Open Access Original Research Article

Weed Flora Dynamics in Maize (Zea mays L.) Field as Influenced by Cover Crop Types and Planting Densities at Jalingo, Northeast, Nigeria

G. C. Michael, H. Tijani-Eniola, F. A. Nwagwu, O. W. Olaniyi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1930595

Aim: Competition from weeds is an obstacle to profitable maize production. Knowledge of weed species limiting productivity is essential for sustainable management. A two years field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of a leguminous cover crop, akidi (Vigna unquiculata sub-sp sequipedalis) and two non-leguminous cover crops (melon and sweet potato) planted at three densities on weed flora composition and shift in maize at Jalingo, North-eastern Nigeria.

Study Design: There were 11 treatments replicated three times in a randomized complete block design.

Methodology: Low, moderate and high densities (20,000, 30,000 and 40,000 stands/ha respectively) of Akidi, Melon and Sweet potato (A1, A2, A3, M1, M2, M3, S1, S2, S3) with weeded (C1) and unweeded (C2) checks constituted the treatments laid out in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. Weed flora abundance, percentage density, percentage frequency, frequency index and percentage contributions were determined from a 50cm x 50cm quadrat thrown twice per plot at various phases of maize growth.

Results: Thirteen weed families made up of 11 broad leaves, one grass and one sedge were identified. The abundance was in the order Broad leaf > Grass > Sedges. The most abundant weed species were: Imperata cylindrica L (3.8), Mucuna utilis (3.0), Oldenlandia herbacea L. (2.6) Sida acuta Burm F, Tridax procumbens L. (2.5 each), Leucas martinicensis, Pennisetum pedicellatum (2.3 each). Commelina benghalensis, Cyperus difformis (3.5), Digitaria horizontalis, Fimbristylis littoralis (2.8 each). The influence of selected cover crops on individual weed percentage the contribution shows: Commelina benghalensis ( C2<C1 < M <S< A), Euphorbia hyssopifolia (C2<M/S < A<C1), Euphorbia heterophylla (M<S<A), Leucasmartinicensis (C1<C2<M<A<S), Mucunautilis (S<M<C1<C2<A) and Sida acuta (M<S<A<C2<C1) while grassy weeds, Imperata cylindrical (A<C2<S<M), Pennisetum pedicellatum (A<C2), Digitaria horizontalis (C1/ C2< A < M <S), Kyllinga squamulata (M/S <C2<A <C1). Commelina spp. increased in status from an accessory (21.2%) to abundance (66.7%) while others increased from rare to accessory (from 0.0 to 20-40%).

Conclusion: Akidi was more effective on broad-leaved weeds while melon and sweet potato were more effective on grasses and Commelina benghalensis need to be monitored.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Chemicals and Storage Conditions on Post-harvest Quality of Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) cv. China

Mary Sumi, Animesh Sarkar, C. S. Maiti, Akali Sema, S. P. Kanaujia

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 17-25
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1930596

The efficacy of chemical dips and different storage condition, alone and in combination were imposed in freshly harvested litchi fruit to investigate the changes of bio-chemical composition of fruits at regular interval for a certain period of storage. The pre-cooled litchi fruits after disinfectant were dipped for 60 seconds in lecithin (0.5% & 1%), Hot water, HCl (3%) with hot water, CaCl2 (1% & 2%), CaSO4 (1% & 2%), wax emulsion (5% & 10%), CaNO3 (0.5% & 1%), Chitosan (1% & 2%) and Kaolin (1% & 2%). The treated fruits were stored at room temperature as well as at 4°C & 90% R.H and the quality attributes were assessed at 2, 4, 6 and 8 days interval. Calcium nitrate @ 1% under refrigerated conditions recorded maximum ascorbic acid (54.50 mg/100g pulp), fruit firmness (1.75 kg cm-2) and the lowest acidity (0.42%). Total soluble solids (18.17°B), total sugar (11.27%) and polymeric colour retention with high anthocyanin content (48.94 mg/100g pulp) in peel was found in treated fruits with calcium chloride @1% at 4°C & 90% R.H even after 8 days of storage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Carbon Sequestration Potential of Cropland at Different Doses of Composts in Southern Togo

Gbénonchi Mawussi, Ayi K. Adden, Larounga Tchaniley, Komla Sanda

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 26-34
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1930597

The objective of this study was to assess the carbon sequestration potential of cropland amended at different doses of solid household waste compost. Field experiments were conducted during four cropping seasons alternating maize and tomato. Soil samples were collected on experimental plots in 20 cm depth for soil organic carbon content determination using wet oxidation method while bulk density was measured by the core method (volumetric cylinder method) with undisturbed soil samples taken in 0 - 20 cm with steel cylinder of 100 cm3. Carbon sequestration potential varied with carbon content, bulk density and soil depth. The results shown that amount of carbon sequestered under maize cultivation (0.035±0.03 to 0.191±0.03 t C ha-1) was higher than those recorded under tomato growing areas (0.016±0.03 to 0.164±0.02 t C ha-1). Carbon sequestration rates ranged from 0.105±0.01 to 0.573±0.01 t C ha-1 yr-1 under maize cultivation and from 0.048±0.02 to 0.492±0.03 t C ha-1 yr-1 under tomato growing. It is able to conclude that household waste compost application contributes to increase carbon accumulation in soil.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Pre and Post Emergence Herbicides on Weed Dynamics, WCE and Yield of Pigeon Pea under Rainfed Conditions

Yusufali A. Nimbargi, Narayan S. Mavarkar, Pandit S. Rathod, . Ganapathi, M. S. Nandish

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 35-46
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1930598

A field experiment was conducted at ICAR-KVK, Kalaburgi, during Kharif seasons of 2018-19 and 2019-20 to adjudge the efficacy of pre and post emergence herbicides against diverse weed flora in pigeonpea ecosystem. The experiment was laid out in RCBD with 11 treatments comprising of different pre-emergent herbicides viz., Pendimethalin, Pendimethalin 30 EC + Imazethapyr 2 EC and post-emergence premix product herbicides such as Imazamox 35 WG + Imazethapyr 35 WG, Propaquizafop 2.5% + Imazethapyr 3.75%w/w ME  and their different dosages with cultural methods were compared with weed free check and weedy check treatments. Among the different pre and post emeregent herbicides tested against different weed flora,  post emergent application of Propaquizafop 2.5% + Imazethapyr 3.75% w/w ME @ 2000 ml ha-1 at 20-25 days recorded significantly lower weed density, weed dry weight, highest weed control efficiency (91.36%) and lowest weed index (8.78%) and higher grain yield (1209 kg ha-1 ),  net returns (` 43,036 ha-1) and benefit cost ratio (2.35) followed by Propaquizafop 2.5% + Imazethapyr 3.75% w/w  ME @ 1500 ml ha-1 at 20-25 DAS, Imazamox 35 WG + Imazethapyr 35 WG at 100 g ha-1 at 20-25 DAS and HW at 20 and IC 40 and 60 DAS.

Open Access Original Research Article

Increasing Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Production through Frontline Demonstrations in Irrigated Regions of Central Punjab, India

A. K. Boparai, Ritu Raj, Kuldeep Singh

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 47-55
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1930599

Aims: Frontline demonstrations plots are vital tools used by the government agricultural extension agents of India in bridging the gaps between research and extension for increase crop productivity. The study aimed at minimizing the extension-technology gaps for increasing the productivity of chickpea crop in India.

Study Design: Demonstrative design.

Methodology: Total 121 demonstrations plots were constructed over an area of 30 ha for a period of three years - 2017-2019.

Results: The result showed that average grain yield in the demonstration plot increased by 21.07% over the control fields. The mean technology gap and extension gap were 1.30 and 3.26 q ha-1, respectively with 6.51% technology index value. The average benefit cost ratio for the demonstration plots was 3.55, compared to the control plot, which was 2.95.

Conclusion: It is concluded that the frontline demonstrations plots have a great potential to increase chickpea productivity in India. The demonstration techniques used can be adopted in diversifying crop production with improper irrigation facilities in order to increase food security in India.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Genitic Variability, Cause Effect and Interrelationship among Yield Components in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

Kodam Swathi, Gabrial M. Lal

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 56-62
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1930600

The present investigation consists of   26 genotypes of Chickpea including one check, which were grown in the Field Experimentation Centre of the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, SHUATS, Prayagraj during Rabi 2020 following RBD with three replications. The data were recorded on 11 characters. Assessment of genetic variability, cause effect and interrelationship among yield components in chickpea. High significant variation was obtained for all characters studied. High GCV and PCV in chickpea germplasm were observed for Total no of pods per plant, number of effective pods per plant, biological yield, seed yield. High estimate of heritability coupled with high genetic advance as percent of mean was recorded for No. of primary branches, No. of secondary branches, Total no of pods per plant, No. of effective pods per plant, biological yield, Seed yield per plant, Harvest index, Seed index. High values for heritability indicates that it may be due to higher contribution of genotypic components. Traits exhibiting high heritability coupled with genetic advance as percent of mean suggest that the traits are governed by additive gene action, equal contribution of additive and non-additive gene action respectively. Correlation coefficient analysis revealed that seed yield per plant exhibited positive and significant association with Biological yield per plant, Harvest index and plant height at genotypic and phenotypic levels. Correlation coefficient analysis revealed that seed yield per plant exhibited positive and significant association with Biological yield per plant, Harvest index and plant height at genotypic and phenotypic levels. Path analysis revealed that characters plant height, number of primary branches, biological yield and harvest index have positive direct effect on seed yield per plant at genotypic and phenotypic level.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seed Health of Chickpea as Influenced by Different Packaging during Storage

Vijaysingh Thakur, C. M. Nawalagatti

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 63-70
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1930601

A storage experiment was conducted to know the influence of cloth, gunny, high density polythene (HDPE), and vacuum packed bags on the seed health of chickpea for 18 months. To investigate, chickpea seeds were packed in all the bags and were kept in ambient conditions. During the storage period, there was a lot of fluctuation in moisture content of the seeds based on the relative humidity in cloth, gunny, and HDPE bags due to the pervious nature of packaging materials whereas, there was no moisture fluctuation in vacuum packed bags due to lower water vapor and oxygen transmission rate and higher thickness of polythene bag used for vacuum package. After 8 months of storage period, there was bruchids infestation to the seeds stored in cloth, gunny, and HDPE bags whereas, no bruchids infestation were seen to vacuum packed bag even after 18 months of storage but germination, root length, shoot length, seedling vigour index, seedling dry weight has reduced and mean germination time, electrical conductivity of seed leachates has increased due to seed aging.  Hence, vacuum packaging technology can be effectively used for storage of chickpea seeds for longer period without any aid of chemicals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pre-sowing Seed Treatments of Botanicals and Chemicals on Growth, Yield and Yield Attributing Traits of Mustard (Brassica juncea L.)

Kadurla Srikanth, Prashant Kumar Rai, Prashant Ankur Jain, A. Saipriya

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 71-76
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1930602

The experiment was conducted in the field of Seed Science and Technology at the department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, SHUATS, Prayagraj (U.P) during Rabi season 2020-2021, in order to standardize the suitable pre-sowing seed treatment of Mustard (Variety-Kranti). Different pre-sowing seed treatments include Thirteen treatments with T0- control, T1-KCL @ 0.3%, T2-KNO3 @ 0.5%, T3-PEG6000 @ 25ppm, T4-PEG6000 @ 50ppm, T5-Panchagavya @ 2%, T6-Panchagavya @ 4%, T7-Panchagavya @ 6%, T8-Panchagavya @ 8%, T9-MNSO4 @ 0.1%, T10-MNSO4 @ 0.3%, T11-MNSO4 @ 0.5%, T12-Tulasi leaf extract @ 2% Soaking for 6 hrs. Pre-sowing seed treatment with PEG6000 @ 50ppm shows increased germination percentage, growth, yield and yielding attributes followed by Panchagavya @ 6% The Experiment and study indicated interesting and different outcomes for each treatment performed. All various priming treatments used was better than control, but overall the best performance was recorded in T4- PEG6000 @ 50ppm, gave the best result to enhanced germinability, seed vigour, seed yield and yielding attributes of mustard.

Open Access Original Research Article

Exogenous Spermine Mitigate Adversities of Salinity Induced Oxidative Stress through Antioxidant Metabolites in Wheat

Midathala Raghavendra, Dommalapati Sudhakara Rao, Naresh Kumar, Shashi Madan, Renu Munjal

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 77-93
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1930603

Change in climatic scenarios due to global warming is characterized by extreme climate variability, land and water degradation which resulted in water scarcity. Accumulation of salts at the surface and sub-surface layers of soils affect crop production of major cereals which is a constraint in sustainable food production. Salinity is a major challenge to tackle wheat cultivation and harness productivity in arid and semi-arid regions of India. In the present investigation, mitigation of salinity induced oxidative stress through exogenous application of spermine (Spm) in four wheat genotypes was studied in relation to antioxidant metabolites. The levels of O2.- increased with increasing levels of salinity in wheat flag leaves. DBW 88 showed the levels of O2.- of 11.75 nmol g-1 FW and 15.74 nmol g-1 FW (at 8 dSm-1 and 12 dSm-1 respectively) at 21 Days After Sowing (DAS) and application of Spm decreased the O2.- content under control and saline stressed conditions at 8 dSm-1 and 12 dSm-1. Hydrogen peroxide content was increased with increasing levels of salinity in all the wheat varieties at 21 DAS. However, the increase was more in the case of DBW 88 when compared with HD 3086. Treatment of Spm decreased the H2O2 content when compared with control and saline stressed wheat varieties. The malondialdehyde (MDA) content was increased with increasing levels of salinity at 21 DAS. The highest increase in MDA content was seen in DBW 88 whereas the lowest increase was found in Kharchia 65. Application of Spm decreased the MDA content under control at both levels of salinity treated wheat varieties. The carotenoid content decreased with increasing levels of salinity in all four wheat varieties. However, the decrease was more in DBW 88 when compared with other varieties viz. HD 3086, Kharchia 65 and KRL 210 at 21 DAS. Exogenous Spm increased the carotenoids content in all four wheat varieties irrespective of the salinity. The leaves of Kharchia 65 and KRL 210 had higher levels of ascorbic acid as compared to that of DBW 88 and HD 3086. Increased content of carotenoid was observed in Spm-treated wheat. Exogenous application of Spm increased the ascorbic acid content in control at both levels of salt stress. The glutathione content increased with an increase in salinity treatment in all the varieties however, a higher increase was observed in Kharchia 65. Exogenous Spm increased the glutathione content in all the varieties irrespective of salinity stress. The results presented in the study indicated that the exogenous application of Spm improved their tolerance levels under salinity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Association and Path Coefficient Analysis for Grain Yield Characters in Elite Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Germplasm

N. Nikitha Reddy, Gabrial M. Lal, B. Pragathi, P. Nikhil

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 94-99
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1930604

The study was carried out to study the correlation and path coefficient analysis for grain yield characters in 36 rice genotypes including one check for 13 quantitative parameters. The experimental material was carried out during Kharif, 2020, in a randomized block design with three replications obtained from the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, SHUATS, Allahabad, U.P., India. Analysis of variance revealed that there is significant variability among the genotypes. Correlation coefficient analysis at genotype level and phenotypic level revealed that plant height, flag leaf length, flag leaf width, number of tillers per hill, number of panicles per hill, number of spikelets per panicle, biological yield, and harvest index, showed positive significant correlation with grain yield per plant. Path coefficient analysis at both genotypic and phenotypic levels revealed that flag leaf length, number of panicles per hill, days to maturity, biological yield, harvest index and test weight had positive direct effect on grain yield per hill. Biological yield per hill (0.8481) exerted high positive direct effect as well as high positive significant association (0.809**) with grain yield per hill thus this character resulted as most essential direct yield character.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Trichoderma spp. from Rhizosphere Soil and Their Antagonistic Activity against Fusarium spp.

Jaygendra Kumar, Mukesh Kumar, Akash Tomar, . Vaishali, Pushpendra Kumar, Puran Chand

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 100-112
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1930605

Trichoderma species are well known for their biocontrol activity which colonize many soil and tuber-borne and foliage plant pathogens. In this study, 12 native isolates of Trichiderma spp were collected from various crop rhizosphere soil samples and characterized them phenotypically based on morphological and cultural features and genotypically based on sequence analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region-PCR amplification. The results obtained from phenotypic and genotypic observation revealed that isolates were belonged to five different species namely T. asperellum, T. harzianum, T. longibrachiatum, T. koningii and T. koningiopsis. All Trichoderma isolates produced ~600 bp amplicon and phylogenetic analysis revealed that all isolates were grouped with respective species. Further, the antagonistic potential of all the isolates was evaluated against Fusarium spp. following in vitro dual culture method. The results showed that isolates of T. harzianum exhibited maximum growth inhibition activity. The highest rate of inhibition was recorded with T. harzianum isolate TBT6 (87.1%) followed by TBT7 (82.2%), while the least inhibition was observed in T. longibrachiatum isolate TBT10 (59.7%) after 7 days of incubation. The antagonistic T. harzianum isolate TBT6 can be used for development of Trichoderma based bio-formulation and served as bio-control agent against Fusaium spp. under field conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Variability Studies for Yield and Yield Related Attributes in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Genotypes

Babburi Dinesh, Gaibriyal M. Lal, L. Bhanuprasad

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 113-123
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1930607

A set of twenty four rice genotypes including one check variety were grown to estimate study genetic variability, heritability, genetic advance, correlation and path coefficient for 13 quantitative characters, observation recorded to study the genetic variability parameters, correlation coefficient and path coefficient for yield and its attributing traits. High to moderate estimates of GCV and PCV were recorded for test weight followed by spikelets per panicle, grain yield per plant, flag leaf width, flag leaf length, tillers per hill, biological yield and panicles per hill. Grain yield indicated significant positive correlation with plant height followed by tillers per hill, panicles per hill, biological yield and harvest index in terms of phenotypic correlation coefficient whereas in terms of genotypic coefficient it showed positive and significant correlation with plant height, tillers per hill, panicles per hill, biological yield and harvest index. Path coefficient analysis showed positive significant direct effects on grain yield per hill were exhibited by plant height, tillers per hill and harvest index at genotypic level whereas it showed positive and significant direct effect for tillers per hill, flag leaf width, biological yield and harvest index at phenotypic level. Thus, these traits are identified as the efficient and potential for indirect selection for the improvement of rice productivity in the present experimental materials.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Chemicals, Botanicals and Growth Regulator Treatments on Plant Growth and Yield Attributing Traits of Lentil (Lens culinaris L.) Variety: K-75

Avuta Saipriya Ramesh, Prashant Kumar Rai, Sasya Nagar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 124-129
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1930608

The experiment was conducted in post graduate Seed Testing Laboratory and Field Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj (U.P) during Rabi season 2020-2021, in order to standardize the suitable pre-sowing seed treatment for Lentil (K-75). Different pre-sowing seed treatments viz.,T0-Control (untreated), T1- KCL @1%, T2- KCL @ 3%, T3- KNO3 @ 1%, T4- KNO3 @ 3%, T5- Panchagavya @ 2%, T6 – GA3 @ 20ppm, T7 – Panchagavya @ 4%, T8 – GA3 @ 10ppm,T9 – Panchagavya @ 6%,T10 – Tulasi Leaf Extract @ 2%, T11 – Tulasi Leaf Extract @ 4%,T12 – Tulasi Leaf Extract @ 6% were evaluated by screening of 12 hour. It was found that all the pre-sowing seed treatments recorded the significant difference with that of control. In field condition highest field emergence percentage,yield and yielding attributes was found in T7 -Panchagavya @ 4%. Pre-sowing seed treatment with Panchagavya @ 4% followed by GA3 @ 10 ppm, Panchagavya @ 2%, KCL @ 1% significantly increased the germination and yielding attributes of Lentil. Pre-sowing seed treatments with Panchagavya (4%) and GA3 (10ppm) resulted in maximum increase in field emergence, vigour of Lentil seeds and found to be lowest in control seeds. Pre-sowing seed treatment that leads to a physiological condition that allows the seed to germinate more effectively and no costly equipment and chemical requirements could be used. Hence it is a simple method for overcoming weak germination and seedling establishment and helps to preserve agriculture and economical, non-toxic, eco-friendly sources.

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation and Path Analysis of Yield and Related Traits of Upland Rice Genotypes across Weeding Regimes

Grace S. David, Linus J. Agah, Patrick O. Ukatu, Donatus F. Uwah, Idorenyin, A. Udo

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 130-138
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1930609

This investigation was carried out at International Institute of Tropical Agriculture IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria to estimate correlation coefficients of yield and associated traits of thirty-six upland rice lines and the effect of these attributes in four weeding regimes. The weeding regimes were: weed free, weeding twice (21 and 42 days after sowing (DAS), weeding once at 42 DAS only, and weeding once at 21 DAS only, laid out in an alpha lattice design replicated two times. Correlation analysis indicated that yield was significantly and positively associated with panicle length, panicle number and 100 seed weight in both years. There was also a highly significant negative correlation between weed dry matter at all the sampling periods and number of tillers, plant height at maturity in 2011 and number of panicles and panicle length in 2012. Weed dry matter was negatively correlated with grain yield (P < 0.01) in both years clearly explaining the adverse effect of weed on the yield of rice. Path analysis revealed that days to 50% flowering, 100 seed weight, number of panicles and panicle length had direct positive effect on yield across the weeding regimes. Hence, selection based on these traits could help bring simultaneous improvement of yield and yield attributes. For further breeding activities, more emphasis should be given to 100 seed weight, days to 50% flowering, number of panicles and panicle length as they showed high correlation in addition to maximum direct positive effects on yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pre-Sowing Seed Treatments of Panchagavya and Plant Growth Regulators on Growth, Yield and Yield Attributing Traits of Field Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Variety-IPF (4-9)

M. Vijay Raj, Prashant Kumar Rai, Sasya Nagar, B. Samanth Goud

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 139-144
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1930610

A field experiment was conducted during rabi 2020 at Crop Research Farm, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, SHAUTS, PRAYAGRAJ, (U.P.). The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design and comprised of 13 treatments and 3 replications. The treatments which are T0 -Control, T1-Panchagavya 3%, T2-Panchagavya 5%, T3- Panchagavya 5%, T4-Panchagavya 5%, T5- Gibberellic acid 10 ppm for 6 hours, T6-Gibberllic acid 10ppm for 12 hours, T7- Gibberellic aid 15ppm for 6 hours, T8-Gibberlic acid 15 ppm for 12hours, T9-IAA at 50 ppm, T10-IAA at 100 ppm, T11-NAA at 50 ppm, T12-NAA at 100 ppm used. The result showed that viz., Field emergence, Plant height 90 DAS, Days to 50% flowering, Number of branches, Days to maturity, Number of pods per plant, Number of seed per pod, Seed yield per plant (gm), Biological yield (gm), Seed index (gm) and Harvest index were recorded significantly highest in the treatment of T8-Gibberllic acid 15 ppm for 12 hours and the least performance was observed in T0-Control when compared to other treatments. Hence, the seed treatment of Gibberellic acid 15ppm for 12hours could be recommended for the Field Pea.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of Genetic Parameters and Character Association in Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea L.)

H. Kumar, A. Kumar, S. Gupta, V. Gupta, Amit Kumar Singh

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 145-156
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1930611

An experiment was undertaken to examine the yield potential and genetic parameters of Indian mustard through yield and yield contributing traits in the Bundelkhand region of Uttar Pradesh. Twenty-five mustard genotypes were assessed for nine agro-morphological traits during Rabi 2018-19. Phenotypic data were subjected to analysis of variance, pairwise mean comparison, genetic parameter studies, and association analysis using R-Packages 1.5 STAR 2.0.1, and SPAR 2.0 Package. The evaluated germplasm had ample genetic variability for studied traits and trait-specific genotypes have been identified. The trait seed yield showed higher heritability coupled with higher genetic advance as percent of the mean (99% and 70.41) followed by the number of SB (98% and 65.57) and TSW (100% and 62.50) are more authentic for selecting the leading genotype. The association studies revealed a significant and positive correlation of seed yield with the number of siliquae per plant (0.346), siliquae length (0.333), and 1000 seed-weight (0.237) at both genotypic and phenotypic levels. The lines Maya, RH 119, IC 571649, Durgamini, and IC 447111 showed better performance and produced higher seed yields in the Bundelkhand region. These identified genotypes having desirable trait combinations may be utilized for creating variability to develop location-specific cultivars.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Gypsum as a Soil Ameliorant on Salt-affected Soils in the Ho-Keta Plain of the Volta Region, Ghana

L. Sackey, E. Osei, E. O. Bennoah, A. Tettey

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 157-162
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1930612

Aims: To assess the effectiveness of Gypsum as a chemical ameliorant on three selected salt-affected soils of the Ho-Keta plain, in the Volta region of Ghana.

Study Design:  Complete Randomized Design.

Place and Duration of Study:  Soil Research Institute, Kwadaso, Kumasi between June 2014 and July 2019.

Methodology: Soil sampling was taken in two forms. The initial sampling was taken at a depth of 0-30 cm from Anyako, Anyenui and Atiehife for the soil physical and chemical analysis. Samples were further taken from profiles, composited and sub-sampled for the leaching experiment. Approximately 2.6 kg of the soil samples from the different sites were taken, mixed thoroughly with different rates 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of Gypsum, (CaSO4.2H2O) and filled into fifteen perforated polyvinyl plastic pots and replicated four times. The pots were saturated with water, incubated for 24 h and leached intermittently with 120 mL distilled water for a period of four weeks.

Results: Significant displacement of Na+ by Ca2+ and subsequently leached became evident in the reduced values recorded for pH, EC and SAR. The applied gypsum reduced pH within a range of 4.0 to 4.2 compared to the original soil with no significant differences among the treatments at p = 0.05. Though a similar trend was observed for EC, significant difference at p = 0.05 was observed at gypsum level above 50%. Sodium adsorption ratio recorded a marked difference as gypsum level was varied with significant difference at p = 0.05 compare to the control.  

Conclusion: The study revealed that gypsum rates at 75% and 100% Gypsum requirement were effective in improving the chemical properties of the soils with significant reductions in salinity, sodicity and pH. Atiehife soil performed better compared to Anyenui and Anyako soils.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Diversity Studies in Field Pea (Pisum sativum var. arvense L.) Germplasm

Ravouri Priyanka, Gaibriyal M. Lal

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 163-169
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1930613

The present study entitled “Genetic diversity Studies in Field Pea Germplasm (Pisum sativum var. arvense L.)” was carried out to estimate the genetic variability for yield and yield contributing traits, study the relationship between yield and yield attributing traits on seed yield and its component traits and to assess direct and indirect of yield attributing traits on seed yield. The experimental material was consisting of 41 Field Pea genotypes. The experiment was laid out in Randomized complete block design with three replications. The observations were recorded on five randomly selected plants from each treatment and replication for 12 different quantitative traits Days to 50% flowering, Days to 50% pod setting, Plant height (cm), Number of branches per plant, Number of Pods per plant, Number of seeds per pod, Pod length (cm) days to maturity, biological yield (gm), Harvest Index, Seed Index (gm), Seed yield per plant (gm). Based on the mean performance, high seed yield per plant were identified for the genotype zimndal (11.59) followed by Matar-23 (10.76). The higher phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variations were observed for number of primary branches per plant (33.92 & 24.56), seed yield per plant (29.84 & 25.67) and number of seeds per pod (28.61 & 22.64). High heritability coupled with high genetic advance as percent of mean was observed for plant height (84.43 & 40.55), days to 50% flowering (77.30 & 34.92) and pod length (71.55 & 32.55). Based on Mahalanobis D2 values 41 genotypes grouped into 8 clusters. Among 8 clusters cluster I had more number of genotypes (25) followed by cluster II (8 genotypes), cluster VIII (3 genotypes). The maximum intra cluster distance was observed in cluster VIII (10.26) followed by cluster II (8.59) and cluster I (7.72). The highest inter cluster distance observed between cluster I and cluster VI (24.07) followed by cluster I and cluster IV (22.25), cluster I and cluster III (21.41). Therefore, genotypes present in these clusters may be used as parents to produce the transgressive segregants. The cluster IV (12.57) had significant and higher cluster mean for seed yield per plant. The trait number of primary branches per plant (25.12%) had maximum contribution towards to genetic divergence followed by harvest index (21.95%), biological yield per plant (19.39%), seed yield per plant (19.15%).

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Seed Treatment with Chemicals and Plant Growth Regulators on Growth and Yield Attributing Traits of Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea L.) Variety: Pusa Bold

N. Syam Prasad, Prashant Kumar Rai, Abhinav Dayal

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 170-176
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1930615

The Experiment was conducted in the field of Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj (U.P.) during Rabi season 2020-2021, in order to standardize the suitable pre- sowing seed treatment for Mustard. Different pre- sowing seed treatments with control (Unhardened) were evaluated  viz., T0– Control,T1- Mg(No3)2 @ 0.1%,T2- Mg(No3)2 @ 0.3%,T3- Mg(No3)2 @ 0.5%,T4- Ca(No3)2 @ 0.1%,T5- KNO3 @ 0.5%,T6- Mg(So4)2 @ 0.1%,T7- Mg(So4)2 @ 0.3%,T8- Mg(So4)2 @ 0.5%,T9- GA3 @ 25ppm,T10- GA3 @ 50ppm,T11- GA3 @ 75ppm,T12- PEG6000 @ 25ppm. It was found that the all pre-sowing seed treatments showed significance difference with control. Seed treatment with KNO3 @ 0.5% found to be highest in field emergence and yield attributes of Mustard and it was followed by GA3 @ 25ppm and Mg(No3)2 @ 0.1%. Pre- sowing seed treatment with KNO3 @ 0.5% and GA3 @ 25 ppm showed maximum increase yield  of mustard seeds and found to be lowest in control seeds. Pre-sowing seed treatments of the mustard seeds in which KNO3 @ 0.5% gave best result to enhanced germinability, seed vigour, seed yield and yielding attributes. These conclusions are based on the results of six months investigation and therefore further investigation is needed to arrive at valid recommendations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on Exogenous Application of Organics for Alleviating Salt Stress in Sorghum Crop

K. Anny Mrudhula, Y. Sudha Rani, P. Venkata Subbaiah, A. Sambaiah

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 177-180
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1930616

Abiotic stresses soil salinity is one of the major restricting the use of land for agriculture because it limits the crop growth and development. In these stressful conditions, improving productivity is important challenge because salinity has different effects on crop growth and developmental stages in different crops. Exogenous application of proline, humic acid and ascorbic acid has improved salt stress tolerance in various plant species. An experiment was conducted in farmer’s field at Raparla village, Battiprolu mandal during spring season, 2018 and 2019 to evaluate the effect of exogenous application of organics for alleviating salt stress on sorghum crop. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design with five treatments which replicated four times. Five treatments in this study were applied as follows: (T1) control i.e farmer’s practice; (T2) proline application at 0.6 g/L; (T3) ascorbic acid application at 0.2 g/L; (T4) humic acid application at 2 g/L; (T5) Combination of T1, T2, T3 and T4. The Results showed that all treatments (T2, T3 T4 and T5) effected on the yield characteristic and yield (kg/ha). The highest yield attributes and yield of sorghum crop (3460 and 3240 kg/ha) was significantly recorded by T5 (the combined application of proline + ascorbic acid + humic acid) followed by T2 (alone proline application).

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Genetic Variability and Correlation of Yield Related Traits in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

Veeramalla Rohith Guptha, Gabrial M. Lal, Jakkam Mahipal Reddy, P. Venkata Bala Bramhanjaneyulu, C. Kalyan Sagar, Ch. Sai Nayan

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 181-188
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1930617

The present investigation was undertaken with 21 genotypes of Chickpea, (including one check) during Rabi 2020-21 in a randomized block design with three replications at field experimentation centre of Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding. Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences. The data were recorded for 13 characters to study genetic variability, correlation and path analysis. Analysis of variance among 21 genotypes showed highly significant differences for all the characters indicated the presence of substantial amount of genetic variability. On the basis of mean performance, the highest seed yield was observed in genotype NBEG-1121 and RVS-5949. The estimates of GCV and PCV were moderate for plant height, number of primary branches. Low GCV and PCV was recorded for days to 50% flowering. The difference between PCV and GCV was very low for all 13 yield contributing characters. This indicates that the influence of environment factor was low on these characters. High heritability estimate was recorded for number of seeds per plant, number of secondary branches per plant. A high magnitude of genetic advance expressed as a percent of mean was observed in respect of number of seeds per plant, number of secondary branches per plant. Seed yield per plant exhibited positive and highly significant correlations with days to 50% Flowering, no of secondary branches at both genotypic and phenotypic level. The positive non-significant correlations of seed yield per plant were found with number of secondary branches and days to maturity. Negative non- significant correlation was being observed with the plant height, number of primary branches per plant and number of pods per plant. Path analysis at both genotypic and phenotypic level showed positive direct effects by days to 50% flowering, number of secondary branches per plant. The characters identified above as important components merit due to consideration in the formulation of effective selection strategy in chickpea for developing high yielding varieties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Boron on Nutritional Quality of Groundnut Grown in Coastal Sandy Soils

K. M. Haneena, P. Venkata Subbaiah, Ch. Sujani Rao, K. Srinivasulu

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 189-197
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1930618

Aim: To study the effect of boron on quality parameters and micronutrient uptake of groundnut in coastal sandy soils.

Study Design: The experiment laid out in randomized block design with three replications.

Place of Study: At College Farm, Agricultural College, Bapatla, Guntur.

Methodology: After the preliminary layout, the TAG-24 variety of groundnut was used as a test crop, with a spacing of 30 cm x 10 cm in the experimental site. Plant samples were collected at 45, 90 DAS, and harvest. Plant samples were shade dried and kept in hot air oven at 75°C until a constant weight was obtained. Samples were powdered and then analysed for micronutrients using standard chemical procedures.

Results: Protein content, boron content and uptake of micronutrients viz., iron, zinc, manganese, copper and boron were significantly improved with the application of boron in groundnut. Oil content and oil yield were not significantly influenced by the application of boron. The highest value of all these parameters were recorded in T4 (RDF + soil application of Borax @ 12.5 kg/ha).

Conclusion: Application of boron along with RDF improved the nutritional quality of groundnut in coastal sandy soils.

Open Access Original Research Article

Exogenously Applied Proline Modulates Drought Tolerance in Maize (Zea mays L)

Shamim Akram, Mohammad Golam Kibria, Yoshiyuki Murata, Md. Anamul Hoque

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 198-212
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1930619

Improving drought stress tolerance in maize is essential to increase its production and yield worldwide.  Thus, the present study was conducted to investigate the improvement of drought tolerance in maize (Zea mays L.) by exogenous application of proline (25 and 50mM) on two maize varieties. Maize plants were subjected to drought stress at various phases of plant growth under pot culture conditions and proline was applied as foliar spray. Water deficit stress caused a significant decrease (by approximately 25%) in growth and yield of both maize varieties by decreasing plant height, cob length, dry root weight, grains per cob and 100-grain weight. Water deficit stress also decreased chlorophyll and intercellular proline contents, and antioxidant enzyme activities viz. catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (POX) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Exogenous application of proline (50 mM) was found to be more effective in increasing growth and yield of both varieties. These increases were positively associated with increased levels (by at least 15%) of chlorophyll and intracellular proline, and enhanced activities of CAT, POX and APX enzymes in both varieties. Interaction effects of exogenous proline and water deficit stress were significant in aspects of higher growth and yields and enhanced levels of chlorophyll, intracellular proline and antioxidant enzyme activities. Therefore, it is concluded that foliar application of proline improves drought tolerance by modulating chlorophyll and intracellular proline contents, and antioxidant enzyme activities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Gypsum on Rice Growth in Three Salt- affected Agricultural Soils in the Ho-Keta Plain

L. Sackey, E. Osei, E. O. Bennoah, A. Tettey

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 213-219
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1930620

Aims: To assess the growth attribute of NERRICA- L19 rice in three salt-affected Agricultural soils amended with Gypsum from the Ho- Keta plain in the Volta region, Ghana.

Study Design: Complete Randomized Design.

Place and Duration of Study: Soil Research Institute, Kwadaso, Kumasi between June 2016 and July 2019.

Methodology: Approximately 2.6 kg of the soil samples were taken from three different sites, namely, Anyako, Anyenui and Atiehife and were mixed thoroughly with different rates 0%, 75% and 100% of Gypsum, (CaSO4.2H2O) and filled into thirty six perforated polyvinyl plastic pots. The pots were saturated with water and incubated for 24 h. Twenty-one-day old seedlings of NERRICA- L 19 rice were transplanted into the pots, arranged in a randomized complete design and leached for four weeks. Core sample of the soils from each pot were taken and analyzed at the end of the experiment. Data on growth attributes (plant height, number of leaves and number of tillers) and leave tissue compositions (Ca, Mg, K, Na, P and N) were measured.

Results: The study revealed that Gypsum rates at (75 and 100%) increased the growth attributes and tissue concentrations of NERRICA- L 19 rice compared to the control. Growth parameters, such as plant height, number of leaves and tiller for Anyako, Anyenui and Atiehife soils, increased as Gypsum levels increased with significant differences in the height of the plants and the number of plant leaves recorded (P = 0.05).  However there was no significant difference in tillers growth recorded for Atiehife soil, compared to Anyako and Anyenui soils (P = 0.05). The chemical constituents of the leave tissue, showed high composition of calcium and potassium than magnesium, while the composition of sodium decreased. The concentration of calcium, magnesium and potassium increased significantly at (P = 0.05) in Anyako and Atiehife soils with no-significant level in Anyenui soil. The trend was the same for the concentration of sodium.

The concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus increased as the level of treatment increased. In respect to P accumulation, the differences were not significant in Atiehife soils, but was significant in Anyako and Anyenui soils.

Conclusion: Gypsum application significantly enhanced nutrient uptake and increased the growth attributes of NERRICA - L19 rice compared to the control. Atiehife soil responded better to the reclamation process than the remaining soils, showing high growth performance. Gypsum applied at the rate of 16.92 kg/ha was recommended for adoption.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Quantitative Index Based on Leaf Heteroblasty for Predicting Root Biomass in a Frequently Burned Savanna Species: Cussonia arborea Hochst. Ex A. Rich. (Araliaceae)

Yao Anicet Gervais Kouamé, Mathieu Millan, Aya Brigitte N’Dri, Adama Bakayoko, Jacques Gignoux, Tristan Charles-Dominique

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 220-237
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i1930621

Background: Biotic and abiotic disturbances such as frequent wildfires and herbivory contribute to maintain trees and grasses coexistence in savanna ecosystems. In comparison to stems and leaves, exposed to fire and herbivory, the roots, protected by being belowground, are less affected by these disturbances. Therefore, indirect estimation of belowground biomass (BGB) of savanna trees from simple allometric relations based on stem measurements can lead to major biases.

Aims: In this study we explored how the Leaf ontogenetic change index (LOCI), a quantitative index based on leaf heteroblastic development, can provide an accurate estimate of BGB in Cussonia arborea, a widespread species in West African humid savannas.

Methodology: We examined leaf morphometrics on post-fire resprouts of 40 individuals to assess whether LOCI can inform on plant age. We then analyzed by log-level regressions the variation of LOCI in relation to plant stem volume. Subsequently, we studied the variation of BGB according to stem volume, and as a function of both stem volume and LOCI, which allowed us to evaluate the contribution of LOCI to BGB estimation. BGB was obtained destructively by digging up roots and weighing total dry mass of 25 individuals including small and large trees. Statistical analyses were done with the R software.

Place and Duration of Study: Study was performed in the Lamto Scientific Reserve, Côte d’Ivoire, between May 2020 and June 2021.

Results: Using the stem volume as single explanatory variable of BGB, the regression model provided an adjusted R2 of 0.71. Association of the stem volume with LOCI increased the adjusted R2 from 0.71 to 0.90.

Conclusion: Combining LOCI with a measure of stem size provides better estimate of BGB in C. arborea compared to estimate based on stem size only. Since a large proportion of woody species in frequently disturbed environments exhibit an overall strategies promoting persistence, future works should evaluate how these strategies are modulated during ontogeny and can explain biomass variation over time.