Open Access Original Research Article

Maize Grain Yield Response to Changes in Acid Soil Characteristics with Yearly Leguminous Crop Rotation, Fallow, Slash, Burn and Liming Practices

C. The, S. S. Meka, E. L. M. Ngonkeu, J. M. Bell, H. A. Mafouasson, A. Menkir, H. Calba, C. Zonkeng, M. Atemkeng, W. J. Horst

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2012/2103

An experiment was conducted for 4 years to assess the effectiveness of fallow, slash and burn farming systems on maize grain yield and soil chemical characteristics. It was also meant to measure the response to yearly rotation of maize and leguminous crops (cowpea and mucuna), as options for managing the acidity of the soil of the study site. The maize tolerant cultivar (cvr) out yielded the sensitive cvr and the farmers’ variety by 43% and 16% respectively. On the maize/grain legume rotation plots, the tolerant and sensitive cvr yielded 5% and 7% respectively more than their corresponding yields on plots with fallow, slash and burn rotation. Maize/grain legume rotation demonstrated one of the least soil acidifications, exhibiting the least increase in exchangeable Al (23%), H (24%), and Al saturation (5%) resulting in improved soil fertility through increase in available Ca (2%), Mg (85%), P (75%), and CEC (14%). The fallow, slash and burn rotation, associated with the tolerant cvr showed similar grain yield with grain legume rotation, but contributed more to soil acidification. Maize/leafy legume rotation gave a similar yield to the above mentioned practices. The yearly application of 250 kg ha-1 of dolomitic lime for four consecutive years did not result in significant changes in soil characteristics and grain yield especially for the Al tolerant cvr. However, application of 2250 kg ha-1 of lime neutralized the Al toxicity, regardless of the rotation scheme. The study concluded that the four years maize cultivation through fallow/ slash and burn rotation extensively used in the humid forest zone is not the best option on acid soil.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spontaneous Plants Used in the Traditional Soap Making in Cote D’Ivoire

Coulibaly Siendou, Ouattara Djakalia, Konkon N’dri Gilles, Kagoyire Kagohiré, Kouakou Tanoh Hilaire

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 16-29
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2012/2037

The study focused on the spontaneous plants used in the traditional soap making. The aim is to create a directory of the main plant species used in traditional soap making in the Sudan savanna zone.
An ethnobotanical investigation based on direct structured or semi-structured individual interviews was carried out with 193 people. 33 plants were recorded, among which 7 plants are used for the extraction of the fat and 28 for potash manufacture. The frequency of plant use, level of abundance plant and origin of each plant species were estimated.
At the end of the study, 33 plants were recorded and 22 are abundant in study zone. Carapa procera was used much and on the other hand Ceiba pentandra, Cussonia arborea, Elaeis guineensis and Vitellaria paradoxa were moderately used. 28 plants are spontaneous and 84 % of respondents reported their involvement in the traditional soap making. 7 plants were used for fat extraction while 28 plants species were use to potash manufacture. Stems and fruit were most requested as organs of plants for soap making.
The intensive use of the stem (trunk and branches) of these species is a real pressure on the resources itself and may lead to the extinction of the most vulnerable one. Plants inventoried were ranked according to their importance for the soap makers. Several types of plants were identified, from the most known, commonly used and abundant in the study site (Carapa procera, Ceiba pentandra and Cussonia arborea) to the least known, little used and scarce. The valorization of these resources can be beneficial to concerned population, it is urgent to adopt a sustainable management approach for the preservation of the used species. So, 3 plants species (C. procera, P. butyracea and C. arborea) were proposed for possible revalorization.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of L. leucocephala L. (IpilIpil) to Different Soil Media and Phosphorus Fertilization

Muhammad Yasin, M. Mahmood-ul-Hassan, Rizwan Ahmad, Muhammad Arshadullah

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 30-41
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2012/2228

The research was conducted in shade house to investigate the effect of different soil media and phosphorus (P) fertilization in tubes on early growth of the Leucaenaleucocephala. Three growth media sandy medium (only sand), clayey medium (sand and clayey soil ratio; 1:1) and farm yard manure (FYM) medium (sand, clayey soil and FYM ratio; 1:1:1) were prepared. Each medium was fertilized with three rates of phosphorus, i.e., 0, 20, 40 mg P kg-1 medium. Nitrogen and potassium were also applied as basal dose @ 50 N and 100 mg K2O kg-1 media, respectively. The results indicated that shoot length (20 cm), root length (16 cm), shoot dry weight (947 mg plant-1) and root dry weight (134 mg plant-1) were the highest in FYM medium with 20 mg P kg-1. The P concentration in shoot and root, total P uptake and P recovery were also significantly improved when plants were grown in FYM medium supplied with 20 mg P kg-1. It is concluded from this study that L. leucocephalaseedling growth was improved with P application, particularly in FYM medium compared to clayey and sandy media. Further, the P level i.e. 20 mg P Kg -1 was found best among all P rates used. This shows the significance of P and FYM medium in improving growth for the best survival of L. leucocephala seedlings and its raising for plantation on large scale.