Open Access Minireview Article

Infectious Disease (Fungal, Bacterial, Viral, and Nematodal) of Mulberry Plant and Its Control Measure: A Review

Jyoti Prasad Baruah, Ishani Borthakur

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 110-116
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1830581

Sericulture is an allied agricultural activity. It is concerned with the production of silk (and its byproducts). The silks produced in sericulture can be widely categorized as Mulberry silks and Non-Mulberry silks (also called Vanya silk meaning wild silks). Mulberry silk is most widely produced and it plays an essential role in the economic growth of the industry. Mulberry silk is obtained by rearing mulberry silkworms (Bombyx mori L). During rearing, they are fed mulberry leaves which are obtained from the mulberry plants; the primary food plant of the silkworm. The mulberry plant is perennial in nature. It belongs to the Moraceae family and the genus Morus with a wide variety of species, viz. Morus alba, Morus nigra, Morus serrata, etc. Mulberry plants are widely distributed all around the world in Tropical, Subtropical, and Temperate regions. It finds its early roots in Southeast Asia. The Mulberry plant falls prey to many diseases caused by various organisms like bacteria, viruses, fungi, and nematodes. The occurrence and severity of the diseases vary with season, varieties, agro-climatic zones, and the cultural practices that are undertaken. These diseases affect the mulberry leaves, stems, and different parts of the plant. Affected plants stop the growth and reduced leaf yield. As well as, these leaves are not suitable for silkworm feeding. This review mainly focuses on infectious diseases (fungal, bacterial, viral, and nematode) of mulberry plants and their management.

Open Access Original Research Article

Heavy Metals in Water, Soils and Sediments of La Villa River Basin- Panama

José Villarreal Núñez, Adolfo Santo Pineda, Jhon Villalaz Pérez, Iván Ramos Zachrisson

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1830570

Determine the concentration of heavy metals in water, sediments, and crops within the La Villa river basin, Herrera and Los Santos provinces, republic of Panama. La Villa river Basin, south central of Panama, in the rainy season of 2016 (May to November) and in the dry season of 2017 (December to April). Twenty two sediments and water samples were taken using the systematic method which consists of selecting sampling points at uniform distances and crops in upper, middle and lower basin. The selected sampling was confined to a preferably rectangular area of 10.0 m x 30.0 m, on which the sub-samples were taken with a number of 15 on each grid, at 0.20m depth. For collecting the water samples, a rod with a clean plastic bottle was introduced against the current of the river. The digestion of sediments and crops to determine the concentration of heavy metals (As, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu, Mn, Zn and Cd) was carried out according to USEPA (25) method (3051A) (SW-846). In the sediments, in the rainy season, Cu (upper and lower basin) and Mn (all levels) values were found above the USEPA Standards. In the dry season, high values of Mn were found in the middle and lower basin, Cr in the upper and lower basin and As in all areas of the basin. In the rainy and dry seasons, high levels of Mn, Zn, Cr, Cd and Pb were found in the waters of the rivers that make up the basin. The main crops at each height of the basin were analyzed, determining high levels of As and Cr in the upper basin, in the middle and lower basin Cr and Cd. It is necessary to monitor the concentration of heavy metals in sediments of La Villa river basin because 90% of the agrochemicals that enter the country is destined for agriculture. Each Panamanian consumes (does not ingest) 3 kg of agrochemicals annually, exceeding six times the amount used in Central America.  Due to their geological origin, these soils are rich in copper, manganese and arsenic, latter being associated with iron oxides and sulfides but there is also great influence of anthropogenic activities, agriculture and industries. Some metals such as lead and arsenic showed low solubility in water but showed high concentration in sediments. Chromium and cadmium present in crops come from water.

Open Access Original Research Article

Qualitative and Quantitative Phytochemical Screening of Male Flower Buds of Some Banana Cultivars Grown in Assam

Hemanga Das, D. N. Hazarika, Supriya Langthasa, Rupshree Borah

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 13-24
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1830571

The experiment was conducted in the Department of Horticulture, Biswanath College of Agriculture, Assam Agricultural University, Biswanath Chariali in the period begning from November, 2016 till the end of 2018 with eight different banana cultivars grown in Assam i.e T1: Jahaji (AAA), T2: Amritsagar (AAA), T3: Chenichampa (AAB), T4: Malbhog (AAB), T5: Kachkal (ABB), T6: Manohar (ABB), T7: Bhimkal (BBB), T8: Wild banana (BB). Phytochemical assessment revealed the highest and lowest values of pH in the cultivars of balbisiana group and  acuminata group, respectively. The moisture content ranged from 80 to 90 percent; ash content, sucrose content, crude fibre and total carbohydrate content varied in all the cultivars. Sugar content in terms of glucose and fructose were highest in Chenichampa while the lowest glucose content was recorded in Amritsagar. Phosphorus content ranged from 51.98 mg/100g to 14.27 mg/100g while potassium content ranged from 786.40 mg/100g to 427.61 mg/100g. The male flower buds possessed crude protein, starch, anthocyanin, sugars, carbohydrates, proteins, important minerals like phosphorus, potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron and anti-nutrients like tannin, saponin and phenolic compounds, but their concentrations varied among the cultivars. Organoleptic taste revealed that the male flower buds of cultivars namely, Bhimkal (BB), Wild banana (BB), Malbhog (AAB) and Kachkal (ABB) were found to be tastiest for consumption as vegetable.

Open Access Original Research Article

Exploration of Rhizobacteria as Bioagents against Phytophthora Blight and Yield Attributes of Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.): In vitro and In vivo Study

Saroj Bala, Rajni Devi, Veena Khanna

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 25-33
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1830572

The latest soil management scenario is occupied by destructive chemical fertilizers, which is a serious risk to both human health as well as to the environment. Advantageous microbes present in soil are used as a biofertilizers for a promising role in sustainable agriculture. Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.) is a primitive protein rich leguminous pulse in India. Thirty-five isolates from rhizospheric soil samples were collected from twelve different locations of Punjab (India). Morphological and biochemical characterization for selection of potential plant growth promoting traits with antifungal properties was undertaken. Most of the inoculated seeds with rhizoisolates evolved a significant increase in growth parameters of pigeon pea as compared to uninoculated seeds, both in vitro and in vivo conditions. Plant growth promoting rhizobacterias (PGPRs) are environmentally safe as they lead to increased production and resistance against diseases of crops.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Genetic Variability and Transmissibility Index in Rice Genotypes (Oryza sativa L.)

Ashish Sheera, Nashra Aftab, Sandeep Rout, Udit Nandan Mishra, Bupesh Sharma, R. Sivasankar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 34-42
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1830573

Aim: To assess the Genetic Variability among the accession/ genotype and its contributing traits.

Methodology: A field experiment was conducted using 35 genotypes including 2 checks of rice during the season of kharif, 2017, at the Field Experimental Centre, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, SHUATS, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh to evaluate genetic variation and heritability of yield and related traits. The experiment was designed with a randomized block design (RBD) with three replications. Analysis of variance revealed significant difference among the genotypes for all traits indicating existence of genetic variability among the accessions.

Results: Highest genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) and phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) were recorded for Spikelet’s per panicle, tillers per hill, panicle per hill and grain filling. High heritability in broad sense was obtained for days to 50% flowering (99.6%), days to maturity (98.7%), test weight (97.9%), harvest index (96.9%) and grain yield per hill (96.6%) which is indicating the high heritable portion of variation. High to medium estimate of heritability in genetic advance were obtained for grain yield (38.51), spikelet’s/ panicle (37.94), panicle/ hill (36.97) were indicating the roles of additive gene action and good scope of selection using their phenotype performance.

Interpretation: Considering, all of these characters, spikelet’s per panicle, days to 50% flowering and days to maturity were important yield related traits and could be used for selection in future rice breeding programme.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Micro and Secondary Nutrient Combinations for Yield, Yield Attributes, and Economic Profitability of Mustard in Mid Indo-Gangetic Plains of Bihar

Vijay Kumar, Abhay Kumar Singh, Surendra Prasad, Anupama Kumari, M. S. Kundu, Santosh Kumar Singh

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 43-51
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1830574

An on-farm trial was established at Saran district of Bihar, aiming to assess the different combinations of micro and secondary nutrients on yield and economic profitability of mustard (var. Rajendra suphalam). The experiment comprised three treatments i.e., T1: RD-S+Zn (Farmer practices), T2: RD-S+B and T3: RD-S+B+Zn and seven replications performed under a completely randomized block design during 2018-19. Results of the experiment revealed that combined application of sulphur, boron and zinc  significantly improved the number of seeds per siliqua: 37.2%, stover yield: 12.3% & seed yield: 33.3% over farmers practice (T1: RD-S+Zn). The highest seed yield and gross return in treatment T3: RD-S+B+Zn was well reflected in  the maximum net return (Rs. 40954.0 ha-1) and benefit-cost ratio (2.29). In conclusion, the combined application of sulphur, boron and zinc was performed better for mustard cultivation in the middle Indo-Gangetic plains of Bihar.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Seed Invigoration with Seaweed, Panchagavya and Beejamrutha on Seed Quality Parameters of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) under Salinity Condition

C. H. Sai Kiran, Arun Kumar Chaurasia, Pradeep Kumar Shukla, Krishna Sai Thammineni, P. V. Raghunath Reddy

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 52-58
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1830575

Quinoa is a saline-tolerant crop and highly nutritious compared with rice, wheat, and oats. Quinoa cultivar EC507704 were used to check the performance of seed invigoration with organic treatments under different salinity levels current experiment was conducted in 2021 at the seed testing laboratory department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Naini Agriculture Institute, Prayagraj (U. P.). Experimentation was carried out by using Complete Randomized Design with four replications by using top of the paper method. The salinity levels were obtained by dissolving 0mM, 100mM, and 200mM NaCl in one liter of distilled water. Filter papers were supplied with a salt solution to place the treated seeds. The treatments used in this experiment are T0 distilled water as Control, T1 and T2 Seaweed 5% and 10%, T3,T4,T5 Panchagavya 4%,6% and 10%, T6,T7,T8 and T9 Beejamrutha 25%,50%,75% and 100%. The results indicated the superiority with the interaction of treatment and salinity of T9S0 Beejamrutha 100% in 0mM NaCl shows 92% in germination percentage, 3.60cm in shoot length, 6.85cm in root length, 10.45cm in seedling length, 0.25g in dry weight, 961.32 in Seedling vigour index compared with control. The better performance of Beejamrutha increases the seed quality parameters due to the presence of beneficial microorganisms, nutrients, and growth-inducing hormones.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seasonal Growth, Physiological and Biochemical Characterization of Five Prunus spinosa Ecotypes

James Gacheru Wanjiku, Heike Bohne

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 59-72
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1830576

Prunus spinosa species is distributed across wide range of geographical areas which are subject to climatic, edaphic factors and long-term divergent selection. This could lead to local adaptation hence ecotypes in terms of morphological, physiologically and or biochemical inclination to their local environment. To investigate whether the species (Prunus spinosa) has been influenced by their local environmental conditions and whether populations (ecotypes) are adapted to local conditions, cuttings from different demarcated areas of origin in Germany and Italy were sourced and cultivated optimally in common container area. Growth, bud sprout and bud set were evaluated in spring, summer and autumn respectively. Soluble sugars (Glucose, fructose, sucrose and starch), N, P, K, and proline concentrations were analysed in spring and autumn for three years. The findings indicated that plants grown from different locations mostly differed in N, P, K, soluble sugars and starch in spring. Nonetheless, these geographic variations were hardly observed either in summer or in autumn. On phenology, German populations did not differ at all in phenology (flushing and growth cessation) while the Italian population always sprouted earlier and ceased growth later. The results indicate that the German populations are not differentiated by climatic variations across latitude or altitude. In contrast the Italian population is differentiated from German population Brandenburg mostly by latitudinal differentiation. Nevertheless, their inherent ability to sprout earlier and late  growth cessation might expose the population to frequent frost damage when transplanted to more northern latitude.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management Practices on Yield and Quality of Sweet Potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] cv. Kanjangad

P. B. Shabitha, R. Rajeswari

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 73-83
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1830577

The investigation was carried out to study the “Effect of integrated nutrient management practices on yield and quality of sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] cv. Kanjangad” at Elavuvilai village, Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu during Kharif season of 2020. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with nine treatments replicated thrice. Sweet potato vine cuttings of about 15 cm with 4 nodes were used for the study. The treatments comprised of two levels of recommended dose of fertilizers (RDF - 40:80:120 kg NPK ha-1) viz., 50 and 100% along with FYM, poultry manure, gibberellic acid and seaweed extract. The treatments comprised of half dose of nitrogen and full doses of phosphorous and potassium were applied as basal and remaining half dose of nitrogen was applied at 60 days after planting. Organic inputs viz., FYM (25 t, 12.5 t ha-1), poultry manure (5 t, 2.5 t ha-1) as were applied as basal application, gibberellic acid (200 ppm) and seaweed extract (2%) were applied as foliar application at 40, 55 and 70 days after planting were also used. The observations were recorded at 180 days after planting. The results indicated that the maximum values for yield parameters viz., number of tubers plant-1 (3.02 g), tuber length (19.02 cm), tuber girth (15.58 cm), tuber weight (138.36 g), tuber dry weight (66.73 g), tuber yield [plant-1 (417.84 g),  plot-1 (12.18 kg), hectare-1 (30.45 t)], whereas quality parameters such as total soluble solid (9.210 Brix) and starch content (12.24%) of tuber, post harvest soil available nutrient (245.00 N; 21.93 P and 278.00 K kg ha-1), maximum net income (Rs. 5,16,050) and B: C ratio (3.23)  were recorded in the plots which received 50% RDF + FYM 12.5 t ha-1 + Poultry manure 2.5 t ha-1 + Seaweed extract 2% (T9). This was followed by (T6) 50% RDF+ FYM 12.5 t ha-1 + Poultry manure 2.5 t ha-1 + GA3 200 ppm.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth and Development of Abelmuschus esculentus (Okra) in Gully Eroded Soil Amended with Different Rates of Cow Dung Manure

Ekwealor U. Kenneth, Okereke E. Kingsley, Iroka F. Chisom, Okereke N. Chukwu, Francis H. Ibadin

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 84-93
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1830578

The growth and development of Abelmuschus esculentus (okra) in gully eroded soil amended with different rates of cow dung manure was studied using the complete randomized design; morphormetric data such as leaf area, plant height, stem girth, numbers of nodes, number of leaves and percentage flowering was collected and analyzed. A 30 kg of gully eroded soil sample was put into a sac in triplicate and six treatments of cow dung was introduced into it (0.5 kg, 1.0 kg, 1.5 kg, 2.0 kg, 2.5 kg and 3.0 kg) respectively. The results of study showed that there is a significant difference in all the treatments compared to control.  Highest petiole length (31.63±1.84) of Okra plant was obtained at week seven with 2.0 kg amended soil. The 2.5 kg treatment of manure at week 7 had the highest leave length with the mean of 30.36±2.47 while the least leave length occurred in the 2.5 kg treatment at week 1 with the mean value of 0.49±0.03. The 2.0 kg treatment of manure at week 7 had the highest leave length with the mean of 36.96±1.15 while the least leave length occurred in the 2.5 kg treatment at week 1 with the mean value of 0.44±0.03. The 1.0 kg treatment of manure at week 7 had the highest length of internode (23.16±3.55) while the least length of internode occurred in the control at week 2 (0.86±0.23). At week 1 for all treatments, no result was obtained for length of internodes. The 0.5 kg treatment of manure at week 7 had the highest number of leaves with the mean of 21.33±4.93 while the least number of leaves occurred in the 0.5 kg, 2.0 kg and 2.5 kg treatments respectively at week 1 and in the control sample at week 2. The result also revealed that the 1.0 kg treatment of manure at week 7 had the highest stem length (154.73±30.99) while the least stem length occurred in the 2.0 kg at week 1(0.46±0.03). The 3.0 kg treatment of manure at week 7 had the highest stem girth (9.33±0.51) while the least stem girth occurred in the 2.5 kg at week 1(0.31±0.02). The soil analysis result showed that nitrogen was highest in the soil at 2.0 kg treatment of cow dung (402±2.51) while the 1.5 kg treatment and control had the least nitrogen content (322±0.57) and (322±3.05) respectively. The highest phosphorus content was 1.0 kg treatment of cow dung (986±1.53), with the control having the lowest phosphorus content (280±2.00). On the potassium content, the 2.5 kg treatment had the highest (843±0.57) while the control had the least content of potassium (357±1.52). The overall result showed that the growth and development of okra was enhanced by application of cow dung which influenced soil nutrient status positively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Drought Adaptive Mechanism on Root and Root Associated Trait of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

S. R. Sahana, B. Mohanraju, K. R. Rekha, H. R. Raveendra, C. R. Nagesh, N. B. Shashibhushan, Appanna V. Koppad, K. Rashmi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 94-101
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1830579

Roots play a vital role in plants for a wide variety of processes, including nutrient and water uptake, anchoring and mechanical support. Some phenomenal literature supports several root characters which have relevance for stress adaptation. Root characteristics such as root length density, rooting depth and root distribution have been established as constituting factors of drought resistance. Under drought situation, roots can adapt to continued growth while at the same time, sending signals to shoot that exhibit growth an above ground parts of the plant. Development of plants with deep roots may in fact stimulate photosynthetic yields as these are considered to be more controlled by the carbon sinks of plants. In this context a field experiment was conducted during Kharif -2014 in the Department of Crop Physiology, to know the effect and variations in mutants of Rice for root and root associated traits along with growth and productivity besides a few relevant drought adaptive traits. The result revealed that, the root length ranged from 24.46 cm to 38.00 cm with a mean of 32.40 cm, while wild Type recorded 32.33 cm. Similarly, the root volume and root weight recorded 21.67cc to 65cc with a mean 35.51cc and 4 g to as high as 34.30 g with a mean of 17.13g when compared to Wild Type (27.92 cc and 18.49g respectively). The total dry matter production ranged from 16.39 g-1plant to 92.12 g-1plant with a mean of 52.73 g-1 plant while, the Wild type had a total dry matter production of 55.12 g-1plant. Mutants shows significant variations in root length, root volume, root weight and total dry matter production as compared to wild type and also observe the significant variation among the mutant. These mutants with higher growth character associated with root traits are potential mutant lines for further crop improvement programme.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Microbial Inoculants on Plant Attributes and Nutrients Uptake by Soybean in Vertisols

Sanjeet Kumar, R. K. Sahu, R. K. Thakur, Bablu Yaduwanshi, N. G. Mitra

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 102-109
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1830580

The present study was carried out during kharif season 2019-20 at the Research Farm, Department of Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh (INDIA), to assess the effect of microbial inoculants on plant attributes and nutrients uptake by soybean in Vertisols. The experiment was laid out under randomized block design (RBD) with three replications. The 15 treatments comprised of different beneficial microbial consortia in possible combinations applied as seed treatments. The crop was supplemented with recommended dose of fertilizers 20 N : 80 P2O5 : 20 K2O kg ha-1. Besides these, two control plots were maintained as fertilized un-inoculated control (FUI) and unfertilized un-inoculated control (UFUI). The findings revealed that the significant improvement were noticed by the application of consortia NPK+EM+PGPR in plant growth attributes of nodulation at 25, 45 & 65 DAS (71, 70 & 59% respectively), over control (9.5, 33.4 & 34.7 nodule plant-1) and its biomass, (62, 69 & 74% respectively),over the control  (0.58, 1.16 & 0.99 g plant-1),  plant height at 25, 45 & 65DAS were increased 61, 40, 41% respectively, over the control (16.20, 34.90 and 44.30 cm) and plant biomass, (48, 62 & 53%), over the control 1.67, 4.73 and 6.1 g plant-1. Similarly, nutrient uptake (seed & stover) were also increased at 25, 45 and 65 stages of crop growth, with 36.6, 34.8 & 51.3% in seed and 66.7, 98.2 & 67.2% in straw respectively over the control (98.5, 63.8, 5.2, and 7.4, 24.9 and 44.4 kg ha-1 respectively). Thus, it may be concluded that the consortium of NPK + EM + PGPR was superior for sustainable crop production and soil health.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Drought Stress Treatment on Some Grain Quality Traits in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Varieties

Dommalapati Sudhakara Rao, Midathala Raghavendra, Parveen Gill, Shashi Madan, Renu Munjal

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 117-123
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1830582

Climate change imposes many environmental stresses out of which drought stress is a major concern that significantly restricts crop production in arid and semi-arid regions. The negative impact on grain quality caused by drought stress is responsible for reduced grain yield and quality. Many previous studies aimed to understand the tolerance level of wheat varieties, but studies on grain quality traits assessment were less. Therefore, the aim of the present investigation was to study some grain quality traits and to determine how drought stress affected these parameters. Experiments with two wheat varieties viz. WH 1105 and WH 1025 were conducted in microplots with RBD design in open fields. Grains were selected after harvest of the crop and were used to evaluate sedimentation value, β carotene, crude fibre, total sugars and starch. Sedimentation values (ml) were increased more in WH 1025 (6.9 per cent) than WH 1105 (3.8 per cent). Beta carotene content (µg g-1 DW), crude fibre (%), total sugar (%) and starch (%) contents were decreased in both wheat varieties and more decrease was observed in WH 1105 than WH 1025 under drought condition than irrigated condition. The study revealed that quality traits of WH 1105 were much affected than WH 1025 under drought stress.

Open Access Original Research Article

Population Structure, Growth Dynamics, Leaf Production and Soil Conditions of Megaphrynium macrostachyum, a Key Non-Wood Forest Product in Central Africa

Christian Moupela, Antoine Mitte Mbeang Beyeme, Maurice Ognalaga, Mackson Theenneez Makaya Rendembwot, Nikki Tagg, Alexis Nicaise Lepengue

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 124-135
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1830583

Aims: Megaphrynium macrostachyum is a key non-wood forest product (NWFP) in Central Africa. This study aims to describe the soil characteristics and behaviour of the species Megaphrynium macrostachyum in a fallow land in southeastern Gabon.

Methodology: Leaf growth was monitored weekly on a sample of 60 leaves for 10 weeks, after the unrolling of horns. Population structure and leaf production were quantified on 64 m² plots and then extrapolated to the hectare. Soil samples were collected at 30 cm depth.

Results: Leaf growth and stem enlargement were observed to take place during the horn stage, while stem elongation became active after this stage. The stem reached its maximum height about 60 days after the leaf had fully unrolled. Within the same population, leaf length and leaf width were less heterogeneous (on average 55.6 ± 5.9 cm and 35.5 ± 4.5 cm, respectively); whereas leaf area, stem diameter and stem height were quite heterogeneous (on average 1475 ± 328.3 cm², 9 ± 2.2 mm and 154 ± 33.3 cm, respectively). Megaphrynium macrostachyum was observed to colonise its environment quite well (148,646 ± 66,623 stems per hectare), thus explaining its high leaf production (104,167 ± 45,271 usable leaves per hectare). The soil sample analysed revealed Megaphrynium macrostachyum to grow in sandy-silty or sandy-silty-clay soils (58.21% sand, 25.69% silt and 16.1% clay), and in soils that are wet (35% relative humidity), acidic (pH 4.01), low in phosphorus (9.38 ppm assimilable phosphorus) and total nitrogen (0.01% total nitrogen), and high in organic matter (19.3% organic matter).

Conclusion: The leaf area exploited by local populations is variable. Megaphrynium macrostachyum is less demanding on soil characteristics, with high leaf production. From a cultivation perspective, the horn stage would be decisive.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of NPK Fertilizer and Vine Care on Soil Chemical Properties and Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Growth and Yield Parameters

Abidemi, Abiodun Adebayo, Ewulo, Babatunde Sunday, Aiyelari, Olaiya Peter, Jiandong Hu

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 136-151
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1830584

Cucumber yield in Nigeria is limited by low soil fertility. Therefore, field fertility and vine care experiments that have ability to moderate yield were conducted in the year 2015 cropping seasons. The experiment was located on farmer’s field at Abeokuta, Ogun State, Southwestern Nigeria to study the effects of NPK fertilizer and vine care on soil chemical properties, leaf nutrient content, growth and yield of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). It was a 4 x 3 factorial experiment arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates. Four levels of NPK nutrient formulations (control, NPK15-15-15, NPK 20-10-10 and NPKMg 12-12-17-2) and three vine care types (unstaked, staked and trellised) were applied. Pre-experiment soil samples and soils from each plot at the end of the experiment were collected for soil chemical analysis. Leaf nutrient contents were determined. Plant growth and yield data were measured. Data collected were subjected to statistical analysis and the interaction between factors combined separated. NPK fertilizers significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased soil N, P, K, Ca, Mg and leaf P, K, Ca and Mg concentrations, Cucumber fruit yield was increased by NPKMg 12-12-17-2 (90.5%), NPK 15-15-15 (60.4%) and NPK 20-10-10 (30.0%) compared with control. Application of vine care enhanced performance of cucumber, fruit yield was increased by trellised (34.0%) and staked (17.3%) compared with control. Combined application of NPKMg 12-12-17-2 and trellising was found most suitable for cucumber production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Mungbean Genotypes for Phenophases and Morpho-physiological Traits during Heat and Water Stress Conditions for Optimizing Productivity

Zuby Gohar Ansari, A. S. Gontia, Pragya Singh

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 152-164
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1830585

An experiment was carried out to study the effect of phenophases, morpho-physiological parameters and yield attributing traits on mungbean under different dates of sowing during summer seasons of 2017-18 and 2018-19 at the Research area, Department of Plant Physiology, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh). The experiment was laid out in a factorial randomized block design replicated thrice. Treatments consisted of three sowing environments viz., Feb 12th, Feb 27th and Mar 14th and five mungbean varieties viz., PDM 139, Pusa Ratna, Pusa Vishal, Pusa 1431 and TJM 3. PDM139 (V1) had an earliest attainment of all the phenophases and registered the lowest time for reproductive period (32.00 days) as well as span of seed filling period (18.66 days) and also recorded average highest LAI (0.723), LAD (7717.48 cm2. days), CGR (0.00125 g cm2 day-1), RGR (0.03614 g g-1 day-1), SLA (391.94 cm2 g-1) and carbon sequestration (58.93 g plant-1). PDM139 (V1) outyielded (5.78 g plant-1 and 787.74 Kg ha-1) others owing higher magnitudes of physiological parameters and mechanisms reflected in maximum yield components and subsequently yield. On the other hand D2 (27th Feb.) took comparatively more time to achieve all the phenophase as compared to the former as well as average highest magnitudes of these parameters. Among sowing dates sowing carried out on 14th Mar (D3) acquired the minimum time to attain all the phenophases. Among interactions, V1D2 (PDM139 sown on 27th Feb.) took comparatively more time to attain flower initiation (26.33 days) besides a short duration of reproductive span (31.00 days) and a comparatively low magnitudes of seed filling period (18.00 days) and as well as recorded average maximum magnitudes of LAI (Leaf Area Index), LAD (Leaf Area Duration, CGR (Crop Growth Rate), RGR (Relative Growth Rate), SLA (Specific Leaf Area), SLW (Specfic Leaf Weight) and carbon sequestration. Therefore, based on above results selection of genotypes could bring out desired improvement in yield and its attributing characters of mungbean cultivars.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Chicken Manure and Plantain Peel-Based Fertilization on Kalenda Eggplant (Solanum melongena L) Fruit Biochemical Parameters

Alla Kouadio Théodore, Ahon Gnamien Marcel, Bomisso Edson Lezin

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 165-175
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1830586

Our study aims at improving the nutritional quality of eggplant fruits through application of organic fertilization. The study was conducted in Bingerville (located in the south of Côte d'Ivoire and west of Abidjan city), from April to August 2019.

The work consisted in assessing, in a randomized complete block design, the effects of five manures on the biochemical parameters of Kalenda eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) fruits. The manures studied were T1: chicken manure, T2: chicken manure + plantain peel compost, T3: chicken manure + plantain peel potash, T4: plantain peel compost, T0: no fertilizer, T5 (positive control): NPK (10 18 18) + Urea (46% N) + Potassium sulphate (K2SO4).

The results showed that fiber, protein, lipid, sodium and iron contents were not influenced by the different treatments. However, treatments T5 (NPK (10 18 18) + Urea (46% N) + Potassium sulphate (K2SO4)), T4 (plantain peel compost), T3 (chicken manure + plantain peel potash) and T2 (chicken manure + plantain peel compost) induced the highest carbohydrate and energy content of fruits. With respect to phosphorus and potassium, treatments T5 (NPK (10 18 18) + Urea (46% N) + Potassium sulphate (K2SO4)), T4 (plantain peel compost) and T3 (chicken manure + plantain peel potash) had higher phosphorus values than those of other fertilizers T2 (chicken manure + plantain peel compost), T1 (chicken manure) with an average of 27; 26.58 and 25.491 mg per 100 g FM, respectively. Plants grown on the sites fertilized with chemical treatment T5 (NPK (10 18 18) + Urea (46% N) + Potassium sulphate (K2SO4)) produced the fruits richest in potassium with an average equal to 255.16 mg per 100 g FM, followed by treatment T3 (chicken manure + plantain peel potash) (245.5 mg/100g FM). For magnesium and calcium, treatments T3 (chicken manure + plantain peel potash) and T5 (NPK (10 18 18) + Urea (46% N) + Potassium sulphate (K2SO4)) were characterized by the lowest contents, thus reflecting an antagonism between potassium and these minerals.

From this study, it appears that plantain peel applied as an organic fertilizer on eggplant is a source of potassium, phosphorus, carbohydrates and energy for a good nutritional balance of the body.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Plant Growth Regulators and Micro-nutrients on Vegetative Growth, Flowering and Yield Attributes of Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.)

Oyinti Megu, B.N. Hazarika, L. Wangchu, P. Sarma, Amit Kumar Singh, P. Debnath, Thejangulie Angami

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 176-181
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1830587

The experiment was conducted to observe the effect of plant growth regulators (GA3 and NAA) and micro-nutrients (ZnSO4 and Borax) on vegetative growth, flowering and yield attributes of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.). ZnSO4 applied @ 0.4% resulted in maximum per cent increase in plant height and canopy spread, i.e. 5.78% and 6.65% respectively. Whereas, application of Borax @ 0.4% exhibited maximum per cent increase in plant girth (8.72%). NAA @ 2.5 ppm was effective in improving the flowering parameters of litchi. With respect to physical parameters of fruit and yield component, application of borax @ 0.4% resulted in maximum fruit set (43.76%), number of fruits per tree (1128.67), fruit yield (25.11 kg/tree), fruit weight (22.24 g), aril weight (15.65 g) and minimum fruit cracking (5.08%). Lowest fruit drop percentage (60.91%) was however caused by application of ZnSO4 @ 0.4%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Chemical Mutagen on Yield and Yield Attributing Traits in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

Kottalanka Sai Sankar, Gaibriyal M. Lal

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 182-190
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1830588

An experimental trail was conducted to differentiate the effect of sodium azide on yield and its attributes of chickpea. Overnight pre-soaked fresh seeds of ADBG-1, ICC-3020, ICCV-15112 genotypes were treated with various treatments of sodium azide (0.01%, 0.02%, 0.04%, 0.06%, 0.08% & control) for 06 hrs for the purpose of induction of mutation. The effect of sodium azide with unlike concentrations on yield and its attributing characters were studied in M1 generation of chickpea. Both laboratory readings and quantitative traits were recorded during experimentation. From the result, it was observed that all the laboratory readings exhibited reduction in their values upon increasing the concentrations of mutagen when compared to the control which was not treated. Whereas the efficacy of sodium azide on the average mean performance of quantitative traits on 03 chickpea genotypes exhibited that ICCV-15112 (0.04% SA) had higher seed yield and their attributing traits are Plant height, no. of secondary branches, biological yield and seed index.

Open Access Original Research Article

Construction of Sedoheptulose-1,7-Bisphosphatase (Sbpase) for Manipulation in Guard Cells of Arabidopsis thaliana L.

Batta Kucheli

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 191-199
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1830589

Guard cells control the stomata through which exchange of gas takes place in plants by balancing between CO2 uptake for photosynthesis and water loss through transpiration leading to ultimate plant water use efficiency (WUE). Due to climate change, sustainable agriculture will therefore require a major reduction in plant water use hence stomata have become potential target for manipulation. Understanding the signal mechanisms of stomata is therefore critically important in facilitating an understanding of stomatal regulation. The use of molecular tools and techniques to manipulate chloroplast metabolism specifically in the guard cells are needed to elucidate signals associated with stomatal behaviour towards crop improvement. Ability to assemble multiple or complex DNA molecules containing large number of genetic elements is an essential part of genetic engineering and in order to understand the involvement of guard cell photosynthesis in stomatal function, genetic manipulation of photosynthetic enzymes specifically in guard cells is necessary. This study employed the manipulation and construction of the enzyme Sedoheptulose-1,7-Bisphosphatase (SBpase) by using the golden gate cloning technique and the bioinformatics system- geneious. Constructs were designed to alter expression of the SBPase gene in a cell specific manner driven by the guard cell promoter KST1 in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana L. The construct design for the sense plasmid vectors allowed efficient assembly of multiple DNA fragments in a single reaction based on the type IIs restriction enzyme. The potentials of manipulating guard cell specific metabolism are therefore enormous and the increase or decrease of photosynthetic genes  could be assessed and their impacts on plant development documented accordingly.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ions and Organic Solutes as Implicated in the Ameliorative Effect of Exogenous Application of Calcium on Salt Stressed Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Plants

Eunice E. Y. Henry, Elvire Sossa, Agossou P. Noumavo, Guillaume Amadji, Lamine Baba-Moussa, Christophe B. Gandonou

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 200-212
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1830590

Aims: This study evaluated the role of sodium, potassium, proline and soluble sugars accumulation in the ameliorative effect of an exogenous application of calcium on the detrimental effect of salinity on tomato plants.

Study Design: The experiment was implemented as a Completely Randomized Design (RCD) with four treatments and three replications.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was realized in a green house of the Faculty of Agronomical Sciences, University of Abomey-Calavi, Benin Republic from June to July 2020. Methodology: Three weeks old plants of the tomato cultivar “Padma” was submitted in pots to four treatments comprising the control (without NaCl); salt stress (120 mM NaCl) and a combination of 120 mM NaCl and exogenous application of 40 mM CaSO4 or Ca (NO3)2 by irrigation every two days. Plants growth, sodium (Na) and potassium (K) as well as proline and soluble sugars contents of leaves and roots were determined after two weeks.

Results: Salt effect reduced significantly plant growth at P =.05, root K content at P =.05 and leaf K/Na ratio at P =.01 whereas it increased significantly leaf Na at P =.05 and root soluble sugars content at P =.05. The application of exogenous calcium (Ca) induced a significant amelioration of plant growth at P =.01 more marked with CaSO4 than with Ca (NO3)2. This treatment induced a significant decrease at P =.01 in leaf and root Na content and a significant increase at P =.05 in root K content only for CaSO4, a significant increase at P =.01 in leaf K/Na ratio and a significant increase at P =.01 in leaf and root proline content only for Ca(NO3)2.

Conclusion: The ameliorative effect of both forms of calcium was due mainly to sodium (Na) exclusion from leaves and potassium (K) accumulation associated to a maintain of high K/Na ratio mainly in leaves. The importance of proline accumulation as an indicator of this ameliorative effect was associated only to Ca(NO3)2.

Open Access Original Research Article

Long Term Influence of Manure- Fertilizer Treatments on Soil Biological Health and Yield of Rice Crop

B. Bhakiyathu Saliha, R. Jeyasree, P. Banupriya, R. Indirani

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 213-224
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1830591

Long term manure fertilizer experiments provide valuable information on the impact of long term adoption of nutrient management systems with varying sources, types and combinations of plant nutrient inputs on soil fertility and productivity. A Permanent Manurial Experiment (PME) under rice monoculture is in operation since 1975 at the central farm of the Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai. The present study was taken up to evaluate the effects of different manure – fertilizer schedules on certain properties of the soil, available nutrient status, total microbial population and enzyme activities of the soil. In this experiment, four main plot treatments involving three organic manures viz., FYM, GLM and UC @ 12.5 t ha-1 with a no manure control and eight sub plot treatments viz., control N,P,K,NP,NK,PK and NPK. The 57th rice crop (Var ADT 49) was raised during rabi 2016 with NPK recommended dose of 150:50:50 kg N, P2O5 and K2O respectively. The maximum total bacterial population (128 x 106 CFUg-1 of dry soil), total fungal population (70 x 104 CFUg-1 of dry soil) and total actinomycetes population ( 84 x 103 CFUg-1 of dry soil) were registered in the plots that received integrated application of GLM @ 12.5 tha-1 and 100% recommended NPK (150:50:50 kgha-1 during this season). However compared to the bacterial population, the inorganic fertilizers did not have much influence on the fungal population as that of the organic manures. Integrated application of GLM @ 12.5 tha-1 along with N fertilizer with or without P and K registered the maximum dehydrogenase activity, during tillering stage of rice crop. The maximum yields of rice grain and straw (4790 and 8701 kg ha-1) respectively was recorded in the treatments that received GLM and NPK and it was evident that the inclusion of FYM or GLM or Urban compost along with NPK, N, NP, and NK fertilizers recorded significantly higher yields than their individual applications and unmanured and unfertilized control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Improved Mutants for Grain Yield and Related Traits in Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana L Gaertn.) Through Gamma Mutagenesis

K. N. Ganapathy, T. S. S. K. Patro, K. B. Palanna, I. K. Das, M. Elangovan, B. Prashant, S. C. Venkatesha, N. Anuradha, T. E. Nagaraja, V. A. Tonapi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 225-235
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1830592

Recombination breeding is limited in finger millet due to tiny florets and irregular anthesis. Induced mutagenesis using gamma irradiation was attempted to improve grain yield and related traits in three elite cultivars (GPU28, GPU 67 and MR 6). Mean performance and estimates of BLUP and BLUE of 61 mutants showed variability among the mutants for grain yield in comparison to parental genotypes. Grain yield being a complex trait and influenced by high G × E interaction recorded low heritability estimate sand therefore BLUP provided more reliable estimates for grain yield. Stability analysis was conducted using GGE biplot techniques and also by plotting the trait means with their respective coefficient of variation values(CVs). From mean performance and stability analysis, the mutants GPU28-2212, GPU28-2086, GPU28-2082 derived from GPU 28 variety, GPU67-3358, GPU67-3359, GPU67-2094 from GPU67 variety and MR6-3393 from MR6 variety were superior for grain yield and related traits. Combined association analysis revealed tillers per plant as highly correlated trait with grain yield indicating key trait for grain yield improvement in finger millet. Mutants with improved finger traits and blast resistance are also discussed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Precision Nitrogen Management for Enhancing Yield and Quality of Fodder Maize

Zahida Rashid, N. S. Khuroo, Tanveer Ahmad Ahngar, Shabeena Majid, Sabiya Bashir, Sabina Nasseer, . Faisul-Ur-Rasool, H. Shafeeq, Z. A. Dar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 236-241
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1830593

A field experiment was conducted during Kharif 2020 at Dry land Agriculture Research Station, Rangreth, Srinagar, Kashmir on Precision Nitrogen Management for enhancing fodder yield and nitrogen use efficiency in forage maize variety SFM-1 (KDFM-1) planted in a spacing of 30 x10 cm. The treatments consisted of T1 (No N), T2 50 kg N/ha (40% N basal) + remaining based on SPAD meter critical value of 40, T3  50 kg N/ha (40% N basal) + remaining based on SPAD meter critical value of 50, T4  50 kg N/ha (40% N basal) + remaining based on LCC 4, T5 50 kg N/ha (40% N basal) + remaining based on LCC 5, T6 100 kg N/ha (40% N basal) + remaining based on SPAD meter critical value of 40, T7 100 kg N/ha (40% N basal) + remaining based on SPAD meter critical value of 50, T8 100 kg N/ha (40% N basal) + remaining based on LCC 4, T9 100 kg N/ha (40% N basal) + remaining based on LCC 5, T10 150 kg N/ha (40% N basal) + remaining based on SPAD meter critical value of 40, T11  150 kg N/ha (40% N basal) + remaining based on SPAD meter critical value of 50, T12 150 kg N/ha (40% N basal) + remaining based on LCC 4, T13150 kg N/ha (40% N basal) + remaining based on LCC 5, T14   As per recommended package of practices (50% N as basal, remaining 50% at 30 days after sowing).The treatments were replicated thrice in a randomized block design. The results recorded during the year indicated that production of fodder maize was better with the treatment T13 (150 kg N/ha (40% N basal) + remaining based on LCC 5.  It recorded 470.01 q green and 135.02 q dry matter yield per hectare.  The growth parameters namely; plant height; number of leaves per plant and quality were also improved with this treatment as compared to other treatments.

Open Access Review Article

Recent Advances of Biotechnological Tools on Diverse Species of Citrus: Current Applications and Future Prospects

Priyanka Sharma, Bidhan Roy, Monish Roy

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 242-265
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1830594

Based on the long term conservation of several endangered and indigenous species of Citrus, significant impact of biotechnological tools particularly in terms of in-vitro micropropagation methods in addition to synthetic seed production using encapsulation of plant propagules including shoot tips, nodal segments, androgenic embryos, embryogenic callus, etc. in sodium alginate has been highlighted in this manuscript. When seed is not available in enough quantity for raising seedlings for rootstock or have low levels of polyembryony and do not produce adequate quantities of nucellar seedlings, then micropropagation techniques could quickly supply in vitro regenerated rootstock or budwood. Rapid, mass-production and cost-effective biotechnological tools for propagation of citrus rootstocks and budwood would be of great importance in this regard. Reports on another aspect of long term conservation particularly based on storage of cells, tissues and organs of drought tolerant species of Citrus at ultra-low temperature preferably at -196 ºC via applications of cryopreservation techniques using vitrification and encapsulation or dehydration methods has been highlighted in this manuscript. In addition, several research on techniques of in-vitro micrografting using superior scion and rootstocks of two different species of Citrus with an objective of eradication of virus infected citrus stocks for successful production of grafts have been reviewed. Furthermore, effects of explants either through direct and indirect regeneration and conversion into a complete disease free plantlet using suitable synthetic nutrient media along with plant growth regulators at various concentrations and combinations have been highlighted in this manuscript. Hence, the current review is primarily focused on the applications and its effects of superior biotechnological tools for long term conservation of diverse species of citrus for further increasing the potentiality of Citrus industries in addition to genetic improvement and genetic resource conservation.