Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Diversity of Tomato Germplasm in Ghana using Morphological Characters

M. K. Osei, K. O. Bonsu, A. Agyeman Agyeman, H. S. Choi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 220-231
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/6466

Tomatoes constitute an important fruit vegetable crop in Ghana. However, its diversity is low and may be associated with numerous biotic stresses that pose serious threat to production.
Aim: To characterize 216 germplasm gathered from Korea (RDA), Taiwan (AVRDC), Burkina Faso and Ghana based on their morphological characters.
Study Design: An augmented randomized complete block design with six blocks and three checks.
Place and Duration of Study: Crops Research Institute, Kwadaso station, Kumasi- Ghana, from August 2012 to November 2012.
Methodology: Two hundred and sixteen tomato germplasm were planted in single rows at spacing of 100cm by 50cm. Each row had 12 plants per accession.
Data on morphological variables were measured using AVRDC descriptor list which was then subjected to multivariate analysis using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Clustering Criterion.
Results: Characters contributing most to variability were stem and fruit pubescence, leaf attitude, style, stamen length, colour of immature fruit, fruit skin colour, folia density, ease of fruit wall to peel and plant habit. Scores of the first principal component (PC-1) accounted for 11.88% of the total variation were highly correlated (correlation coefficient >0.3) to characters related in number of days to first flowering, number of days to 50% flowering and that of number of days to 100% flowering. The pruned dendogram generated through agglomerative hierarchical clustering based on the similarity matrix revealed two main groups according to the major morphological characters associated with them.
Conclusion: This study has shown that there is a wide variability in the accessions assembled. These can be used to breed high yielding varieties and/or screen for tomato fruits resistance to pest and disease infestation. The results of this study would be useful for conservation set up and genetic improvement, however, additional confirmation research is required using molecular tools to scrutinize the diversity detected.

Open Access Original Research Article

Rice Response to Phosphorus and Potassium in Fluvisol of Second Order Lowland in a Guinea Savanna Zone of Sub-Saharan Africa

E. F. Akassimadou, B. Koné, G. F. Yao, F. Zadi, F. Konan, M. J. Traoré, A. Yao-Kouamé

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 232-247
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/6532

Aims: Poor management of P- and K-fertilizers can affect Nitrogen effect in rice grain yield and nutritional quality as the most limiting nutrient for rice production in second order lowland of Guinea savanna in West Africa. For the development of best management strategy of N, P and K fertilizers in this agro-ecosystem, the response surface curve of rice to P- and K-fertilizer rates was assessed with the recommended rate of nitrogen.
Study Design: An agronomic trial including eleven (11) treatments in three replications was laid out in a complete randomized blocks design.
Place and Duration of the Study: During three successive cropping cycles of rice in 2012, the study was conducted in M’be II valley of the Centre Cote d’Ivoire, a Guinea savanna zone.
Methodology: Three rates of P- Ca(H2PO4)2H2O [30, 60 and 90 kgPha-1] as well as three of K-KCl [25, 50 and 75kg Kha-1] and their recommended rates (13 kgPha-1 and 25 kgKha-1) in the humid forest zone were the treatments. A total of 80 kgNha-1(urea) was applied in three splits to each of the micro-plots except in the control including no fertilizer. The rice variety named NERICA L19 was transplanted.
Results: The results showed a synergism between K- fertilization and N-nutrition of rice likewise for P-fertilizer which has limited effect on K-nutrition.
Conclusion: The rates of 10 kgPha-1 and 75 kgKha-1 were recommended for the production of high grain yield and nutritional quality of rice when applying 80 kgNha-1. However, further assessments of K and N were suggested for sustaining rice production in the studied agro-ecology.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate Compositions Evaluation and Variability among Cultivars of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) in Nigeria

A. M. Hamza, Agho Collins, S. G. Ado, C. E. Ikuenobe, C. D. Ataga, J. O. Odewale

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 248-259
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/6973

Genetic variability among the fruits of 22 date palm cultivars was studied using 6 nutritional characters to enable us classify the available germplasm into distinct groups on the basis of their genetic diversity using their nutritional characteristics from proximate composition. The main date palm-growing areas of Nigeria were surveyed in 2011 with the objective of characterizing cultivars as to the quality and economic value of their fruits. Descriptive statistics and some multivariate analysis techniques were used to classify the 22 date palm cultivars. The genotypes based on studied traits were grouped into three clusters. Discriminant function analysis was used to confirm the accuracy of grouping that was produced by cluster analysis. Sugar and crude protein content were identified as important traits that could be used to differentiate the genotypes as revealed by both principal component and discriminant analysis. Genetic distance between Daushenga 1 and Saberari 2 exhibited the greatest dissimilarity followed by Daushenga 1 and Hausawa. Hence the use of these parents for hybridization should be given greater emphasis for the production of transgressive segregants with high nutritional potential. The level of variability observed suggested a high diversity among the cultivars. The result of the principal component analysis indicated that the contribution of the first three factors with Eigen value greater than one accounted for 73.03% of the total variation. The moderately high ash content shows that date palm fruit can effectively serve as a source of inorganic minerals and good adsorbent in the removal of metallic ions, odour, colours and other particulate matter from aqueous medium of water and waste water thus making date palm fruit an effective material precursor in water and waste water treatment among other uses. The high soluble carbohydrate content indeed gives an indication that it compares favourably with other fast energy giving food stuffs and thus it can be added to some food content as an additive .This work identified the existence of inherent variability in the local germplasm collections, and the traits that could be used to exploit the observed variability, eliciting important relationships among the traits in the process.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Sugarcane Varieties to Nitrogen and Phosphorus as Inoculated by Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and PSB

D. V. Indi, S. V. Nalawade, S. U. Deshmukh, S. M. Pawar

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 260-269
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/6246

Aims: To study the growth, yield and quality in two sugarcane varieties inoculated with Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and phosphate solubilizing bacteria in normal, sodic and saline-sodic soils.
Study Design: 6 x 2 x 2 factorial completely randomized design (FCRD).
Place and Duration of Study: Central Sugarcane Research Station, Padegaon - 415 521, Tal.- Phaltan, Dist.- Satara, Maharashtra State, India between 2012 and 2013.
Methodology: A pot experiment was conducted in different problematic soils. Two sugarcane varieties viz., Co 86032 and Phule 265 were used. Six soil samples (1 normal, 3 sodic and 2 saline-sodic soils) were selected for the study. The single eye bud sets were inoculated with G. diazotrophicus 10 kg + PSB 1.25 kg in 100 lit water/ha for 30 min before planting and the pots planted with such treated sets received 50% recommended N (125 kg/ha) and 75% recommended P2O5 (86.25 kg/ha). The corresponding control pots planted with the untreated bud sets received 100% recommended N (250 kg/ha) and P2O5 (115 kg/ha). The initial and final soil properties and the effect on growth, yield and quality of sugarcane were studied. The population of G. diazotrophicus in cane juice and that of PSB in rhizosphere soil was determined at 9 months and maturity.
Results: The results indicated that the treatment of sugarcane bud sets with G. diazotrophicus 10 kg + PSB 1.25 kg in 100 lit water/ha for 30 min. coupled with 50% recommended N and 75% recommended P significantly improved the growth, yield and quality. The overall performance of the varieties was best in the normal soil (S-6) followed by S-4 (Sodic) and S-1 (Sodic). The inoculation of sugarcane sets showed the best results in normal soil (S-6) closely followed by S-4 (Sodic) and S-1 (Sodic) indicating better performance of inoculation in these problematic soils. The higher population and activity of G. diazotrophicus and PSB was observed at 50% recommended N and 75% recommended P in both the varieties.
Conclusion: The pre-planting bud set treatment in sugarcane with G. diazotrophicus + PSB coupled with 50% recommended N and 75% recommended P significantly improved the growth, yield and quality of cane juice. Bud set treatment showed the best results in normal soil closely followed by sodic soils indicating better performance of inoculants in these problematic soils.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genotype by Trait Relations between Yield and some Morphological Traits of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) Hybrid Varieties Based on GT Biplot

J. O. Odewale, Agho Collins, C. D. Ataga, E. C. Okolo, C. E. Ikuenobe, G. Odiowaya, M. J. Ahanon

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 270-280
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/7083

The objective of this study was to evaluate the coconut hybrid varieties based on Genotype by Traits (GT) biplot to examine its usefulness in visualizing coconut trait relationship and its application in genotypes comparison. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with two replications; each block consisted of 5 plots with a total of eight palms per plot while the remaining palms were used as guard rows. This experiment was conducted at the Main Research Station of the Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research (NIFOR), Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. The materials for the present study consisted of 5 hybrid varieties of Coconut palm. Data on individual palms were recorded on seven quantitative traits: thickness of petiole (TP), number of fronds (NFD), number of leaflets (NL), number of fruits per palm (NF), number of bunches per palm (NB), width of leaflet (WL) and circumference of the stem 20 cm from the soil level (CF).The GT biplot analysis revealed close associations among the studied traits. The two axes explained 90.4% of the total variation among the cultivars due to the various traits measured thus reflecting the accuracy of inter-relationships among the measured characters. Correlation coefficient between the studied traits showed that there is a strong positive relationship between number of fruit and number of bunches. These two traits were however negatively correlated with other traits except number of fronds. Based on the Auto Find QTL function of GGE biplot, bunch yield and width of leaflets were identified as traits suiTable for indirect selection for nut yield improvement. H4 was identified as an ideal genotype as it combines several good traits in its genetic composition and thus could serve as a good genetic raw material from which better cultivars, synthetic varieties and pure lines can be developed. H1 was the best in terms of nut and bunch yields, indicating that it can be used as parents in the development of hybrid varieties and populations that are outstanding in these traits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Sulfur Levels on Two Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) Varieties under Climatic Conditions of Pakistan

M. Tahir, M. A. Ibrahim, S. Tahir, Aimen Ayub, A. Tanveer, H. Rehman

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 281-288
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/3538

Present study was carried out at Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture Faisalabad during summer season, 2011 to determine the best variety and optimum sulfur level to get higher yield of sesame crop. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with factorial arrangement. The experiment comprised of; two varieties, (TH-6, T-89) and six sulfur levels (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 kg ha-1). It has been observed that the variety TH-6 was more responsive to the sulfur application than the variety T-89. The collected data showed that variety V1 (TH-6) gave significantly maximum number of seeds plant-1, number of capsules plant-1, 1000-seed weight, seed yield, oil content and protein content. Similarly, the sulfur level S6 (when 50 kg sulfur was applied) gave significantly maximum plant height, number of capsules per plant, number of seeds per capsules, 1000-seed weight, seed yield, and oil content of sesame. For obtaining higher yield and good nutritional value, sulfur fertilizer should apply at the rate of 50 kg ha-1 and the variety TH-6 should grow under the irrigated condition of Faisalabad.

Open Access Original Research Article

Short-Time Hypoxia and Post Aeration Alter Relative Membrane Permeability and Total Protein in Root and Leave of Sunflower Cultivars

Akbar Mostajeran, Sanaz Shokrollahi, Majid Mahdiyeh

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 289-302
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/3002

Aims: There are varieties of factors that results into hypoxia in plant’s root zone. Hypoxia causes oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, which seriously affect plant growth. In this experiment, effects of hypoxia and post aeration on root and shoot dry weight, relative membrane permeability (RMP) and total protein (TP) of roots and leaves were evaluated.
Study Design: Department of Biology (Plant Science Division), University of Isfahan and University of Arak in Iran, between September 2010 and April 2012.
Methodology: Seventeen days old seedlings of four sunflower cultivars (Lacomca, Record, Progress and Hysun33) were subjected to four days of hypoxia and then re-aerated for four days. Plants were sampled daily during hypoxia and post aeration to measure root and shoot dry weight, RMP and TP of roots and leaves. RMP was assayed by level of electrolyte leakage from plasma membrane with electrical conductivity meter and TP was measured according to Bradford's method.
Results: Hypoxia caused reduction of plant dry weight differently in different cultivars. Lacomca and Progress cultivars in comparison to Record and Hysun33 cultivars showed less reduction in root dry weight (almost 18% versus 49.4% and 36.1%, respectively). The highest and the lowest reduction in shoot dry weight was observed in Hysun33 (24.5%) and Lacomca (9.7%) cultivars; these reductions were correlated with the amounts of increase in leave RMP in the selfsame cultivars (14.5% and 5.0%, respectively). The highest increase in root and leave TP was obtained for Record cultivar (100.8% and 490.1%, respectively), nevertheless, the lowest increase was measured in root (26.6%) and leave (94.9%) of Lacomca cultivar. Re-aeration for 4 days after hypoxia showed continuous reduction in roots and shoots dry weight and also optimized the amount of RMP and TP of roots and leaves.
Conclusion: Hypoxic condition caused plant dry weight reduction; however, root dry weight reduction was higher than shoot. Hypoxia also increased root and leave RMP and TP. The amount of leave RMP was higher than that of root. The addition of leave RMP was correlated with dry weight reduction; however, this trend was not the same in root.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mapping of Variability in Major and Micro Nutrients for Site-Specific Nutrient Management

Muhammad Jamal Khan, Muhammad Rashid, Shamsher Ali, Inayat Khattak, Shahida Naveed, Zahid Hanif

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 303-329
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/3514

Background: Spatial variation of soil physical and chemical properties influences soil and crop management efficiency causes uneven crop growth and decreases the effectiveness of uniformly applied fertilizers.
Purpose: Therefore, a comprehensive survey was made to determine the spatial variability of soil properties and their mapping in Charsadda district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (KP) of Pakistan to delineated area into low, medium and high level of plant nutrients for site-specific nutrient management using variable rate fertilizer technology.
Method: Soil sampling was done on a grid system using Global Position System (GPS) from two depths (0-15, and 15-45 cm) during 2004; and the samples were analyzed for soil physical (soil texture and saturation percentage), soil chemical (pH, ECe, SAR, lime, and organic matter) and soil fertility status (mineral N, AB-DTPA extractable P, K, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn and HCl extractable B). Geostatistical techniques of semivariogram analysis and kriging were used to model the spatial variability and interpolation of data values at unsampled locations and mapping of the district. Semivariogram analyses of data showed some spatial patterns for soil properties. Silt (r2=0.48), clay (r2=0.71) contents and saturation percentage (r2=0.71) were described by linear model in both the depths (0-15, and 15-45 cm). Electrical conductivity was described by a linear model in both the depths with strong spatial structure in surface soil (r2=0.81). Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in the surface soil had strong spatial structure (r2=0.59), organic matter content in the surface soil was described by a spherical model with a range of influence 6.65 km, while in the subsoil (15-45 cm) it was described by a linear model with moderate spatial structure (r2=0.41). Mineral N and P were described by linear models with strong spatial structure for P in both the depths (r2=0.77, 0.73) and moderate spatial structure (r2=0.36) for surface soil N. Potash content was described by a linear model in surface soil with moderate structure (r2=0.24), while in subsoil it was explained by a spherical model with strong spatial structure (r2=0.64) and a range of about 9 km. Zinc and Cu in the surface soil were randomly distributed, while they have strong spatial structure (r2=0.63 and 0.54, respectively) with a linear model in subsoil. Boron content in both the depths was described by a linear model with strong spatial structure in surface (r2=0.61) and moderate structure (r2=0.31) in subsoil.
Results: The maps of various measured soil properties showed that soil mineral N and boron (B) increases from north-east toward west-south, available P form south-east towards north-west and lime form northern towards southern parts of the district. Soil organic matter, sand and silt contents showed little spatial variation within sampled areas.
Conclusion: Texture of Charsadda district ranged from silt to sandy loam. Sand content in the east and silt in the whole area was higher, while clay was found low throughout the soil surveyed. All the soils were alkaline in reaction and calcareous in nature to different degrees as indicated in maps of surface soil pH and CaCO3. Organic matter content of both the depths was low. surface soils was deficient in N in all soils of district Charsadda while deficiencies of P, Zn and B were observed to a greater extent, while K, Cu and Mn are also appearing deficient in soil.