectively. The base saturation percentage in pedon 1, range from 58.11 to 98.15 per cent and in pedon 2, from 59.54 to 97.91 percent. The Hill slope (pedon 1) and stream terrace land (pedon 2) have little or no evidence of development of pedogenic horizons except ochric epipedon, therefore these soil are classified under the order Entisols. These soils have A-C profile with no distinct horizonation. Pedon 1, are classified under sub order Orthents, great group Ustorthents and sub group Typic Ustorthents. In case of pedon 2 the soils are put under the sub order Aquents, great group Fluvaquents and sub group Aeric Fluvaquents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Phosphorus Levels and Phosphorus-Solubilization Rock Phosphate by Spent Wash on Growth and Productivity of Wheat

Balu Ram, Ramawatar Meena, Rajkumar Meena

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 210-226
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1730566

Field experiment was conducted at Agriculture Research Farm, Institute of Agricultural Science during 2014-15 and 2015-16. The experiments comprising five levels of phosphorus (control, 100% Recommended dose of N & K +50% P through SSP, 100% Recommended dose of N & K +75% P through SSP, 100% Recommended dose of N & K +50% P through rock phosphate and 100% Recommended dose of N & K +75% P through rock phosphate) in main plots and four levels of solubilization of rock phosphate treatments (control, RP:SW@1:10, RP:SW@1:40 and RP:SW@1:80) in sub-plots combinations of twenty treatment were tested in split plot design with three replications. Wheat HUW-468(variety) was sown seed of 100 kg ha-1 in rows spaced at 22.5 cm. Results revealed indicate that solubilization of rock phosphate remained at par with RP:SW@1:80 but recorded significantly higher plant height (cm), Total number of tillers/m row length, Chlorophyll content (SPAD), Test weight (gram), Grain yield, Straw yield and Biological yield (kg/ha) as compared to remaining levels of rock phosphate and control and Results further indicate that solubilization of rock phosphate remained at par with RP:SW@1:80. Results revealed that application of 100% N&K + 75% P through SSP found significantly superior over the other level.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study about GAU 4: A New High Yielding Ymv Resistant Urdbean Variety

K. V. Patel, H. C. Parmar, H. P. Patel, V. B. More, Vishal B. Kundaria, B. N. Patel

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 227-235
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1730567

GAU 4 is a high yielding, YMVD resistance variety developed through selection from germplasm maintained (GP No. 6) at ARS, AAU, Jabugam, Dist : Chotta Udaipur, Gujarat and tested as JAUG 2 in trial. JAUG 2 recorded 21.03 and 24.48 per cent higher yield (961 kg/ha) over the checks T 9 and GU 1, respectively under middle Gujarat. In kharif season, JAUG 2 recorded 1005 kg/ha seed yield which was 19.08 and 23.92 per cent higher over T 9 and GU 1, respectively under middle Gujarat. In summer, JAUG 2 recorded 864 kg/ha seed yield which was 22.21 and 23.42 per cent higher over T 9 and GU 1, respectively under middle Gujarat. The proposed genotype JAUG 2 has semi-erect plant type and medium maturity duration. It has deltoid leaf shape, green hairy pod with 5-7 seeds per pod, dark black and medium seed size (seed index.:4-5 g). On quality point of view, this genotype contains 24.66% protein, 55.58% total carbohydrate, 4.77% total soluble sugar, 0.946% phenol and 8.89 mg/100g flavonoid, which is comparable to check varieties T 9 and GU 1. In mineral contains 49.97 Fe, 29.28 Zn and 7.29 Cu mg kg-1 which is higher than both check varieties viz., T 9 and GU1. The genotype JAUG 2 is found resistant to Yellow Mosaic Disease under natural field condition as compared to check T 9 and GU 1. The special feature of newly develop variety is medium maturity, semi-erect plant type, hairy pod, dark black, drum shape seed, resistant to YMD with higher yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management and Plant Growth Regulator on Generation of Recyclable Biomass in Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) Based Cropping System

G. Mishra, A. K. Karna, S. C. Sahoo, S. K. Pattanayak, H. P. Maheswarappa

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 236-243
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1730568

An experiment was conducted in the tropical coastal climate of Bhubaneswar by taking five crop combinations. Coconut was grown as main crop along with four component crops; banana, guava, pineapple and colocasia in a system. Different nutrient sources were used and crop specific growth regulators were applied at specific growth stages. The study was conducted to assess the effects of cropping system, nutrient and growth management practices on the generation of recyclable biomass from coconut as well as from the system as a whole. The biomass was calculated on the basis of dry weight of the plant products. The production of total recyclable biomass was found highest (18.5 t/ha) in the cropping system where the plants were managed with 50 % RDF+ 50 % N (organic recycling with vermicompost + in situ green manuring + vermicompost wash) with biofertilizers and plant growth regulators (PGRs). The sole cropping of coconut was found to have lowest production of the same.  The cropping system which is managed with fully organic sources of nutrient without any growth regulator was found least among all other systems except the sole cropping. The incorporation of intercrop has increseaed the amount of plant recyclable biomass to the extent of double than the coconut.  

Open Access Review Article

Assessment of Lycopene Derived Fresh and Processed Tomato Products on Human Diet in Eliminating Health Diseases

Priyanka Sharma, Monish Roy, Bidhan Roy

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 165-172
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1730561

Tomato which is scientifically known as Lycopersicon esculentum and basically belonging to the Solanaceae family is categorized as one of the most essential horticultural crops. The red colour in tomatoes and other fruits is primarily due to the presence of a carotenoid pigment particularly lycopene which acts as a phytochemical. Higher concentrations of lycopene pigment are particularly found in fruits like tomatoes, watermelon, pink grapefruit, pink guava, red bell pepper, sea buckhorn, wolfberry, and rosehip. Lycopene plays a fundamental role in the process of biosynthesis of several carotenoid pigments specifically available in two forms; Hydrocarbon carotenoids and Xanthophylls thereby responsible for imparting red, yellow, and orange color in addition to photosynthesis and photo-protection in terms of plants, algae and other photosynthetic organisms. It acts as a potential antioxidant among the entire carotenoid pigments because of its characteristics involving strong color and anti-toxicity properties. Vitamins enriched beta carotene provitamin A, and Ascorbic acid in the form of edible compounds have been abundantly found in tomatoes. Daily intake of lycopene through consumption of tomato and processed tomato products helps in reducing the risk of chronic diseases particularly cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Epidemiological studies have indicated the importance of lycopene in eliminating the risk of human diseases thereby preventing it from deterioration of health. Based on the chemical structure of lycopene, it exists in a thermodynamically stable form thereby exhibiting trans-configuration.  In this manuscript, major emphasis highlighted in involving an intake of carotenoid enriched fruits and vegetables for further controlling and reducing the risk of occurrence of human diseases has been reviewed. In addition, significance of manufacturing of value added products and its consumption in the form of tomato oil, non-alcoholic flavored drink etc. has also been reviewed. Authentic information in terms of the addition of lycopene in a daily balanced diet either fresh or processed tomato products along with its functions involving the singlet oxygen quenching ability, as well as benefits of consuming lycopene derived fruits has been reviewed in this manuscript.