Open Access Articles

Influence of Bio-fertilizer and Organic Seed Treatment on Growth and Yield Attributing Traits of Mustard (Brassica nigra L.) Variety (Pusa -21)

Jalla Manjunadh, Abhinav Dayal, Sasya Nagar, Prashant Kumar Rai

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 149-157
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2030641

The Field experiment was conducted in a Randomized block Design (RBD) with three replications during Rabi, 2020-2021 at Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj. The genetically pure seeds of Mustard variety Pusa-21 were used for the study. The mustard seeds primed with botanicals and chemicals( Vermiwash, Panchagavya, Azatobactor, NaCl , KNO3, Neem leaf, Parthenium leaf and FYM) were subjected to  study in field experiment of growth and yield parameters were recorded. Objectives of the topic are to evaluate the Influence of bio fertilizer and organic seed treatment on growth, yield and yield attributing traits of mustard crop and to find out the suitable pre-sowing seed treatment  for mustard crop. Analysis of variance revealed significant mean sum of squares due to seed priming treatments. The highest germination percent (88.89),plant height (132.53 cm), number of branches(12.60 per plant),  yield attributing parameters in mustard as number of silique per plant (292.87), number of seeds per silique (18.73), seed yield per plant (17.73 gm/plant), seed yield  per plot (214.33 gm/ plot), biological yield per plot (443.15/ plot), seed yield per hectare (2143.33 kg/ ha), biological yield per hectare (5140 kg/ ha) and harvest index (41.69) showing better result when treated with treatment vermiwash 5 % for 12 hours. Remaining treatments i.e, treatment with panchgavya 5 % & 3 %, azotobactor 3 % & 2 %, NaCl  0.5 % & 0.1 %, KNO3 0.5 % & 0.1 %, neem leaf extract, parthenium leaf extract for and fym 2 % for 12 hours recorded the second most effective treatments and observed significantly superior. It  concluded that T8 (vermiwash 5% solution) found superior in all the growth and yield parameters.

Open Access Short Research Article

Influence of New Generation PGRs on Yield Parameter and Economics of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Dashehari

Manas Kumar Patel, Chintamani Panda, Susanta Senapati, Pradyot Kumar Nayak

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2030623

The present investigation entitled “Influence of new generation PGRs on yield of mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Dashehari” was conducted at Horticulture experiment Station, Baramunda, OUAT, Bhubaneswar during the year 2017-19. The objective of this experiment was to improve the fruit retention of mango, Yield and its economic in c.v. Dashehari by using brassinostroids and triacontanol. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replication and 12 treatments. Comprising spraying of brassinostroids (each 0.5 and 1.0 ppm), Triacontanol (@ each 300, 500 and 700 ppm) and control and its combination. The observations on different characters of fruit viz., fruit set per panicle at pea stage, fruit retention per panicle at marble stage, fruit drop %, fruit retention per panicle at harvest stage, fruit retention per  shoot cluster, fruit retention per tree, number of days taken from spraying to ripening, yield per tree (kg), and its economics were recorded. Among these treatments 1 ppm brassinosteroid and 300ppm triacontanol sprayed at pea stage has increased in fruit retention per panicle at harvest stage (5.95), fruit retention per shoot cluster (30.04) and fruit retention per tree (174.84) along with early maturity (81.66 days) and yield (31.87 kg) found whereas 1 ppm brassinosteroid give maximum fruit set per panicle at pea stage (35.16) & Fruit retention per panicle at marble stage (14.63) and minimum fruit drop percentage (49.25%) were found in 300 ppm triacontanol. Maximum gross return (Rs74,625/-) and B:C ratio (1: 2.94) also found in the treatment 1 ppm brassinosteroid and 300 ppm triacontanol.

Open Access Short Research Article

Effect of Floral Preservatives and Growth Regulators on Post Harvest Life of Gladiolus (Gladiolus grandiflorus L.) cv. American Beauty

Y. Angel, A. Vignesh Kumar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 79-83
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2030632

A Postharvest experiment was conducted to maximize the vase life of gladiolus using different preservative solution in department of Horticulture, Kalasalingam School of Agriculture and Horticulture. In this experiment the treatment consisted of two preservative chemicals and two growth regulators viz., 8-Hydroxy quinoline sulphate @ 300 ppm Silver nitrate @ 50 ppm, Benzyl adenine @ 20,40,60 ppm and Gibberlic acid @ 10,25,40 ppm along with sucrose @ 4 per cent with distilled water as control. The results of this experiment revealed that the maximum water uptake, transpirational loss of water, water balance, fresh weight change, percentage of opened florets, floret diameter, longevity of floret, vase life was recorded in T2 (8-HQS @ 300 ppm + sucrose 4% + BA @ 40 ppm), when compared to control. Some parameters like optical density of vase solution, days taken for the basal floret to open in vase and the percentage of wilted florets were observed least in T2 (8-HQS @ 300 ppm + sucrose 4% + BA @ 40 ppm). T5 (8-HQS @ 300 ppm + Sucrose 4% + BA @ 40 ppm) solution was found best to extend the vase life of gladiolus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth and Yield of Sugarcane Seed Crop as Influenced by Fertilizer Rates and Timing in Anakapalle, Andhra Pradesh, India

P. Vinayalakshmi, M. Martin Luther, M. Bharathalakshmi, Ch. Sujani Rao, V. Srinivasa Rao

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 8-19
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2030624

A field experiment was conducted in sugarcane over 2019-20 and 2020-21 cropping seasons at the Regional Agricultural Research Station of Anakapalle (Andhra Pradesh) on sandy clay soils. The objective was to determine the effect of organic and mineral fertilizer rates and timing on growth and yield of a sugarcane seed crop. The experiment was laid out following split plot design with three main organic fertilizer treatments and six N-K fertilizer sub treatments, in three replications. Results showed a significant increase in stalk height, numbers of tillers ha-1 and cane yield due to organic fertilizer, namely biofertilizer and trash mulching, in combination with 125% STBNK applied at 30 days interval + additional dose of 25% recommended K fertilizer applied one month prior to harvest.

Open Access Original Research Article

Crop Geometry and Nitrogen Levels Influence on Growth, Yield and Economics of Compact Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in Rainfed Vertisols

B. B. Nayak, S. Bharathi, M. Sree Rekha, K. Jayalalitha

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 28-37
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2030627

Aims: To study the effect of crop geometry and nitrogen levels on compact cotton genotype in rainfed vertisols condition.

Study Design: The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with a factorial concept with 3 levels of crop geometry and four levels of nitrogen with 12 treatment combinations and replicated thrice.

Place and Duration of Study: A field experiment was conducted on vertisols under rainfed conditions at Regional Agricultural Research Station Lam, Guntur during the year 2018 – 2019.

Methodology: The treatments consisted of three crop geometries S1 – 60 cm × 10 cm, S2- 75 cm × 10 cm, S3- 90 cm × 45 cm in combination with four nitrogen levels N1- 45kg N ha-1, N2- 90kg N ha-1, N3- 135 kg N ha-1, N4- 180 kg ha-1.

Results: Closer crop geometry of 60 cm × 10 cm recorded taller plants and maximum dry matter accumulation, functional leaves per square meter, leaf area index, maximum chlorophyll content, number of bolls per square meter and seed cotton yield per ha-1, net returns and returns per rupee. However, the number of sympodial branches per plant and sympodial length was highest with wider crop geometry of 90 cm × 45 cm. All the growth and yield parameters recorded were maximum with the application of 180Kg N ha-1 than all the other levels of nitrogen tested.

Conclusion: Overall, the results showed that the Crop geometry of 60cm × 10 cm  with application of 135 kg N ha-1  was found to be optimum to realize of maximum seed cotton yield and net returns.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of scattered Faidherbia albida and Cordia africana Tree on Soil Properties under their Canopies in Fedis District, Easte Hararghe Zone, Oromia

Musa Abdella, Lisanework Nigatu

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 38-53
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2030628

The study was conducted to investigate the effect of scattered trees under their canopies on soil fertility status at Fedis district, East Hararghe Zone, oromia, Ethiopia. Accordingly, six isolated and nearly identical Faidherbia albida and Cordia africana trees were selected and the canopy coverage of each tree was divided into four radial transects. Soil samples from three horizontal distances levels: 2.5m, 5m and 25m with two soil depths levels (0–20cm and 20-40cm) were taken for analysis of soil physical and chemical properties and tree species with two levels with factorial arrangement in RCBD replicated six times were employed. The result revealed soil texture was not influenced significantly (P>0.05) by tree species. Soil bulk density was significantly (p<0.05) influenced by both tree species. Soil moisture was significantly (p<0.05) higher under canopy of trees than open field and in surface than in subsurface soils. Soil chemical properties;- electric conductivity, organic carbon, organic matter, soil carbon stock, total nitrogen, available phosphorus and exchangeable cation (Mg, Ca, Na and K) for surface and subsurface soil layers of under F.albida and C. africana trees were  significantly (p<0.05) higher in canopy than open field and in surface than subsurface. Soil pH was not significantly (p>0.05) influenced by both tree species. It can be concluded that these tree species have the potential to improve soil fertility beneath its canopy. This may be important for the agricultural landscape health and demonstrated the scattered trees to retain on crop fields to improve soil fertility status under its canopy and on farm biodiversity conservation in agricultural landscapes conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Economic Performance and Consraints Faced by Tur Dal Processing Units- Bharuch District, Gujarat

Deepa Hiremath, Shreeshail Rudrapur, L. R. Dubey, Bhanupriya Choyal

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 54-62
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2030629

The study of economic performance of Tur dal processing units in terms of cost is very essential for accelerating the growth of agriculture processing industries. The present study was undertaken to work out the unit fixed costs, variable costs, production costs and returns of processing of Tur dal and different constraints faced by Tur dal processors of Bharuch District of Gujarat. The primary data pertained to consecutive three years i.e., 2017-18, 2018-2019, and 2019-20 were collected from the sample of three Tur dal mills from Bharuch, Ankleshwar and Vaghra talukas of Bharuch district. The results indicated that the average capital investment for a dal mill per unit was Rs. 7, 10, 00,000. The average fixed cost and average variable cost per quintal was of INR 46.10 and 245.46 respectively. Hence, average processing cost per quintal was worked out to be Rs. 291.56. The gross return per quintal of processed tur dal was Rs. 5754.50. The average content of tur dal and by- products was in the proportion of 72 per cent and 28 per cent respectively, by weight. The recovery in one quintal of tur was 65 kg of tur dal, 7 kg of broken dal and 28 kg of chala/chuni/ dead seed. The net returns per quintal after processing was found to be Rs. 579.61. It was found that, inadequate supply of raw material for processing especially during off season was the major constraint faced by the dal mill owners followed by units not running on full capacity utilization during offseason and irregular electricity supply to run the unit, etc.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Diversity for Yield and Its Component Traits in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

Sanganamoni Srinivas, Lakmalla Vinay, Gaibriyal M. Lal

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 63-70
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2030630

The present experiment was carried out to study the 40 chickpea genotypes to evaluate the Genetic diversity among the chickpea genotypes for yield and yield contributing traits and to identify genetically divergent parents for future hybridization. The present experiment was carried out during rabi 2019-2020 in Randomized complete block design with three replications at Sam Higginbottom university of agriculture technology and sciences, Prayagraj, Allahabad, U.P. The data was analyzed for 13 quantitative traits to study genetic variability, heritability, genetic advance, genetic advance as percent of the mean. The magnitude of genotypic coefficient of variation and phenotypic co-efficient recorded highest for a number of seeds for plant (33.31 and 34.24), high heritability associated with high genetic advance was recorded for a number of secondary branches for plant (97.11 and 59.98) suggesting that there was greater role of additive gene action in inheritance. The distribution of 40 genotypes into six clusters was by Tocher’s method at a random with the Maximum number of genotypes were grouped into cluster I which includes 29 genotypes. The highest intra-cluster distance was observed for cluster I (59.53) which comprised of 29 genotypes. The highest inter-cluster distance (407.97) was found between clusters II and VI. Genotypes (IPC-71, IPC 04-52, JG-31416, L-550, IPCK 09-165, ICC-244263, IPC 94-94 and IPC 06-11 to these clusters may be used as parents to create transgressive segregants. Cluster VI recorded maximum mean values for the number of primary branches per plant (3.67), number of secondary branches per plant (6.47), number of pods per plant (117.13), number of seeds per plant (155.53), and seed yield per plant (g) (25.94).

Open Access Original Research Article

Pre-sowing Seed Treatment with Organic and Inorganic Treatments on Growth, Yield and Yield Attributes of Desi Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Variety (Pusa-362)

H. G. Harshitha, Abhinav Dayal, Prashanth Kumar Rai, Neha Thomas

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 71-78
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2030631

The field experiment entitled “Pre-sowing seed treatment with organic and inorganic treatments on growth, yield and yield attributes of desi chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)”variety (Pusa-362) was conducted during rabi at Field Experimentation Centre of the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh, India during 2020 - 2021. The experiment consisted of 13 treatments which was laid in Randomized Block Design (RBD). Results revealed that seeds treated with T9 (vermiwash 6% solution) recorded maximum values in growth parameters viz., germination percentage at 4,7,14 DAS with 10.833%, 44.17, 74.17%, plant height at 30, 60, 90 DAS with 16.60, 41.00, 53.80 cm Days to flowering (74.67 days), number of branches 6.93 branches per plant, number of pods per plant with 36.10 pods per plant, number of seeds 52.30 seeds per plant and pod weight per plant with 24.49 gm. Similar results were observed in yield parameters where highest seed yield per plant was observed in T9 (vermiwash 6% solution) with 30.35 gm and seed yield per plot 171.7 gm.

Open Access Original Research Article

Behavior of Dioscorea alata Slices Treated with Aqueous Extracts of Ocimum gratissimum and Chromolaena odorata before Inoculation by Colletotrichum sp. in Daloa, Côte d’Ivoire

Ahebe Marie Helene Koffi, N’guettia Marie Yah, Dago Faustin Soko, Yao Odilon Koffi, Dolou Charlotte Tonessia, Taky Hortense Diallo Atta

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 84-93
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2030633

Yam, Dioscorea spp. (L) is an important foodstuff that plays a key role in the agricultural system in Côte d'Ivoire. This plant is however subject to several diseases during its cultivation and conservation. The losses caused by rots of tubers in storage constitute a major risk for economic profitability and for the food safety of consumers. The development of an effective and environmental friendly control method has been initiated. The objective of this work is to improve the conservation of Discorea alata tubers through the use of aqueous extracts of Ocimum gratissimum and Chromolaena odorata. To do this, three different doses (33 g/l; 39 g/l and 50 g/l) of aqueous extracts of Ocimum gratissimum and Chromolaena odorata were applied to yam slices before inoculation with Colletotrichum sp. Results showed that applying different doses of aqueous plant extract to yam slices before inoculation of the fungal strain caused less rot. The aqueous extracts of the two plants showed antifungal activity against Colletotrichum sp. This antifungal activity was more effective with the 50 g/l dose of Ocimum gratissimum compared to the extract of Chromolaena odorata.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Studies on Effectiveness of Physical, Micronutrients, PGR and Botanical Seed Treatments on Growth and Yield of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.)

Kundavaramu Suryateja, Prashant Kumar Rai, Prashant Ankur Jain, Sarita Khandka

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 94-100
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2030635

The experiment was carried out at a field experimentation centre, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Naini Agricultural Institute, SHUATS, Prayagraj (U.P). During Rabi season 2020-2021, to find out the suitable electric, magnetic, micronutrients, plant growth regulators and botanical seed treatments on growth and yield of Fenugreek (LFC-84). Different concentrations with different duration of seed treatments with control (untreated) were evaluated by screening 8 hours viz., Electric treatment (0.5A for 60 seconds and 1.0A for 60 seconds), Magnetic treatment (10mT for 15 min and 20 mT for 30 min), ZnSO4 (1% and 3% for 8 hrs), MnSO4 (1% and 3% for 8 hrs) Ascorbic acid (100 ppm and 300 ppm for 8 hrs), Moringa leaf extract (1% and 3% for 8 hrs). It has been reported that among all the treatments T6 - ZnSO4 -3% for 8 hrs has performed the best results in field parameters like field emergence, Plant height, number of branches per plant, days required to 50% flowering, days required to 50% pod formation, days to maturity, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, seed yield per plant (g), test weight (g), biological yield (g), harvest Index (%) followed by Ascorbic acid 300 ppm for 8 hours and found to be lowest in control seeds. Hence seed treatment of Fenugreek seeds with ZnSO4 (3%) for 8 hours is the best treatment compared to other seed treatments.  

Open Access Original Research Article

Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) Norms for Identifying Yield Limiting Nutrients in Byadgi Chilli Fruits Grown in Northern Transitional Zone and Dry Zones of Karnataka (India)

M. Pushpalatha, B. I. Bidari, M. Hebbara, G. B. Shashidar, B. Savita, S. T. Hundekar, R. V. Hegde

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 101-109
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2030636

Fruit samples collected from different part of northern Karnataka districts of Dharwad, Gadag and Haveri, when peak fruit harvesting stage were collected the samples, were processed and analysed for various nutrients and thus, the data bank was established. By using Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS), nutrient expressions, which have shown higher variance and lower coefficient of variation, were selected as norms viz, N/P(4.98), N/K (0.73), N/Ca (1.17), N/Mg (4.65), S/N(0.10), N/Fe(0.02), N/Zn(0.08) etc. In addition, five nutrient ranges have been derived using mean and standard deviation as low, deficient, optimum, high and excess for each nutrient to serve as a guide for diagnostic purpose. The optimum N ranged from 2.30 to 2.84%, P from 0.48 to 0.56%, K from 3.16 to 3.44%, Ca from 2.08 to 2.74%, Mg from 0.60 to 0.88% and S from 0.24 to 0.27%. Among the micronutrients, the optimum Zn ranged from 28.71 to 29.78 ppm, Fe from 113.60 to 150.03 ppm for byadgi chilli crop.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Pre and Post-Emergence Herbicides on Yield, Economics and Weed Control in Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) Under Irrigated Medium Land Condition of Jharkhand

Md. Parwaiz Alam, Swati Shabnam

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 110-118
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2030637

Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) production is affected by several factors, out of which weed is one of the most important factors responsible for causing tremendous loss in yield. An experiment was conducted during rabi season of 2018-2019 and 2019-2020 at Research Farm of Birsa Agricultural University, Kanke, Ranchi, Jharkhand to study the effect of pre and post-emergence herbicide on yield, economics, weed count, weed dry matter and weed control efficiency in linseed. The treatments comprised of weed management practices viz., T1-Weedy Check, T2-Hand weeding twice at 30 and 60 DAS, T3-Metribuzin 250 g/ha + Oxyflourfen 125g/ha (Pre.), T4-Pendimethalin 1 kg/ha (Pre.) fb. metsulfuron methyl 4 g/ha (Post.), T5-Imazethapyr 75 g/ha (Post.), T6-Oxyflourfen125 g/ha (Pre.), T7-Metsulfuron methyl 4 g/ha (Post.), T8-Clodinafop 60 g/ha (Post.), T9-Clodinafop 60 g/ha + metsulfuron methyl 4 g/ha (Post.) and T10-Oxadiargyl 80 g/ha (Pre.), and were replicated thrice. The research outcomes revealed that Hand Weeding twice at 30 and 60 DAS resulted in maximum seed yield (14.26, 15.66 and 14.96 q/ha), net return (Rs. 41635, 45907 and 43771/ha), in 2018-19, 2019-20 and pooled data respectively while among weed parameters hand weeding recorded minimum total weed count at 30 DAS (1.19 and 1.22 /m2) and 60 DAS (3.04 and 3.19 /m2), minimum total weed dry matter at 30 DAS (1.17 and 1.18 g/m2) and at 60 DAS (3.43 and 3.57 g/m2) and maximum weed control efficiency at 30 DAS (97.08 and 96.97%) and at 60 DAS (80.66 and 79.24%) in 2018-19 and 2019-20 respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Dissection of Yield Determinants in Advance Breeding Lines (ABLs) of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) under Irrigated Condition of Chhattisgarh, India

Pramod Noatia, Abhinav Sao, Ajay Tiwari, S. K. Nair, Deepak Gauraha

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 119-131
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2030638

The present study was undertaken to study the extent of genetic variability, character association and path analysis in 53 irrigated late duration breeding lines for 12 quantitative and 10 quality parameters. Analysis of variance revealed the presence of significant variation among the breeding lines for all the characters except for total tillers per plant, effective tillers per plant, spikelet fertility percentage and grain yield per plant. The highest magnitude of PCV and GCV were displayed by grain yield per plant followed by harvest index, filled spikelet per panicle and 1000 seed weight. The greater extent of heritability in broad sense were recorded for days to maturity, days to 50% flowering, 1000 seed weight, plant height, total spikelet per panicle, kernel length, kernel L:B ratio, grain length, head rice recovery percentage, amylose content, hulling and milling percentage. However, high heritability coupled with high genetic advance as percent of mean were displayed by plant height, number of spikelet per panicle, filled spikelet per panicle,1000 seed weight, kernel length, kernel L:B ratio, grain length, head rice recovery percentage and amylose content. Grain yield per plant exhibited positive significant correlation with harvest index, effective tillers per plant, 1000 seed weight, spikelet fertility %, days to maturity and days to 50% flowering. Path analysis revealed direct effect on grain yield were exerted by days to 50% flowering followed by harvest index, 1000 seed weight, total tillers per plant, number of spikelet per plant, effective tillers per plant and plant height indicating their importance in rice breeding programs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anatomical and Histological Studies of Grafted Tomato with Interspecific Solanaceous Rootstocks

L. Pugalendhi, S. Bharathi, N. A. Tamil Selvi, H. Usha Nandhini Devi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 132-140
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2030639

A study was carried out at the Department of Vegetable Science, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu,India during 2019-2020 to assess the anatomical and histological changes within the graft union of tomato and identify compatible rootstocks for improved propagation of the crop. This experiment involved rootstocks of three wild tomatoes including Solanum torvum, S. sisymbrifolium and S. capsicoides and scions of two tomato hybrids including TNAU tomato hybrid CO3 and Shivam. The grafting was done using the cleft grafting method. The anatomical and histological sections of six graft combinations and two tomato scion samples were viewed microscopically at 7, 14 and 21 days after grafting (DAG). Among the six tomato graft combinations, S. torvum rootstock showed complete development of vascular connection at 21 DAG followed by S. sisymbrifolium rootstock, whereas S. capsicoides rootstock showed only callus growth at 14 DAG. Scion growth dominated the rootstock growth in S. torvum rootstock leading to mismatch of scion-rootstock stem thickness and delayed epinasty symptom at the later stages of plant growth. Of the rootstocks of the three species studied, S. sisymbrifolium rootstock was compatible for tomato grafting though it exhibited delayed vascular connection between the scion and rootstock.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Performance of Some Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thumb.) Mastum and Nakai] Genotypes in Humid Tropical Agro-ecology

Linus Joseph Agah, Emmanuel Sariel Ankrumah, Patrick Odey Ukatu, Macauley Asim Ittah, Grace Sunshine David

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 141-148
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2030640

Six varieties of watermelon (Sugar baby, Sugar dragon, Kaolack, Crimson sweet, Koloss and baby doll) were evaluated in the field to assess the genetic parameters associated with morphological traits in the watermelon genotypes. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in three replications. There were variations in number of branches per plant, vine length, number of days to 50% flowering, number of male flowers, number of fruits per plant and fruit weight per plant.  Low response to selection and genetic variation was observed in most traits.  The number of days to 50% flowering had the highest heritability estimates (97%), genetic gain of 15.84% and genetic advance of 5.33. Fruit weight per plant had high heritability estimates of 89%, moderate genetic gain of 46.20% and genetic advance of 2.31. Moderate broad sense heritability estimates ranging from 55% for number of male flowers per plant to 63% for number of fruits per plant. Mean branch number had the highest genetic gain of 49.33% but moderate heritability estimates of 58.91% signifying moderate response of selection. Koloss and Kaolack had the highest genetic performance for fruits yield than Baby doll and other varieties plant in the humid environment. Therefore, Koloss and Kaolack is recommended in the humid ecology and should be cultivated in the ecological zone.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Bioslurry from Fixed Dome and Tubular (Flexi) Biodigesters on Selected Soil Chemical Properties, Maize (Zea mays) Growth, Yield and Quality

Mercy Kamau Rewe, Esther Muindi, James Ndiso, Kevin Kinusu, Stephen Mailu, Peterson Njeru, Rewe Thomas

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 158-171
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2030642

Agricultural utilization of bioslurry plays a critical role in soil conditioning and hence crop production. It also reduces greenhouse gas emissions thus mitigating climate change. Although the effect of bioslurry on growth and yields is well researched, that of different biodigester types is under-researched. Therefore, a study was carried out in Waruhiu Agricultural Training Centre, Githunguri sub-county, Kiambu county in Kenya, to investigate the effect of bioslurry from flexi and dome biodigesters on soil chemical properties, maize growth, yield and grain quality. Treatments were laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) and replicated three times. The treatments were bioslurry from both Fixed Dome and Flexi biodigesters, applied separately at a rate of 400mls per hill as basal and top dress fertilizer. Planting was done during the 2019 short and 2020 long rains, using Duma 43 maize variety. The agronomic (germination percentage, number of leaves, leaf width, leaf length, plant height) and productivity data (stalk, stovers, grain yields and grain quality) were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) through Proc general linear model (GLM) procedures. Mean separation was done using least square means (LS-Means). Results showed an increase in soil pH, total N and OC, exchangeable P, K, Mn and Na in both biodigester types. Total N and OC were higher in Dome treated soils by 38.89% and 37.00%, while in Flexi, it was 16.67% and 16.00% respectively. Exchangeable P and K was higher in Flexi treated soils with a 38.57% and 50.00% increase while in Dome it 37.86% and 47.22% respectively. Magnesium and Zn decreased after treatment by 34.30% and 22.59% in Dome while Flexi had 33.23% and 31.79% increase. Exchangeable Fe and acidity decreased in Dome but increased in Flexi treated soils. No statistical differences were observed on growth and yield parameters but Dome registered higher grain yields by 9.4% and 6.3% for short and long rains respectively. Flexi treated soils registered higher values in most grain nutrient content such as K, Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn in short rains and P, Ca, Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn in the long rains. Bioslurry from both biodigester types variably increased the evaluated soil chemical properties but decreased Mg and Zn. Despite the numerical differences noted between bioslurry from both biodigester types on maize growth and yield, there was no significant difference (p≤.05). However, Dome bioslurry increased N, OC and maize grain yield more while exchangeable P and K and most of the grain nutrient content were higher in Flexi treated soils. Therefore, bioslurry from either biodigester type can be used in enhancing soil conditions, growth, yield and quality of maize. However, a long-term experiment is required validate the findings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Variability Parameters of Yield and Quality Attributes in Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia L.)

Som Prakash, R. S. Verma, R. B. Ram, Bhag Chand Shivran, Harvindra Pal

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 172-177
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2030643

The experiment of the present research work was conducted during summer season of 2018-19 and 2019-20 at Horticulture Research Farm-I, Department of Horticulture, School of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University (A Central University), Vidya-Vihar, Rae Bareli Road, Lucknow (U.P.), India. The analysis of variance clearly reveals significant differences among the genotypes for all characters. The observations recorded on various characters showed that the estimates of phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) were higher than genotypic coefficient variation (GCV) for all characters. The high phenotypic as well as genotypic coefficient of variation were observed in marketable fruit yield per plant (39.36%) followed by average fruit weight (29.73%) and number of branches per plant (27.18%). High estimates of heritability were recorded for different characters viz., average fruit weight (98.6%) followed by total soluble solids (97.8%), total sugars (97.7%) and days to anthesis of first pistillate flowers (97.2%). The parameters which observed were found to be very high estimate value of genetic advance in per cent of mean of (60.14%) average fruit weight (60.14%) followed by titratable acidity (53.73%), number of branches per plant (53.47%), total soluble solids (52.81%) and marketable fruit yield per plant (47.87%).

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Varying Levels of Boron and Sulphur on Yields and Nutrient Uptake of Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) Grown in a Mollisol

Prerna Bungla, S. P. Pachauri, P. C. Srivastava, Anand Pathak, Anil Kumar Shukla

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 178-186
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2030644

A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effect of effect of varying levels of boron and sulphur on yield and nutrient uptake of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) grown in a Mollisol. The experiment was conducted under factorial completely randomized design with three replications and consisted of six levels of each of boron (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 mg kg−1soil and two foliar sprays of 0.2% boron) and sulphur (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 60 mg kg−1soil). The different doses of sulphur and boron and their interaction had significant effect on seed and stover yields, B and S concentrations and uptake by linseed crop indicating a differential requirement of boron and sulphur by the crop.  The highest seed yield was recorded under the combined application of 2 mg B kg−1 soil and 60 mg S kg−1 soil.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Levels of Borax and Gypsum on Soil Chemical Properties and Yield of Finger Millet (Eleusine corocana L) in Southern Dry Zone of Karnataka

K. Govinda, S. S. Prakash, Ashay D. Souza

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 187-198
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2030645

A field experiment was carried out in Kharif 2016 on B-deficient sandy loam soil at College of Agriculture, VC Farm, Mandya to study the effect of graded levels borax (5, 10, 15 and 20 kg ha1) and gypsum (100 and 200 kg ha-1) on yield and soil chemical properties of irrigated finger millet (Eleusine corocana L.) in Southern Dry Zone of Karnataka. A significantly higher grain yield of 45.95 q ha-1 (17.56% higher than the control) and a B:C ratio of 3.06 were also recorded at T12 compared with RDF + FYM (T1). Due to application of borax and gypsum, the pH, EC, and organic carbon content in soil during flowering stage and at crop harvest were non-significant. However, at the flowering and harvest of the crop, the T4 treatment had the lowest pH (7.49 and 7.43, respectively), whereas the T12 (flowering stage) and T10 (after harvest) treatments had the highest pH (7.65 and 7.67, respectively). Higher soil NPK values were detected in all treatments at flowering stage compared to after the crop was harvested. Application of borax 10kg ha-1 + 100 kg gypsum ha-1 along with RDF and FYM had a significantly higher exchangeable calcium content after harvest (6.77 cmol kg-1) than T1 (5.23 cmol kg-1). Sulphur content in soil at flowering stage and after harvest of crop was found to be significant among the treatments due to application of different levels of  gypsum. High levels of borax applied treatments, i. e. T5 (T1+20 kg borax ha-1) and T15 (T5 + 200 kg gypsum ha-1) recorded significantly higher content of B at flowering stage (4.18 and 4.09 mg kg-1, respectively) and at harvest of crop (3.88 and 3.68 mg kg-1, respectively) when compared to T1 (1.32 and 1.16 mg kg-1, respectively). Therefore finger millet absorption of boron may be reduced by using borax with a greater dosage of gypsum (200 kg ha-1). As a result, optimising the Ca/B ratio in the soil and plant is critical for increasing irrigated finger millet yields.

Open Access Original Research Article

Balanced Fertilization for Improved Nutrient use Efficiency and Mulberry Productivity

Mahesh Rajendran, Melissa Lalremruati, Soumen Chattopadhay, Sivaprasad Vankadara

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 205-217
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2030647

Aim: To study the effects of balanced fertilization in improving leaf yield, quality and nutrient use efficiency in mulberry.

Study Design: Experiment was conducted in randomized block design (RBD) consisting of 7 treatments in 3 replications.

Place and Duration of Study: The present study was conducted at Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute, Berhampore ((Latitude 24º05ʹN & Longitude 88º15ʹE; 18 m > MSL), West Bengal, India in two seasons during 2018 (July-August; September-October).

Methodology: Existing S-1635 mulberry plantation (10year-old; 60 cm × 60 cm spacing; net plot area: 32 m2) was utilized. Experiments were conducted in two seasons (July-August, 2018; September-October, 2018) in randomized block design (RBD) consisting of 7 treatments in 3 replications. The treatments in this study included, T1: 100% N-P2O5-K2O+S+Zn with Urea-SSP-10:26:26 + Bentonite Sulphur (8 kg ha-1) + Zinc Sulphate (1 kg ha-1) as BF; T2: 75% BF; T3: 100% N-P2O5-K2O alone (Urea-SSP-10:26:26); T4: 75% N-P2O5-K2O alone (Urea-SSP-10:26:26); T5: 100% N-P2O5-K2O alone (Urea-DAP-MOP); T6: 100% N-P2O5-K2O alone (Urea-SSP-MOP) as farmers′ practice (FP); T7: Nutrients omission plot (Control). The recommended fertilizer dose (100%) for irrigated mulberry production in the Eastern region is N-P2O5-K2O=67-36-22 kg ha-1 crop-1. All the fertilizers were applied in two equal splits on 15th and 30th day after pruning.

Results: This study reveals the importance of balanced fertilization of mulberry with N, P, K, S and Zn for sustainable productivity, which is reflected by the maximum values for leaf yield attributes, chlorophyll content and leaf yield. Further, mulberry leaf quality (in terms of total soluble protein and total soluble sugar) significantly improved with balanced fertilization. Higher PFP and AUE were also recorded with fertilization with compound/complex fertilizers than with straight fertilizers; but the balanced fertilization exhibited remarkable enhancement.

Conclusion: The results prove that balanced fertilization of N-P2O5-K2O @ 67-36-22 kg ha-1 (Urea-SSP-10:26:26) with Bentonite sulphur (8 kg ha-1) and zinc sulphate (1 kg ha-1) were effective in improving mulberry productivity through enhanced nutrient use efficiency. This could be useful for realizing maximum productivity in mulberry as an efficient nutrient management strategy in mulberry cultivation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Cob Characteristics of Sweet Corn on Sandy Soils under Different Irrigation Methods

B. Naveena, G. Ravi Babu

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 218-225
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2030648

Drip irrigation is an incredibly efficient watering method that slowly delivers water directly to a plants root system, through a network of small pipes. This minimizes conventional losses such as deep percolation, runoff and soil erosion. A few low cost automation systems were developed and evaluated their performance with drip irrigation on sweet corn. Compared to flood irrigation and paired row drip irrigation, single row drip irrigation produced better results. The results indicated that the number of kernel rows per cob, number of kernels per cob, length and diameter of the cob and individual fresh cob weight were observed to be more in single row as compared to flood irrigation and paired row drip irrigation systems. The yield response was also observed to be best in soil moisture sensor based irrigation with single row spacing.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Some New Generation Fungicides against Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) Wilt Causal agent Fusarium udum under in vitro Conditions

B. Deepak Reddy, Birendra Kumar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 226-230
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2030649

Pigeonpea wilt disease caused by Fusarium udum is one of the most devastating soil borne disease. The objective of this investigation was to determine the antifungal activities of fungicides which can be used to control wilt disease of pigeonpea. Among all the fungicides Azoxystrobin+Tebuconazole, Carbendazim, Tebuconazole+Trifloxystrobin, Hexaconazole, Tebuconazole exhibited 100% inhibition at all the concentrations, followed by Azoxystrobin+ Difenconazole which exhibited 92.22%, 94.4%, 94.4% and 100% inhibition at 250 ppm, 500 ppm, 750 ppm and 1000 ppm respectively.

Open Access Review Article

Salicylic Acid Alleviates Postharvest Fruit Decay of Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) -A Review

Angrej Ali, Amit Kumar, Nazir Ahmad Ganai, Khalid Rasool Dar, Arif Hussain Wani

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 20-27
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2030625

Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) fruits are highly perishable and fruit quality decrease rapidly after harvesting, thereby it has a limited scope of long duration storage. Among several synthetic chemicals suggested for minimizing postharvest losses of fruits, Salicylic acid (SA) is a natural phenolic compound widely distributed in plants and considered as a hormone because of its regulatory role in plants. Salicylic acid has received particular attention because of its role in the modulation of the plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Current scientific knowledge on the salicylic acid application in postharvest management of strawberry fruits suggests that SA has a potential role in minimizing fruit decay and maintaining fruit quality. These predictors, however, need further work to validate reliability in postharvest management of strawberry fruits in a larger perspective.

Open Access Review Article

Efficacy of Herbicides for Weed Control in Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L.)

K. Choube, D. K. Raidas, M. L. Jadav, N. S. Kirar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 199-204
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2030646

A field experiment was conducted during Rabi, 2018-19 at Horticulture farm, RAK College of Agriculture, Sehore (M.P.) to study the effect of different weed management practices on growth and yield of cauliflower. The treatments namely - T1- Weedy check (control), T2- Weed free (through hand weeding) at 30 & 60 DAT, T3 -Pendimethalin 30% EC (PE) + one hand weeding at 30 DAT, T4 Oxyfluorfen 23.5% EC (PE) + one hand weeding at 30 DAT, T5 - Propaquizafop 10% EC (POE) + one hand weeding at 60 DAT, T6 -Wheat straw mulch 5kg/plot, T7- Black plastic mulch (150 mm) were evaluated in randomized block design with three replications. Results indicated that the there was no weed under T7 -black plastic mulch (150 mm) at all the stages. The maximum weed control efficiency (98%) was found with the treatment T7 - black plastic mulch (150 mm) at all the stages i.e. at 30, 60 and 90 DAT. The minimum weed index (0.00, 0.00 and 0.00%) was found with the treatment T7 (Black plastic mulch (150 mm) at all the stages. The maximum curd length, curd width, total curd weight (g) and curd yield (q ha-1) was recorded T7- black plastic mulch (150 mm) with the maximum net return (Rs. 75772.58 per ha).While the lowest net return was found under T1 (Weedy check) (Rs. 21405.34 per ha) treatment. The maximum B: C ratio (1:4.0) was recorded in case of treatment T3 [Pendimethalin 30% EC (PE) + 1HW at 30 DAT].