Open Access Case study

Comparison of Open Source DEM’s for Morphometric Analysis of Micro Watersheds: A Case Study from the Midlands of Kerala

Md. Majeed Pasha, K. K. Sathian

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 267-281
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2230705

Morphometric analysis with the help of remote sensing and GIS is now widely used to prioritise micro watersheds for planning interventions for soil and water conservation. DEM is the main digital data used to perform the morphometric analysis. There are different types of DEMs available to perform morphometric analysis using GIS techniques. But, no authentic information is available on the degree of accuracy levels of these DEMs to quantitatively determine various morphometric parameters for the watersheds in Kerala, with typical undulating and sloping terrain features. Hence, this research has been initiated to evaluate the quality of three popular DEMs viz. SRTM(Shuttle Radar Topography Mission), CARTOSAT(Cartography and satellite) and ASTER(Advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection Radiometer), each with 30 m spatial resolution. Two small sub watershed of Bharathapuzha river basin have been chosen for the study which are lying near to Valanchery town in Malappuram district. More than 21 morphometric parameters including drainage network, basin geometry, basin texture and basin relief characteristics were computed using these three types of DEMs and the outputs compared with google earth map. The results shows that the SRTM 30m DEM is characterized by higher accuracy compared to CARTOSAT and ASTER and has got better matching with google earth map data sources.

Open Access Short Research Article

Comparative Study on Effectiveness of Various Compost Cultures on Composting of Farm Wastes

D. C. Preethu, S. M. Savita, M. S. Dinesha, B. S. Rajendra Prasad, Lata R. Kulkarni

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 117-125
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2230689

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate effectiveness of various microbial compost cultures for aerobic-composting of farm wastes.

Place of Study: Three trials were conducted on farmer’s field and one at Krishi Vigyana Kendra (KVK) Ramanagara district.

Methodology: During the composting process, days to compost, maturity in terms of changes in temperature, pH and composting dynamics were studied. Compost quality parameters such as macro and micro-nutrients and C:N ratio and stability  of the compost were recorded at different intervals. 

Results: The results showed that the compost culture from  IIHR and UASB had taken 90 and 105 days respectively, for complete stabilization; further had relatively higher temperature and pH during the initial phase and reached ambient condition at maturity stage, C:N ratio has showed gradual reduction from 39.65 to 15.98 and 39.75 to 13.66% respectively in IIHR and UASB cultures, they also had high macro, secondary and micro nutrients(IIHR-1.55% N, 0.93% P, 0.95% K, 4.39% Ca, 0.69% Mg, 0.19%S, 930 ppm Fe, 10ppm Cu, 305ppm Mn, 82ppm Zn, 26 ppm B  UASB-1.59% N, 0.91% P, 0.97% K, 4.25%Ca, 0.88% Mg, 0.21%S, 948 ppm Fe, 9ppm Cu, 325ppm Mn, 93ppm Zn, 28ppm B) content and resulted in more compost production ( 3.3 and 2.8 t/year, respectively) with B:C ratio of 6.67 and 7.25 respectively when compared to NCOF (T3) and farmers practice (T4).

Conclusion: Aerobic-composting of farm waste using microbial culture of UASB and IIHR proved to be an effective technology that aids to convert organic farm waste into valuable organic manure with an advantage of minimizing the environmental contamination associated with burning of residues.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Nutrients and its Integration on Growth, Yield and Quality of Double Zero Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea L.)

Gajjela Indira, R. B. Yadav, . Vivek, R. K. Naresh, M. Sharath Chandra, . Shivangi, Ashish Nath, Roop Kishor Pachauri

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2230676

A field experiment was conducted at Crop Research Center, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture & Technology, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, to assess the effect of different nutrients and their integration on growth, yield and quality of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Indian mustard cultivar Pusa Mustard 31(PDZM -31) was grown during winter (rabi) season of 2020-21. The treatments comprised of Control (T1), 100% N (T2), 100% NP (T3), 100% NPK (T4), 125%NPK (T5), 100% NPK+ S@40kg ha-1 (T6), 100%NPK+ Zn @5kg ha-1 (T7), 100%NPK + B @1kg ha-1 (T8), 75% NPK+ Vermicompost @ 2t ha-1 (T9), 75%NPK+ Farm Yard Manure @ 6t ha-1 (T10), 75%NPK + VC @ 2t ha-1+ Azotobacter (T11) and 75% NPK + FYM @ 6t ha-1 + Azotobacter (T12). Results revealed that treatment T11 (75% NPK + VC@2t ha-1 + Azotobacter) and T12 (75% NPK + FYM@6t ha-1 + Azotobacter) exhibited significant influence on the growth, yield and quality of mustard as compared to the application of 100% NPK alone. Significant improvement in growth parameters viz. plant height, leaf area index, dry matter accumulation as well as crop growth rate, relative growth rate and yield was recorded with the application of T11 and T12. Maximum oil content (40.67%) was obtained in T6 (100% NPK+ S@ 40kg ha-1) and maximum oil yield (796.76 kg ha-1) was obtained in T12, it remained at par with T5, T6, T10 and T11. Maximum protein content (21.75%) was found in T12 which was on par with T5, T9, T10 & T12. The maximum protein yield (492.88 kg ha-1) was obtained in treatment T12 which was statistically on par with T11, T5 and T6 respectively. T11 and T12 exhibited significant influence on the growth and yield of mustard as compared to other treatments respectivity. Integration of inorganic and organic sources of nutrients improved the growth parameters, yield and quality parameters of Indian mustard, whereas the use of chemical fertilizer alone showed a pronounced decline of these parameters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Rapid Detection of Airborne Inocula of Grapevine Mildews Using PCR and LAMP Assay

J. Shajith Basha, A. Kamalakannan, S. Saraswathy, I. Johnson, Patil Santosh Ganapati, K. R. Swarna Lakshmi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 12-21
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2230677

Grapes powdery mildew and downy mildew caused by Erysiphe necator and Plasmopara viticola respectively are the most devastating diseases  worldwide resulting in significant loss of yield and quality. Epidemics of grapevine mildews are caused by airborne inocula such as conidia and sporangia. Rapid detection of airborne inocula will help to face up timely management strategies under field conditions. The aim of the current study was to design a suction spore trap to trap the airborne mildew inocula and their early detection by molecular methods of PCR and LAMP assay. A total of twelve airborne inocula samples were collected the weekly intervals from 3 to 14 standard weeks of 2021 during the cropping season. The presence of airborne inocula of E. necator was detected on standard weeks 3,6,10 and 13 through PCR assay which yielded an amplicon of 470 bp. Similarly, airborne inocula of P.viticola were detected on standard week 6 only through PCR which yielded an amplicon of 520 bp. A rapid, highly specific , sensitive Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was performed to detect the E. necator and P. viticola using six sets of LAMP primers constructed by targeting rDNA region of ITS and the 5S rRNA and CesA4 a gene, respectively. LAMP assay efficiently detected the presence of airborne inocula of E.necator in most of the samples collected from standard week 3 – 14 except 7, 8, and 9. However, the presence of airborne inocula of P.viticola from standard week 3 – 14 was confirmed by LAMP assay. The LAMP assay is absolutely the best in identifying airborne inocula of grapevine mildews compared to PCR and phenotypic microscopic observation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Variability Studies Based on Morpho-Physiological Traits Related to Temperature; Seedling Growth; Development and Phenology of Soybean [(Glycine max (L.) Merrill]

Subhash Bijarania, Anil Pandey, Monika Shahani, Ashutosh Kumar, Vinay Rojaria, Avinash Kumar, Madhu Choudhary

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 22-30
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2230678

The present experiment was conducted with an aim to understand genetic variability and heritability among 30 soybean genotypes of different geographical locations during Kharif 2019 at TCA, Dholi, Bihar in Randomized Complete Block Design accommodating 30 genotypes randomly in three replicates. These genotypes evaluated for twenty-seven traits: five phenological, nine agro-morphological, eight physiological traits (from field trial) and five physiological traits from laboratory experiment recorded and subjected to statistical and biometrical analyses. Considerable variability was observed for these traits which revealed usefulness of existing genetic variability for all 27 attributes amongst which vigour index II, seedling dry weight, specific leaf weight and 100- seed weight was trust worthy (GCV in close correspondence with PCV; high h2bs & high GAM reflecting additive gene action) for selection criteria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison Statistical Rice Yield Prediction with Multiple Weather Parameters

T. Thurkkaivel, G. A. Dheebakaran, V. Geethalakshmi, S. G. Patil, K. Bhuvaneshwari

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 31-38
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2230680

Advance knowledge of harvestable products, especially essential food crops such as rice, wheat, maize, and pulses, would allow policymakers and traders to plan procurement, processing, pricing, marketing, and related infrastructure and procedures. There are many statistical models are being used for the yield prediction with different weather parameter combinations. The performance of these models are dependent on the location’s weather input and its accuracy. In this context, a study was conducted at Agro Climate Research Centre, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during Kharif (2020) season to compare the performance of four multivariate weather-based models viz., SMLR, LASSO, ENET and Bayesian models for the rice yield prediction at Tanjore district of Tamil Nadu State with Tmax, Tmin, Mean RH, WS, SSH, EVP and RF.  The results indicated that the R2, RMSE, and nRMSE values of the above models were ranged between 0.54 to 0.79 per cent, 149 to 398 kg/ha, 4.0 to 10.6 per cent, respectively. The study concluded that the Bayesian model was found to be more reliable followed by LASSO and ENET. In addition, it was found that the Bayesian model could perform better even with limited weather parameters and detention of wind speed, sunshine hours and evaporation data would not affect the model performance. It is concluded that Bayesian model may be a better option for rice yield forecasting in Thanjavur districts of Tamil Nadu.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Planting Techniques and Nutrient Management Options on Crop Productivity and Soil Health of Wet Rice (Oryza sativa L) in Typic Ustochrept Soils

M. Sharath Chandra, R. K. Naresh, . Vivek, S. P. Singh, . Purushottam, Vivak Kumar, P. C. Jat, Himanshu Tiwari

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 39-54
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2230681

A two years field experiment was carried out in sandy loam soil during rainy (Kharif) seasons in 2019-2020 at CRC farm of sardar vallabhbhai patel university of agricultural & technology, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh to evaluate the various Planting techniques and integrated nutrient management on yield and soil health of rice (Oryza sativa L.) under rice- wheat copping system. The treatments comprised of two Planting techniques i.e., E1-Conventional puddled transplanted rice (CT- TPR), E2- Wide bed Transplanted rice (W Bed-TPR) and Nine Nutrient management practices {N1- Control, N2- 100% RDF + ZnSO4 25 kg ha-1, N3- 125% RDN + ZnSO4 25 kg ha-1, N4- STCR based NPK application + ZnSO4 25 kg ha-1, N5- N2+ FYM  (5 t ha-1), N6- N2+ FYM  (5 t ha-1) + PSB (5 kg ha-1)+ Azotobactor 20 kg ha-1, N7- 75% RDN + FYM (5 t ha-1) + ZnSO4 25 kg ha-1, N8-75% RDN + FYM (5 t ha-1) + PSB (5 kg ha-1) + Azotobactor 20 kg ha-1 +  ZnSO4 25 kg ha-1, N9- Organics Practices @ FYM (30 t ha-1)+PSB (5 kg ha-1) + Azotobactor 20 kg ha-1 + ZnSO4 25 kg ha-1} are laid down in Factorial Randomized block design and replicated thrice. The results indicated that among the different Planting techniques (PTs), conventional puddled transplanted rice (E1, CT-TPR) was recorded significantly higher grain yield (40.4 & 41.3 q ha-1), straw yield (62.7 & 63.8  q ha-1), NPK content and uptake and also improved soil health status ie., available NPK, organic carbon and other physical properties i.e, Bulk density, EC, pH  in soil than wide bed transplanted rice (E2, W Bed-TPR) during both years of kharif 2019 & 2020 respectively. Among the nutrient management practices, the N6 (100% RDF + ZnSO4 25 kg ha-1 + FYM  (5 t ha-1) + PSB (5 kg ha-1)+ Azotobactor 20 kg ha-1 ) treatment produced significantly higher grain yield (49.0 & 50.2 q ha-1), straw yield (81.2 & 82.8 q ha-1), NPK content and uptake, and available NPK organic carbon in soil than the other treatments, which were comparable to the N3 (125% RDN + ZnSO4 25 kg ha-1) treatment and the lowest in the control treatment  N1, respectively. Thus, the results suggest that inclusion of inorganic fertilizer along with organic manure (FYM) enhanced the rice yield Therefore, application of conventional puddled transplanted rice (E2, CT-TPR) along with N6 (100% RDF + ZnSO4 25 kg ha-1 + FYM  (5 t ha-1) + PSB (5 kg ha-1)+ Azotobactor 20 kg ha-1 ) found beneficial to increase productivity and soil health of rice crop.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Nitrogen and Foliar Application of Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) on Growth and Yield of Baby corn (Zea mays L.)

Kagitha Sudharshan Rao, Shikha Singh, K. Ravi Chandra, Joy Dawson

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 55-61
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2230683

The experiment entitled effect of nitrogen and foliar application of naphthaleneacetic acid on growth and yield of Baby corn (Zea mays L.) was conducted during the Rabi season of 2020 at the Fodder Production Farm of Livestock Research Station, Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Lam Farm, Guntur. Andhra Pradesh. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with 10treatments and each replicated thrice. Treatments consisted of a combination of three levels of nitrogen (60.0, 90.0, 120.0kg/ha) and three levels of naphthalene acetic acid (20,40,60 ppm). It was found that an application of 120 kg Nitrogen/ha as basal along with foliar spray of 40 ppm naphthalene acetic acid at 25 and 35 days after sowing, was the most suitable treatment for obtaining growth and yield attributes such as plant height  (177.60 cm), number of leaves (11.33), plant dry weight (113.58g/plant), chlorophyll content (68.43), Leaf Area Index (8.65) and green fodder yield (20333 kg/ha) with net return (83,701.88 Rs/ha) and B:C ratio (1.68). On the basis of one-year experimentation it is concluded that the application of 120 kg Nitrogen/ha + 40 ppm naphthalene acetic acid, on baby corn improved cob yield by 25 % and was found more productive than the recommended dose of fertilizer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diversity of Predators Associated with the Mealybug Complex in Cassava Growing Districts of Tamil Nadu, India

A. Thennarasi, S. Jeyarani, N. Sathiah

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 62-79
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2230684

An extensive survey was carried to study the diversity of predators associated with the mealybug complex in the cassava growing districts viz., Salem, Namakkal, Erode, Tiruppur and Coimbatore of Tamil Nadu, India from January to September, 2021. The survey revealed the dominance of Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero 1977 (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) than other mealybug species in all the surveyed districts. The incidence of P. manihoti ranged from 12 to 90 per cent while Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink 1992 (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) incidence was found to be between 8 and 54 per cent. The incidence of Ferrisia virgata Cockerell 1893 (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) was found to be very low (8-16%) compared to other mealybug species. Association of total predators with P. manihoti were found to be maximum (30.87%) followed by the total predators with P. marginatus (6.49%) whereas 0.53 per cent of total predators associated with F. virgata. The  fourteen different predators viz., Cryptolaemus montrouzieri  Mulsant 1853 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Menocheilus sexmaculatus Fabricius 1781 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Anegleis cardoni Weise 1892 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Hyperaspis maindroni Sicard 1929 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Brumoides suturalis Fabricius 1798 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Scymnus spp. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Chrysoperla spp. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), Mallada spp. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), Spalgis epeus Westwood 1851 (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae), Geocoris spp. (Hemiptera: Geocoridae), Cardiastethus spp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae), Diadiplosis spp. (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), Oxyopes spp. (Araneae: Oxyopidae) and Argiope spp. (Araneae: Araneidae) were found to associated with the mealybug species viz.,P. manihoti, P. marginatus and  F. virgata. Among the predators of the mealybug complex, the most relative abundant species were H. maindroni (11.74%) associated with P. manihoti and C. montrouzieri (6.49%) associated with P. marginatus followed by S. epeus (0.67%) associated with F. virgata. The diversity of predators assessed through Simpson’s Index of Diversity, Shannon-Wiener, Pielou’s Evenness and Margalef indices revealed highest species diversity, species richness and species evenness in Namakkal district.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutra-Chemical and Organoleptic Quality Evaluation of Wood Apple (Limonia acidissima L.) Pickle

Niharika Rathore, Prashant Kumar Gupta, Shubham Singh Rathour, Rajesh Lekhi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 80-86
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2230685

Wood apple is a nutritious minor fruit crop indigenous to India but it is not much popular for the purpose of consumption. The value addition can increase the production and utilization of this valuable fruit crop. Among various value-added products, pickle is popular and traditionally acceptable in India. The present investigation conducted at Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, RVSKVV, Gwalior, MP between 2019-20 and 2020-21, to study the nutrients, chemicals and sensory qualities of wood apple (Limonia acidissima L.) pickle and Nutra-chemical changes in pickle during storage period. The wood apple pickle was prepared as per standard procedure and analyzed for its nutrients and chemical status as well as during storage period to access its self-life and suitability. Fresh wood apple has nutritive property and its pickle was found more nutritious with 3.20 g and 3.43 g crude protein, 1.43 g and 1.53 g crude fibre, 7.03 g and 7.37 g crude fats, 20.33 g and 19.00 g carbohydrates, 1.90 and 1.97 total minerals, 253 mg and 256 mg calcium and 107 mg and 103 mg phosphorous per 100 g of pickle for first and second year respectively. Sensory evaluation revealed color, taste, flavor changed after 90 days of storage remarkably as shelf life is better retained up to 90 days of storage. Moisture, pH and ascorbic acid decreased while titratable acidity and total sugars increased with 0, 30, 60 and 90 days of storage. Wood apple pickle is nutritious, good in taste and a better source for protein, fibre, calcium and phosphorus among different fruits and it was found suitable for consumption up to 90 days of storage without major organoleptic and Nutra-chemical changes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Sulphur Sources on Sulphur Fractionation in a Red Sandy Loam Soil

S. Roshini, D. Jegadeeswari, T. Chitdeshwari, A. Sankari

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 87-95
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2230686

Aim: The aim of the present study was to examine the different forms of sulphur fractions in post- harvest soil of cabbage crop to determine the S status of red sandy loam soil, Thondamuthur block, Coimbatore district.

Study Design:  The design used in the present study was Factorial randomized block design with 20 treatments replicated thrice.

Place and Duration of Study: A field experiment was carried out in a farmer’s field of red sandy loam non-calcareous soil, deficient in sulphur which was located at Viraliyur village of Thondamuthur block, Coimbatore district during February to May 2021 of rabi season.

Methodology: A field experiment was carried out in sandy loam sulphur deficient soil with cabbage as test crop fertilized with NPK along with different sulphur sources viz., elemental sulphur, potassium sulphate, gypsum and single super phosphate @ levels of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 kg ha-1 replicated thrice in a Factorial Randomized Block Design. S fractions of water-soluble S, inorganic S, organic S, available S and residual S were estimated in post-harvest soil.

Results: The results revealed that the total sulphur differed from 278.1 to 339.4 mg kg-1. Among the sulphur fractions, inorganic S (39%) accounts highest proportion of total S followed by organic S (38.3%), water-soluble S (9.19%) and available S (4.12%). The order was, Inorganic S > organic S > sulphate S > water soluble S.

Conclusion: This study indicated that all the sulphur fractions are strongly associated with S sources, levels and properties of red sandy loam soil of Coimbatore district under cabbage cultivation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of Correlation and Path Coefficient Analysis for Quantitative Characters in Chickpea at Uttar Pradesh (Cicer arietinum L.)

Konduru Tejasree, G. Roopa Lavanya, C. H. Sai Nayan Raju, P. V. B. Brahmanjaneyulu

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 96-107
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2230687

An experiment was conducted and data were pooled for 22 genotypes including one check variety Uday in Field Experimentation Centre at Department of Genetics and Plant breeding, SHUATS, Prayagraj. The data was recorded for 11 quantitative traits to study the amount of variability, heritability, correlation analysis, direct and indirect effects of quantitative traits in chickpea genotypes. All the eleven quantitative traits under study displayed significant differences in Analysis of variance which indicates ample scope for selecting promising lines for further breeding programs. The genotypes ICC 8058, ICC 16796, and ICC 14199 were identified as the best genotypes for seed yield per plant among 22 genotypes under study. GCV values are slightly lesser compared to PCV values specifies the minor impact of environment on studied traits. The traits seed index, harvest index exhibited highly positive phenotypic and genotypic correlation for seed yield, which are the principal traits where selection can be operated for developing superior lines. Path coefficient analysis revealed that traits harvest index, biological yield, and the number of pods per plant showed highly positive direct effects at both genotypic and phenotypic levels on seed yield per plant. From the above results and outcomes traits seed index, harvest index, and biological yield, could be contemplated for selection criteria and yield improvement in chickpea.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Available Micronutrients Status in the Soils of Melur Block, Madurai District, Tamil Nadu, Using GIS and GPS Techniques

P. Ramamoorthy, P. Christy Nirmala Mary, P. Saravanapandian, A. Gurusamy, K. Kumutha

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 108-116
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2230688

A soil resource inventory was conducted at village level in the Melur block of Madurai district, Tamil Nadu to assess the micronutrients status in the soils and to prepare fertility maps depicting the extent of soil micronutrient deficiency/sufficiency using GIS and GPS techniques. Soil samples were collected at revenue village wise along with geo coordinates and analysed for available micronutrients such as Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn by adopting standard procedures. Based on the nutrient status, the soils were grouped as deficient or sufficient using the critical limits. Per cent deficiency of micronutrients in Melur block was worked out and the thematic maps showing status of different available micronutrients were generated. The results indicated that, Fe and Zn  deficiency is most prevalent in the soils of Melur block  in Madurai district to an extent of more than 35 per cent, followed by Cu (1.1%) and Mn (10%).

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of UREAStable on Soil Property, Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Yield of Durum Wheat under Balanced Fertilizer Application

Teshome Mesfin, Serkalem Tamru, Yeshibir Aklilu, Dagne Bekele

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 126-135
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2230690

Wheat requirement of nitrogen for plant growth, and crop yields and quality depends upon substantial N inputs. Therefore, a field experiment was carried out at Gimbichu district in 2017 and 2018 main cropping season with the objective of evaluating the overall performance of applying slow-release/UREAstable fertilizer over the conventional urea fertilizer for durum wheat production, and to determine optimum rates of slow-release urea fertilizer for wheat productivity. The treatments consisted of Control, 90 kg N ha-1 from conventional urea applied in split, 90 kg N ha-1 from UREAstable applied once at planting, 90 kg N ha-1 from UREAstable applied in split, 45 kg N ha-1 from UREAstable applied once at planting, 45 kg N ha-1 from UREA stable applied in split form, 135 kg N ha-1 from UREA stable applied in split form, 135 kg N ha-1 from conventional UREA applied in split form and 135 kg N ha-1 from UREAstable applied once at planting. The results revealed that plant height, spike length, Tiller number, grain yield, biomass yield, harvest index and grain and straw uptake were significantly (P<0.05) affected by the application of slow release and conventional urea fertilizer. The highest spike length (3.8cm), Tiller number (2.1), grain yield (2205 kg ha-1), biomass yield (6968 kg ha-1) and nitrogen grain straw uptake (35.6 kg N ha-1) were recorded from 135kg N ha-1 urea stable fertilizer applied in split form followed by application of 135 kg N ha-1 conventional urea fertilizer applied in split form. While, maximum straw nitrogen uptake was obtained from application of 135 kg N ha-1 conventional urea fertilizer applied in split form. Therefore, taking the findings of the present study consideration it may be concluding that farmers can use 135 kg N ha-1 UREAstable fertilizer to improve nitrogen use efficiency and productivity of wheat in the study area in addition to conventional urea fertilizer. However, further research may be required at various locations to come up with an inclusive recommendation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis and Characterization of Pectin Beads for the Smart Delivery of Agrochemicals

P. Pavithran, S. Marimuthu, C. R. Chinnamuthu, A. Lakshmanan, C. Bharathi, S. Kadhiravan

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 136-155
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2230691

Aim: The study was conducted to design pectin beads for achieving slow release of agrochemicals in wetlands via ion gelation method.

Place and Duration of the Study: The laboratory experiment was carried out at the Department of Nano Science & Technology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Tamil Nadu during March-July 2021.

Methodology: Pectin beads were synthesized varying the concentrations of pectin (4, 6, 8, and 10 per cent) and calcium chloride (CaCl2) concentrations (0.5, 1, and 2 per cent). Calcium pectinate beads of different combinations were synthesized via ion gelation method. Calcium pectinate beads were characterized based on the recovery yield of beads, while surface characterization was done through Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and optical microscope to understand the topography of beads and assess the size of the beads respectively. Pore volume and surface area were also studied using BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) analyzer.

Results: The yield of calcium pectinate beads were higher while using the concentration of pectin @ 4 per cent and CaCl2 @ 2 per cent as cross-linking agent. The spherical and smooth surface of beads was achieved with the concentrations of 6 and 2 per cent pectin and CaCl2 respectively, while beads were flat and smooth with concentration of pectin @ 4 per cent. Similarly, complete solubility of pectin was not achieved with concentrations of 8 and 10 per cent. BET results of beads showed that beads are non-porous in nature.

Conclusion: Pectin and CaCl2 concentrations @ 6 and 2 per cent respectively were found to be ideal for the delivery of agrochemical based on the yield and surface morphology.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Exotic Rice Germplasm (Oryza sativa L) for Correlation and Path Coefficient Analysis for Seed Yield Attributing Traits

Adupa Pravalika, G. R. Lavanya, B. G. Suresh

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 156-167
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2230693

Thirty seven rice germplasm were evaluated to assess genetic variability, heritability, genetic advance, correlation and path coefficient analysis for 17 quantitative characters. The experimental results concluded that TP-29632, followed by TP-30015, TP-29637, SHUATS DHAN-2 and TP- 30025 was found to be superior in grain yield among 37 exotic rice genotypes. IRRI-5 (TP-29632), IRRI-10 (TP-30015) and IRRI-21(TP-29759) recorded early maturity among 37 genotypes. Grain yield per hill was positively and significantly associated with flag leaf width, number of tillers per hill, number of panicles per hill, number of spikelets per panicle, number of filled grains, grain weight, biological yield, harvest index at both genotypic and phenotypic levels. Biological yield, harvest index, number of panicles per hill, plant height, flag leaf width recorded positive direct effect on grain yield per hill at both phenotypic and genotypic levels.

Open Access Original Research Article

Environmental Implication of Thermal Radiation on the Physiochemical Properties of Soil around Gas Flare Sites in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

G. I. Oyet, P. Audu, B. S. Chibor

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 168-186
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2230694

The effect of thermal radiation on the Physiochemical properties of soil around gas flare site in the Niger Delta region was assessed in Emuoha Local Government Area of River State, Nigeria, for a period of twelve months. Radiation profile was determined at different times (hours) – 6, 10, 14, 18 and 22, in the four seasons (early dry, early wet, late dry and late wet) of the year. Soil samples were taken at different depths (cm) (0-15 and 15-30) for physicochemical attributes at different distances (m) (0-150, 150-300, 300-450, 450-600 and 1000 -2000) from the flare site and thermal radiation was also determined at the respective distances. Results of effect of time and seasonal variations on radiation profile showed that environmental temperature (oC) ranged from 29.2 ± 0.3 at 22 hours of early wet season to 33.0 ± 0.4 at 14 hours of late dry season; radiation temperature ranged from 35.4 ± 1.2 at 22 hours of late wet season to 42.0 ± 1.4 at 14 hours of late dry season, while thermal radiation (w/m2) ranged from 490.83 ± 7.7 at 22 hours of late wet season to 535.69 ± 9.69 at 14 hours of late dry season. Results of effect of flare distance on physicochemical properties of soil showed that as the distance (m) from flare site increases from 0 – 150 to 1000 – 2000, the radiation intensity (w/m2) decreases from 603.84 ± 5.7 – 428.83 ± 0.75, and values of pH, OC, N, P,  and exchangeable cations - K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ increases in the range {pH (4.94 ± 0.02 – 5.50 ± 0.00), OC (1.09 ± 0.01 – 2.05 ± 0.00), N (0.07 ±0.01 – 0.09 ± 0.00), P (10.90 ± 0.03 – 12.10 ± 5.19), K+ (0.28 ± 0.01 – 1.86 ± 0.01), Na+ (0.48 ± 0.00 – 1.04 ± 0.00), Ca2+ (1.65 ± 0.01 – 2.85 ± 0.00), Mg2+ (0.73 ± 0.01 – 1.24 ± 0.01)}, These values seemed not to be affected by the thermal radiation and flare distance , oil and grease and THC decreases in the range 203.30 ± 0.88 – 61.33 ± 0.33 and 352.90 ± 2.08 – 10.04 ± 0.04 respectively. Similar trend was observed with soil samples taken at 15-30cm depth. Statistical analysis showed there is significant difference (p<0.001) in soil attributes as distance from flare distance increases. Further studies should be carried out to investigate the relationship between soil around flare site and crop performance on different agro-ecological zone of Rivers State.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Trichoderma viride and Bacillus subtilis Leads to Changes in Antioxidant Enzymes, Proline, and Lipid Peroxidation under Salinity Stress in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

. Kavita, Nagaram Sowmya

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 187-197
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2230695

The study was carried out to evaluate the influence of application of Trichoderma viride and Bacillus subtilis on antioxidant enzymes, proline and lipid peroxidation to decrease the impact of salinity stress on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), a salinity sensitive crop. A pot experiment was conducted with contrasting set of genotypes (tolerant vs. sensitive) under salinity stress compared to control soil conditions in completely randomized design with three replications. Microbial inoculation was done through seed priming and application to soil at 20 days after sowing (DAS). Content of antioxidant enzymes, proline, and lipid peroxidation were assessed in leaves at flowering stage. Results showed that antioxidant enzymes viz., catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase were significantly increased under salinity stress compared to control condition and they were further increased with application of microbes either as seed priming alone or in combination with soil application at 20 DAS in both the genotypes under saline as well as control conditions. The content of lipid peroxidation increased significantly under salinity stress, and it was stronger pronounced in sensitive genotype while the lipid peroxidation content was decreased by application of microbes. Proline content increased under salinity stress, and it was further enhanced by the microbial inoculation. The study thus conclusively proved that Bacillus subtilis and Trichoderma viride positively increased content of antioxidant enzymes, proline, and lipid peroxidation in leaves of chickpea grown under salinity stress conditions. The best microbe species was Trichoderma viride as seed priming plus soil application. This can be an important additional approach to decrease the impact of salinity stress on chickpea crop.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation and Characterization of High Yielding Cassava Mosaic Resistant Variety YTP2

L. Pugalendhi, M. Velmurugan, P. S. Kavitha, M. K. Kalarani, N. Senthil, M. Deivamani, S. R. Venkatachalam

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 198-208
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2230696

The cassava variety YTP2 (Me 681) has been developed through selection from Thondamuthur type at Tapioca and Castor Research Station, TNAU, Yethapur. The performance of YTP2 in the Adaptive Research Trial (ART) and On Farm Trial (OFT) in the farmer’s field inferred that this new variety is well adapted to cassava growing districts of Tamil Nadu. In addition to the above, YTP2 was found to be resistant to cassava mosaic disease incidence (CMD). Plants are erect, medium growing and non-branching type and suitable for growing under irrigated and rainfed conditions. The internodal length is shorter and the leaf size is medium with sufficient canopy. The leaves of the plants droop down to reduce the transpiration loss which is more advantageous to overcome or escape from drought and heat stress during summer season. It is a dual purpose variety wherein the tubers contain high starch content which is much favourable for the manufacture of starch, sago and also suited for table purpose. The overall performance of this variety showed higher tuber yield (42.20 t ha-1) and starch content (28.40%) which is 15.94% and 18.20% increase over the check varieties YTP1 and H226 respectively. The results of DNA fingerprint data involving SSR markers (SSRY235, NS169 and NS928) showed that it is genetically distinct from the existing commercial varieties viz., YTP1, H226 and Sree Athulya.

Open Access Original Research Article

Available Nutrient Status of Soil as Influenced by Combined Application of Humic Acid and Inorganic Nitrogen

K. Sai Manjeera, P. Venkata Subbaiah, P. R. K. Prasad, M. Sree Rekha

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 209-217
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2230697

A field experiment was carried out to study the influence of different levels of humic acid (10, 20, 30 kg ha-1) and inorganic N fertilizer viz., 100 % of recommended dose and 75 % of recommended dose on chemical properties of soil under direct sown rice at Agricultural college farm, Bapatla during 2019. The experiment was laid out in RBD with ten treatments replicated thrice with BPT-5204 variety of rice as test crop. Soil samples collected at tillering, panicle initiation and harvest stages of crop were analyzed for chemical properties like available N, P2O5, K2O, Sulphur and cationic micro-nutrients (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu). Results indicated that increased availability of N, P2O5, K2O, Sulphur and cationic micro-nutrients (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu) were observed with the treatment T6 involving 100% RDN and HA @ 30 kg ha-1.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Seed Priming with Micro-Nutrients, Botanicals on Seedling Characteristics of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) Var. Paiyur 2

Paidipati Nagakethan Kumar, Abhinav Dayal, Prashant Kumar Rai

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 218-225
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2230698

The experiment was conducted in Seed Testing Laboratory, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj (U.P.) during kharif season 2019-2021, so as to standardize the acceptable seed treatments for sorghum (Paiyur-2).Different seed priming treatments were taken into the study viz., were evaluated T1 – Zinc Sulphate @ 0.5% up to 3hours, T2 – Zinc Sulfate@1% at 4 hours, T3 – Zinc Sulfate@1.5% at 6 hours, T4 – Thiourea @ 0.5% at 3 hours, T5 – Thiourea @ 1% at 4 hours, T6 – Thiourea @ 1.5% at 6 hours, T7 – KNO3@ 0.5% at 3 hours, T8 – KNO3 @ 1% at 4 hours, T9 – KNO3 @ 1.5% at 6 hours, T10 – Moringa Leaf extract @ 3% at 8 hours, T11 – Neem leaf extract @ 3% at 8 hours, T12 – Thiourea @0.5% with Zinc Sulphate(ZnSo4) @ 0.5% at 6 hours. During this study it had been found that maximum germination percent, seedling length and vigour attributes was observed when seed treated with T10- Moringa leaf extract @ 3% followed by T9 – KNO3 @ 1.5% and minimum observed in Control (Untreated seed). Seed treatment with Moringa leaf extract @ 3% enhances germination on seedling characters and it is a simple method and no requirement for expensive equipment and chemical might be used for overcoming challenges associated with a poor germination and seedling establishment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Variability studies of Magnaporthe oryzae Using International Rice Blast Differentials Set under Agroclimatic Conditions of Kashmir Valley, India

Farahnaz Rasool, Mushtaq Ahmed, Seemi Lohani, Shubana Bhat, Sushil Kumar, Purshottam Singh

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 226-234
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2230699

The pathogenic variability of the sixty isolates of M. oryzae was confirmed by testing them for virulence and cultivar reaction against International rice blast differentials (IBD) viz., Raminad Str. 3, Zenith, Usen, NP-125, Kanto-51, Dular, Tsia-tiao-sio and Caloro lodging Piz, Pia, Pii, Pia, Pika, Pi-k and Piks resistance genes for rice blasteither singly or in combination or with an unknown background. The pathotype analysis of the isolates, collected from four surveyed districts of Kashmir valley revealed the presence of four races viz., IC-17, IC-25, ID-1 and II-1 according to the race classification and nomenclature proposed by Ling and Ou (1969). Of the 60 isolates of M. oryzae, 25 isolates pertained to race IC-17, 16 and 14 other isolates pertained to race ID-1 and II-1, respectively, whereas four other isolates pertained to race IC-25. The   predominant pathotype  was IC-17 with a virulence frequency of  60 %, followed by II-1 (46.67%) in district Pulwama, ID-1 (40%) and IC-25 (13.33%) in district Bandipora, respectively. IC-17 was seen to be the predominant race in each location in every district. Race ID-1 has been observed to overcome the maximum number of genes viz., Pia, Pika+, Piks and  Pik. but none of the isolates was able to overcome Raminad Str 3 and Zenith.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Crop Establishment Methods and Weed Management Practices on Weed Density and Productivity of Basmati Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Shipra Yadav, R. B. Yadav, R. K. Naresh, . Vivek, B. P. Dhyani

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 235-243
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2230700

Aim: Present experiment was conducted to study the effect of crop establishment methods and weed management options on weed dynamics and performance of Basmati rice.

Study Design: Split plot design.

Place and Duration of Study: Iinvestigation was conducted during the kharif-season of 2019 and 2020 at Crop Research Center, S.V.P.University of Agriculture &Technology, Meerut (U.P.), India.

Methodology: Mainfactors consist of the crop establishment methodsviz.(1) Conventional Puddled Transplanting, (2) Unpuddled Flat and (3) Furrow Irrigated Raised Beds, the sub factors consist of five weed management options viz., (1) Pretilachlor @ 0.75 Kg ha-1 PE fb Bispyribac sodium @ 20 g a.i.  ha-1 POE at 20 DAT, (2) Almix 4 g a.i. ha-1 + Bispyribac sodium @ 20 g a.i. ha-1 POE at 20 DAT, (3) Bispyribac sodium @ 25 g a.i. ha-1 POE at 20 DAT, (4) Two hand weedings and (5) Weedy check.

Results: Minimum total weed density was recorded under CPT (E1) followed by FIRB(E3) while itwas maximum under UPF(E2). Two hand-weedings effectively reduced total weed density. In herbicides, application of pretilachlor @ 0.75 Kg ha-1fb Bispyribac sodium @ 20 g a.i. ha-1 (W1) was found most effective in reducingtotal weed density.Higher yield and yield attributes were found under CPT which was significantly higher than the UPF and at par with FIRB. Amongweed management practices highest yield and yield attributes were obtained with pretilachlor @ 0.75 Kg ha-1fb Bispyribac sodium @ 20 g a.i. ha-1.Lowest yield and yield attributes were obtained in weedy check.

Conclusion: Puddled transplantation in rice might be the best option to get higher yield and for weed control, application of Pretilachlor @ 0.75 Kg ha-1 PE fb Bispyribac sodium @ 20 g a.i.  ha-1 POE at 20 DAT may be done to get higher yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Diversity Analysis in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Based on Morphological Traits

Venugopala Reddy M., P. Venkatesha Murthy, Srinivasappa K. N., B. G. Hanumantharaya, A. Mohan Rao, M. K. Prasanna Kumar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 244-250
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2230702

Evaluation of fifteen diverse genotypes of cucumber was carried out in a randomized complete block design for studying genetic divergence. Presence of wide genetic diversity, among the genotypes studied was confirmed by using Mahalanobis D2 statistics. Based on the interactions genetic distances of cucumber genotypes had grouped into five separate clusters inferring that the genetic divergence between them was quite high. The germplasm were so divergent, that only six genotypes were grouped in cluster V and three genotypes in each cluster I and III. The two genotypes SKY/AC-270-613481 and JB/11-091-613462 were grouped as cluster II and the genotype Tripura local was so divergent in all the characters that they were allotted as a separate group as cluster IV. Cluster mean analysis proclaimed that, genotypes in cluster I recorded maximum value for vine length (3.36 m), number of leaves per plant (43.85), number of branches per plant (12.98), leaf area (144.71 cm2), number of female flowers per plant (20.30), fruiting period (52.20 days), fruit set (89.10 %), average fruit weight (214.72 g), number of fruits per plant (19.00), fruit yield per plant (2.50 kg), fruit yield per ha (31.23 t/ha), rind thickness (2.79 mm) and flesh thickness (3.02 cm), whereas, same cluster I recorded minimum value for traits viz., internodal length (6.55 cm), days to appearance of first male flower (30.34 days), days to appearance of first female flower (31.81 days), node number at which first female flower appeared (4.00), days to first harvest (41.22 days) and number of seeds per fruit (211.69) which are negatively desirable characters in the crop production and crop improvement programme.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Crop Geometry and Nutrient Management Approaches on Soil Properties and Availability of Nutrients under Transplanted Finger Millet

A. Aliveni, B. Venkateswarlu, M. Sree Rekha, P. R. K. Prasad, K. Jayalalitha

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 251-259
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2230703

The present investigation was conducted for two consecutive years with the objective to know various crop geometries and nutrient management approaches on soil chemical properties at Agricultural college farm, Bapatla. The experimental design was split plot with three replications. The present study comprised of three crop geometries with different age of seedlings (30x10 cm with 30 days old seedlings, 30x30 cm with 15 days old seedlings and 45x45 cm with 15 days old seedlings) and seven nutrient management practices (S0: absolute control, S1: FYM @ 10 tonnes ha-1 + application of dravajeevamrutham, S2: FYM @ 10 tonnes ha-1 + application of  dravajeevamrutham along with wooden log treatment, S3: FYM @ 10 tonnes ha-1 + 100% RDF, S4: FYM @ 10 tonnes ha-1 + 100% RDF along with wooden log treatment, S5: FYM @ 10 tonnes ha-1 + 125% RDF, S6: FYM @ 10 tonnes ha-1 + 125% RDF along with wooden log treatment in subplots were given to kharif finger millet. integrated application of FYM @ 10 tonnes ha-1 + 125% RDF along with wooden log treatment (S6) resulted in higher organic carbon and nutrient status of the soil and reduced C:N ratio of the soil significantly though other soil properties were non significant due to various crop geometries and nutrient management treatments.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Nutrient Management Practices on Growth, Yield Attributes and Yield of Transplanted Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.)

Manish Yadav, N. J. Jadav, Dileep Kumar, C. H. Raval, Drashti Chaudhari, Nisha Chaudhary

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 260-266
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2230704

The Field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of fertility management on growth, yield attributes and yield of pearlmillet in a Randomized Block Design (RBD) with ten treatments and four replications during summer, 2019 at Anand, Gujarat. The experiment comprises of different nutrient management practices including 100% and 75% RDF with 15 t and 10 t FYM along with Bio NP consortia. A significant higher growth and yield parameters enhancement with the application of 100% RDF + 15 t FYM ha-1 + Bio NP Consortia was recorded in plant height, number of tillers, length of ear head, protein content and biological yield. The treatment T5 produced maximum (91.5 q ha-1) biological yield and statistically it was on par with T9 and T5. However, the lowest biomass production (73.0 q ha-1) was reported in treatment T1. Results of different nutrient management practices on days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, ear head girth and test weight were found non-significant.  Protein content of pearlmillet was increased from 7.5% to 9.06% under different nutrient management practices. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Vegetative Performance of Two Cultivars and Four Hybrids of Pineapple in Côte d’Ivoire

N’guetta Adélaïde, Aby N’goran, Koffi Kouamé Cyrille Germain, Atsin Guy Joël Olivier, Traoré Siaka

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 282-288
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2230706

Since the early 2000s, pineapple from Côte d’Ivoire has suffered a discount in its marketing due to the heterogeneity of the quality of its fruit and the arrival of MD2 on the international market. In order to help pineapple from Côte d'Ivoire once again win back the international market, Ananas comosus hybrids with an early natural coloring have been developed at the CNRA. The agronomic performances of these hybrids were tested at the research station of Anguédédou. Vegetative characteristics such as plant fresh mass, stem fresh and dry mass, number of leaves generated and leaf D fresh mass of these hybrids H1, H2, H3 and H4 were compared to those of cultivars Smooth Cayenne and MD2 at 2, 4 and 6 months. The results obtained showed no statistically significant difference in plant mass between hybrid H4 (2675 g) and cultivars MD2 (2645 g) and Smooth Cayenne (2763 g) after 6 months of planting. The fresh and dry mass of the stems of these three varieties were also statistically identical. Hybrid H4 leaf D fresh mass was very low (55 g) at six months of planting compared to the two cultivars (73 g each). Hybrids H2 and H3 at this same period gave leaf masses of over 80 g. Regarding the characteristics assessed, hybrids H4 and H3 had much more conformity with cultivars Smooth Cayenne and MD2.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Foliar Application of NPK and Micronutrient (Zn and Fe) on the Yield and Quality of Sugarcane Crop

. Roohi, Kiran K. Khokhar, Vijay Kumar, Kanika Pawar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 289-295
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2230707

The foliar application of nutrients help the plant leaves to readily absorb the applied nutrients through the nutrient solution and increases the nutrient use efficiency and thus improves the crop yield. The field experiment was conducted for two consecutive years to find out the affect of foliar spray of NPK and micronutrient on cane yield, yield parameters and juice quality of sugarcane during 2019-20 and 2020-21.The present study was carried out on clay loam soils of Research farm of Regional Research Station, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Karnal, Haryana. The research revealed that cane yield and yield parameters i.e., cane length, and cane weight was significantly affected with the foliar spray of NPK and micronutrient but non-significant effect was observed for cane girth and number of internodes. With respect to juice quality parameters viz., commercial cane sugar (CCS) %, pol % and sugar yield, significantly affected with foliar spray of NPK and micronutrient. The highest cane yield, cane weight and cane length was recorded with the foliar application of 2% NPK (19:19:19) + 0.5% ZnSO4 +1% FeSO4 (78.16 t/ha, 1.21 kg and 207.3 cm) followed by foliar spray of 0.5% ZnSO4 + 1% FeSO4+ 2.5% urea recorded 76.75 t/ha, 1.20 kg and 207.1 cm, respectively. The lowest cane yield (70.68 t/ha) was recorded with the application of recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) alone. The highest CCS % (12.16), pol % (17.36) and sugar yield (9.51 t/ha) was observed in the treatment 2% NPK + 0.5% ZnSO4 +1% FeSO4. Thus, foliar application with NPK and micronutrient could significantly improve the cane yield, yield parameters and juice quality of sugarcane crop.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on Integrated Effect of Inorganic Fertilizers and Organic Manure on Available Nutrients, Yield and Nutrient Uptake in Scented Rice

Momin Doley, K. N. Das, B. K. Medhi, A. Basumatary, Lolesh Pegu

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 296-308
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2230708

Field experiments were conducted at the Instructional-cum-Research (ICR) Farm, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat during the year 2017 and 2018 to study the integrated effect of inorganic fertilizers and organic manure on available nutrients, yield and nutrient uptake in scented rice. Before the test crop experiment, fertility gradient experiment was conducted by using kharif rice (cv. Ranjit) as an exhaust crop to create three fertility gradient strips. After harvesting the gradient crop, test crop experiment was conducted in the same field with scented rice (cv. Keteki joha) by superimposing 24 combination treatments consisting of five levels of N (0, 10, 20, 40 and 60 kg ha-1), four levels of P2O5 (0, 5, 10 and 20 kg ha-1), three levels of K2O (0, 10 and 20 kg ha-1) and three levels of vermicompost (0, 2 and 3 t ha-1) in each of these fertility gradient strips. Results show that application of integrated nutrient management approach brought about a positive influence on organic carbon, nutrient availability, crop yield and nutrients uptake by scented rice. Combined application of 60 kg N, 10 kg P2O5 and 10 kg K2O per hectare along with 3 tons of vermicompost per hectare resulted in the highest concentration of available NPK in soils, the highest crop yield and uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium by rice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Divergence Studies in Tomato Genotypes Grown under Low-Cost Polyhouse Conditions

Rakesh Kumar, Anil Bhushan, R. K. Samnotra, Tuhina Dey, Manmohan Sharma, Manish Sharma

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 309-313
DOI: 10.9734/ijpss/2021/v33i2230709

Assessment of genetic diversity was made for sixteen yields and yield contributing traits in twenty-one tomato genotypes using D2 statistics. These genotypes were grouped into five clusters by the use of the Tocher method. Cluster I was the most significant, comprising 13 genotypes (Pusa Ruby, CLN2123A1 Red, PKM-1, IIHR-2042, Marglobe, EC 163605, Hawaii 7998, Palam Pink, EC 521038, Punjab Rakthak, EC 163383, Arka Abha and IIVR BT-10) followed by Cluster II  with 5 genotypes (EC 163611, Punjab Sartaj, EC 160885, Punjab Barkha Bahar  and Roma). Other Clusters (II, IV and V) were solitary ones (EC 249515, Kashi Chayan, DVRT-2). Cluster II recorded a maximum intra cluster distance of 3521.73 followed by cluster I (2796.45), whereas, cluster II, IV and V had zero intra cluster distance. The inter cluster D2 value also ranged widely, with a minimum value of 4082.34 between cluster I and IV, indicating a close relationship among the genotypes included. The maximum inter cluster D2 value (23102.20) between cluster II and V indicates high diversity among the genotypes in the clusters. Hence,   maximum contribution towards divergence was observed by average fruit weight (14%) followed by fruit set percentage (12%), number of flowers per cluster (8%), fruit yield per plant (7%), number of fruits per truss (6 %) and total soluble solid content (6 %). Hence, due importance could be given to the selection of genotypes for further improvement based on these traits.