Open Access Conference Proceeding (Full Paper)

Biological Evaluation of Okara in Rats Based on Plasma Lipid Profile and Histology

Wael H. M. Elreffaei, Eman M. Rageb, Mouhamed M. Masoud, Abul H. Mehanni

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 507-522
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/8085

Aims: This study was conducted to determine the potentials effects of dietary fibre on plasma lipid profile and liver and heart histology of male albino rats fed in high-fat diet and dried okra by-product. Possible using okara is going to eliminate pollution and add economic value to this currently valueless. Okara was provided by Food Technology Institute (Agriculture Research Center, Giza, Egypt).
Place and Duration of Study: Experiment was started at Regional Center for Food and Feed during June 2012 to August 2012.
Methodology: Okara samples were dried and chemically analyzed. Then they were evaluated biologically on rats. The diets contained, the male albino rats grouped into five groups according diets as control group (-ve) received on diet contain no cholesterol (C-1) and free from okara, second one divided as (+ve) control group fed on 1% cholesterol and free okara (C-2), other remaining three (3-5) groups separately on composite diet contain 10%, 20% and 30% okara and 1% cholesterol for each group with remaining normal diet The plasma lipid profile was determined three times after fasting period. By the end of experiment rats organs (liver and heart) were kept to histological investigation.
Results: A significant variance (p<0.05) occurred between diet containing okara diet and negative control and positive control groups in the level of triglyceride throughout the whole experiment. By feeding groups on 20% okara (OK-20) had significantly lower (p<0.05) plasma LDL-C level than the 10 and 30% okara fed groups. The hematological analysis, in the exception of the platelets levels which does not varied significantly amongst diet groups. Focal area of hepatic necrosis associated with leucocytic cells infiltration in the liver of group fed on 10% okara with high fat diet. Examination of histology sections from group 30% okara with high fat diet showed reveal focal myolysis of cardiac myocytes associated with inflammatory cells infiltration.
Conclusion: Okara components might play an interesting role in the prevention of hyperlipidemia and could be used as a natural ingredient or supplement for functional food preparation.

Open Access Conference Proceeding (Full Paper)

Response of Some Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Cultivars Grown in Sandy Soil to Soil and Foliar Feeding with the Different Sources of Phosphorus

A. M. El-Saady, A. A. El- Sayed, W. M. A. K. Teilep, M. F. El- Dahshouri

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 523-537
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/8089

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is one of most important leguminous crops for animal and human nutrition. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to improve the growth, yield and yield components as well as nutrient status of peanut cultivars grown on sandy soil by applying different sources of phosphorus as a soil and foliar feeding. Summer field experiment was carried out in Ismailia Experimental Station, Agriculture Research Center, during the growing seasons 2010 and 2011 to study the influence of soil (at recommended doses) and foliar application of phosphorus (at 0.5% P2O5) using different sources of phosphorus fertilizer on leaves uptake of some nutrients, growth, yield and yield components of three peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars, (Giza-6, R92 and Gregory). The experimental design was split plot with four replicates. The three peanut cultivars were occupied in Main plot and ten treatments of phosphorus fertilizer (soil and foliar application) were allocated at random in sub-plots. Result showed significant differences among peanut cultivars in all studied parameters in the two of study seasons. Superiority of dry weight of leaves, nutrient uptake by leaves, plant height, pods yield and yield components and shelling percentage were recorded by Giza-6 and R92 cultivars. The obtained results indicated that the Applying UP and MKP to soil improved all growth and yield components and resulted improving nutrients uptake in peanut leaves which induced significant increase in pods yield as compared to other treatments. There was significant effect of the interaction between peanut cultivars and phosphorus fertilizer of different sources on all parameters studied. Giza-6 cultivar gave the highest values for plant height, weight of pods/plant, 100-pod weight, weight of seeds/plant and dry weight of leaves/plant, when fertilizer with SSP as foliar, UP, MAP and MKP application to the soil, respectively. Based on two years results, it could be concluded that application of MKP to soil might be the best for crop nutrients status, pods yield and its components under sandy soil condition, at Ismailia.

Open Access Conference Proceeding (Full Paper)

Composting Technology and Impact of Compost on Arid Soil Biochemical Properties

R. A. - Abdel Aziz

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 538-553
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/8170

Organic farming is one of several approaches to sustainable agriculture. Properly managed, organic farming reduces or eliminates environmental pollution and helps conserve water and soil on the farm. Organic farming system requires significantly greater amount of organic fertilizers input than conventional system. Because of the shortage of organic fertilizers in the arid areas, composting is a way to transform the waste materials left over from agricultural production and processing into a useful resource. Mature compost is an excellent organic fertilizer and desert soil amendment. The potential of composting to turn on-farm waste material into farm resources makes it an attractive proposition. Composting offers several benefits such as enhance soil fertility and soil health, thereby increase agricultural productivity, improve soil biodiversity, reduce ecological risks and improve environment. Aerobic composting of some agricultural wastes (peanut, wheat straw and palm tree wastes) was carried out to raise its fertilizing value compared with widely used organic fertilizer, farmyard manure. The influence of composted and non-composted agricultural wastes on availability of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) in desert sandy soil as well as uptake of these elements by corn plants was also studied. Results indicated rapid degradation of palm tree and wheat straw wastes as compared with peanut one. The composting process raised fertilizing value of agricultural wastes as indicated by increase of nutrients availability. Application of the composted wastes as organic fertilizers to desert sandy soil increased content of available N, P and K. Results showed that application of different composted organic materials increased the dry weight and NPK uptake by corn plants.

Open Access Conference Proceeding (Full Paper)

Efficacy Comparison of Stearic Acid, Glutathione and Salicylic Acid on Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Cultivars Productivity in Sandy Soil

M. S. A. Abd El Wahed, H. F. Abouziena

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science,
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/8171

A field experiment was carried out at Salhia District, Sharkia Governorate, Egypt, to study the growth and productivity of wheat cultivars (Gemmeiza 9, Sakha 93, Giza 168 and Sakha 94) to three bioregulators i.e. stearic acid (StA), glutathione (Gl) and salicylic acid (SA) at 50 and 100 ppm concentration. The results indicated that there was a significant difference in the accumulation of photosynthetic pigment in flag leaf among the wheat cultivars as well as between the bioregulator treatments. Gemmeiza 9 produced significantly higher grain yield than Sakha 93, Giza 168 and Sakha 94 cultivars by 26.0, 32.6 and 22.9%, respectively. The response of wheat plants to the three bioregulators was varied according to the wheat cultivar and bioregulator as well as bioregulator concentration used. Application of StA at 100 ppm gave the highest increment in grain yield (26.2%) followed by SA at 100 ppm (23.4%) with insignificant difference between the two superior treatments. The maximum grain yield was obtained by spraying Gemmeiza 9 and Sakha 94 with 100 ppm of stearic acid and salicylic acid, respectively. Application of SA (50 ppm) gave the lowest grain yieldha-1, compared to rest bio-regulators treatments, however this treatment increased grain yield per ha by 9.4%. Insignificant differences were noticed among the wheat cultivars in the free amino acids, total phenols and total sugars, while Sakha 94 recorded the highest sucrose content in grains. Exogenous application of Gl (50 and 100 ppm) gave the highest value of the free amino acids and sucrose percent, respectively, while highest total phenols and total sugars were recorded with application SA at 100 ppm. Generally, it could be concluded that growing wheat plants Gemmeiza 9 and spraying the plants with stearic acid at 100 ppm increase the wheat productivity in the sandy soil.

Open Access Conference Proceeding (Full Paper)

GIS Tool for Distribution Reference Evapotranspiration under Climate Change in Egypt

A. A. Farag, M. A. A. Abdrabbo, M. S. M. Ahmed

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 575-588
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/8172

Current climatic data were collected to estimate ETo from 1998 to 2007 in the major Egyptian agro-climatic regions, i.e. Delta region, Middle Egypt and Upper Egypt, to generate future mean air temperature under climate change conditions using Magicc\Scengen model. FAO-56 Penman-Monteith equation was used to estimate ETo by using the collected and generated climatic data. The climate change data were generated under four scenarios (A1, A2, B1 and B2, according to IPCC results revealed that ETo significantly increased in 2050s and 2100s compared to the current ETo values. Results indicated that the values of ETo in 2100s were higher than those for 2050s for all studied regions. The average percentages increase in the four tested scenarios of the 2100s for Delta, Middle Egypt and Upper Egypt were 14, 17 and 18%, respectively. The most affected region by climate change was Upper Egypt because it already has the highest ETo under the current conditions; this increase in ETo could affect agricultural expansion negatively, especially if the water resources become a limiting factor. Moreover, the spatial analysis using kriging interpolation showed that the ETo in Egypt will be increased by uneven values under future climate change, the highest increasing values will appear under the A1 scenario, while the lowest increasing will be observed under B1 and B2 scenarios.

Open Access Conference Proceeding (Full Paper)

Effect of Combined Application of Different Micronutrients on Productivity and Quality of Sugar Beet Plants (Beta vulgaris L.)

Mirvat E. Gobarah, M. M. Tawfik, Sahar M. Zaghloul, Gehan A. Amin

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 589-598
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/8193

The experiments were conducted throughout two successive winter seasons 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 at Belquas, Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of foliar application with different micronutrients with excluding one element each treatment and its addition times on the productivity and quality of sugar beet plants. The treatments were six combinations of micronutrients, T0 (spraying with water),T1 (Fe+Zn+Mn+B), T2 (T1-Fe), T3 (T1-Zn), T4 (T1-Mn), T5 (T1-B) and two application times (once after 60 days from sowing or twice after 60 and 90 days from sowing) at 50ppm for each in the form of (Zinc sulphate, Manganese sulphate and Boric acid) and 100ppm in the form of Iron sulphate. Results indicated that, T1 recorded the highest values for yield characters i.e. root, top and sugar yields as well as root weight and dimensions as compared with other treatments followed by T2. Moreover, the results concluded that T1 treatment produced the maximum sucrose %, purity %, recoverable sugar % and white sugar yield followed by T2 in both seasons, this proving that Fe was the least effective microelement on productivity and quality traits of sugar beet. On the other hand, T3 and T4 recorded the lowest values of all yield and yield components and this may be due to the role of Zn and Mn in plant growth as well as their effect as metal components of some enzymes. Furthermore, Zn and B followed by Mn positively affected the impurities content i.e. K, Na and amino N % as well as sucrose loss to molasses, so the absence of Zn or B have more impact on sugar beet quality. The obtained results showed that foliar application with micronutrients twice (60 and 90 days) after sowing significantly increased root, top and recoverable sugar yield and improved sucrose % and purity % in both seasons. Generally, it could be concluded that spraying micronutrients mixture twice (Fe+Zn+Mn+B) produce the highest productivity and quality of sugar beet under the environmental conditions of Dakahlia Governorate.

Open Access Conference Proceeding (Full Paper)

Allelopathic Effects of Sorghum and Sudan Grass on Some Following Winter Field Crops

S. E. A. Toaima, M. M. Lamlom, T. I. Abdel- Abdel Wahab, Sh. I. l- Abde Wahab

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 599-622
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/8267

Allelopathic compounds are secreted into the environment by living plants or released from dead plant tissues. The basic release routes of allelopathic substances by donor plants are secretion from the roots, washing out of compounds by water, emission of volatile substances and destruction of tissues during the decomposition of plant material. These observations led to the principles of crop sequence. A two-year study was carried out at Sids Agric. Exp. & Res. St., ARC, Beni – Sweif governorate, Egypt, during 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 seasons to study the allelopathic effects of sorghum and Sudan grass on berseem, faba bean, fodder beet, onion, sugar beet and wheat crops. This experiment included 18 treatments which were the combinations of fallow, sorghum and Sudan grass as preceding crops and six winter field crops (berseem 'Trifolium alexandrinum', faba bean 'Vicia faba', fodder beet 'Beta vulgaris', onion 'Allium cepa', sugar beet 'Beta vulgaris' and wheat 'Triticum aestivum') as following crops. A split plot distribution in randomized complete block design replicated thrice was used. The results indicated that roots of sorghum or Sudan grass secreted biologically active chemical compounds which have a positive effect on the growth and development of berseem, faba bean and onion which led to increase in their yields as compared with the fallow treatment. The preceding crops tested appear to be promising for berseem, faba bean and onion production, some benefits included releasing compounds that activate growth of Rhizobia sp. in berseem field, accelerate growth of Bacillus sp. that inhibit Orobanche plant emergence in faba bean field, produce nematicidal compounds that reduce nematodes in onion field. On the contrary, fodder beet, sugar beet and wheat yields were depressed when the crops are grown after sorghum or Sudan grass as compared with the fallow treatment.

Open Access Conference Proceeding (Full Paper)

Effect of Groundnut – Sesame Intercropping and Nitrogen Fertilizer on Yield, Yield Components and Infection of Root – Rot and Wilt Diseases

A. M. Abdel- Galil, R. E. A. Abdel- Ghany

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 623-643
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/8437

The interaction between cropping system and mineral nutrients (nitrogen) is an important factor affecting yield and its attributes of legumes. A two year-study was carried out at Ismailia Agricultural Experiments and Research Station, ARC, Ismailia governorate, Egypt, during 2010 and 2011 summer seasons to study the effect of intercropping sesame with groundnut and three rates of nitrogen fertilization on yield and its attributes, as well as, root – rot and wilt diseases for both crops. Intercropping pattern 3 groundnut : 1 sesame recorded higher groundnut yield and its attributes than 2:2 pattern, while, the highest sesame yield and its attributes was obtained by 2:2 pattern. Increasing nitrogen fertilization rates from 107.1 to 178.5 kg N per ha resulted in significant increment in yield and its attributes of both crops. Land equivalent ratio (LER) ranged from 1.22 to 1.44. LER Values of 2:2 pattern exceeded 3:1 pattern. The highest LER was obtained when growing sesame with groundnut in 2:2 pattern and using the highest rate of nitrogen fertilization (178.5 kg N per ha). The relative crowding coefficient (RCC) in 2:2 was associated with relatively heavy competition rather than 3:1 pattern. The lowest aggressivity was associated with 2:2 pattern and fertilized with 142.8 kg N per ha. The highest Monetary advantage index was also associated with 2:2 pattern when received the highest rate of nitrogen fertilization (178.5 kg N per ha). The gradual increase of nitrogen fertilization rates resulted in increases the percentage of dead groundnut and sesame plants under the two intercropping patterns during the two seasons. Intercropping pattern 2:2 increased the total counts of fungi and bacteria isolated from soil than the other intercropping pattern. Increasing nitrogen fertilization rates from 107.1 to 178.5 kg N per ha increased the total fungi count, whereas, it decreased the total bacteria count.

Open Access Conference Proceeding (Full Paper)

Reuse of Drainage Water of Fish Ponds in Soybean Cultivation under Sprinkler Irrigation System

R. E. Abdelraouf, E. Hoballah, M. A. Horia

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 644-658
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/8442

Nowadays the limited water resources in Egypt lead to use the drainage water effluent in agriculture, particularly in reclaimed desert land which inherently deficient in organic matter, nutrient and trace elements. Therefore the aim of this study is maximizing benefits from drainage water of fish ponds in irrigation of soybean crop and using it as new water recourse. Two field experiments were carried out during growing seasons 2012 and 2013, in research farm of National Research Center (NRC), Nubaryia province, Egypt to study the effect of fertigation rates and using drainage water of fish ponds in irrigation of soybean. Study factors were water quality (traditional irrigation water “TW” and drainage water of fish ponds “DWFP”) and fertigation rate “FR” (25%, 50%, 75% and 100% from recommended dose from NPK).The following parameters were studied to evaluate the effect of study factors :(1) Calculating the lost amount of wastewater of fish ponds per season without any benefit. (2) Growth characters (3) Yield (4) Irrigation water use efficiency of soybean "IWUE soybean” and (5) Oil and protein content. Statistical analysis of the effect of the interaction between study factors on growth, yield, irrigation water use efficiency of soybean and oil and protein content indicated that, maximum values were obtained for yield, IWUE, oil and protein content of soybean under DWFP x FR100% NPK, also indicated that, there were no significant differences under DWFP x FR100% NPK > DWFP x FR75% NPK this means that, using drainage water of fish ponds as a new source for irrigation will save traditional irrigation water and save 25% from minerals fertilizers under sprinkler irrigation system.

Open Access Conference Proceeding (Full Paper)

Ecological Studies on California Red Scale Insect, Aonidiella aurantii (Mask.) on Some Orange Varieties in Relation to Biotic and Abiotic Factors

Selim A. A

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 659-670
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/8565

Aims: Orange trees infested with different scale insects, among them the California red scale (Aonidiella aurantii [Mask.]), is the most serious pest of orange. This study was conducted to demonstrate the number of generations of this pest on each variety and the effect of parasitic and meteorological factors on its population.
Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in a private orchard in Kafr Shokr, Qaliobiya Governorate (30.543646,31.263705) on three varieties of orange (Balady, Navel, Succari) during two years from February 2010 to January 2012.
Results: The dynamics of development of generation of red scale was influenced by host varieties as follows:
• On Balady orange three generations in the 1st season in (Feb. – August), (May – October) and (August – Dec.) and in (Feb. – July), (July – Nov.) and (Sept. – Jan.) during the 2nd season.
• On Navel orange three generations in (Feb. – July), (May – October) and (August – Jan.) during 1st season and (Feb. – June), (April – October) and (October – Jan.) in the 2nd season.
• On Succari orange 1st season generations in (Feb. – June), (April – August) and (August – Dec.) while 2nd season generations in (March – June), (May – October) and (October – Jan.)
Parasitism gave a very positive significant relation in the 1st season and insignificant negative in the 2nd season, Temp. gave positive significant relation in the 1st season and very significant in the 2nd season, while relative humidity relations was negative in 1st season and positive in the 2nd season but insignificant in both.
The effect of all measures was very significant in the 1st season and insignificant in the 2nd season as the total effect was 89.71% and 61.51% during the 1st and 2nd seasons, respectively.

Open Access Conference Proceeding (Full Paper)

Virulence of Puccina graminis f.sp. tritici and Postulated Resistance Genes for Stem Rust in Ten Wheat Varieties in Egypt

M. - Abou Zeid, Olfat M. Moussa, Mona M. Ragab, S. Sherif

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 671-684
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/8567

Stem rust (Puccina graminis f. sp. tritici) samples were collected from different areas of Egypt during two season 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 growing seasons. The single pustule method of isolation was followed, and the type of infection was recorded as well for each rust samples. The identification of physiologic races revealed the presence of forty fifth and fifty fifth race groups of stem rust races. The race identification evinced the presence of race groups TT--- and TK--- as well, which run to 11.59 and 10.14 percents of samples in 2008/2009, respectively. However in season 2009/2010 race groups TT--- was the most frequent one (21.50 %), The frequency of virulence of isolates on lines possessing the resistance genes Sr,s 24, 31, 26, 6, 9e, 29, 35, 9a and 9g were the lowest among the tested lines and should be considered in breeding for resistance. The most effective resistance genes at seedling stage were Sr,s 24, 31, 29, 6, 9a, 26+9g and 9e. The postulation of genes revealed that the vars. Giza 164 and Sohag 3 probably have (tow genes, each), Sakha 94 (four genes), Sids 1 and Sakha 93 (five genes each), Sids 13 (nine genes), Giza 168 (ten genes); Gemmeiza 7 (thirteen genes) on the other hand, Giza 160 and Sakha 8 did not have any genes.

Open Access Conference Proceeding (Full Paper)

Mycoflora Association and Contamination with Aflatoxins in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Seeds

Amal A. Khalil, D. A. Elwaki, M. I. Ghonim

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 685-694
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/8571

The study aimed to identify sunflower seed- borne fungi associated with sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), and also to explain the effect of environmental factors on increasing or decreasing the levels of aflatoxins in sunflower seeds. Seeds were collected from two governorates from season 2009. The sunflower seed- borne fungi was screened by using blotter and agar plate methods in two cultivars seeds. Fungi associated with sunflower seeds under different storage temperature degrees for different periods were determined using blotter and agar methods. It was found that sunflower seeds contained different fungal genera in both Sakha. 53 and Giza. 102 sunflower cultivars studied. The main species (spp.) found were Aspergillus flavus at the highest frequency, followed by Alternaria alternata and then Penicillium spp, Drechlera spp were found at the lowest frequency. A positive correlation between frequency of fungal infection, storage period and temperature was found. The presence of aflatoxin was determined in contaminated sunflower seeds using flow through strips and Vicam immunoaffinity column methods. The effect of environmental factors plays an important role on increasing or decreasing the levels of aflatoxins in sunflower seeds.

Open Access Conference Proceeding (Full Paper)

Prediction of Citrus Wax Scale, Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock (Hemiptera: Coccidae) Populations Using the Two IPCC's SRES Scenarios (A2 and B2) for 2050 and 2100 Years

A. A. Farag, N. Aly, S. Abd- Rabou

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 695-706
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/8087

The present work deals with the prediction of the populations of citrus wax scale, Ceroplastes floridensisduring 2050 and 2100 years compared with the pest populations of 2012 as well as the different effect of temperature on populations of 2000 and 2012 years in Sharkia governorate. The results indicated the existent of a relationship between mean temperature and nymph numbers of C. floridensis with a good fit to the data and a co-efficient of determination of R2= 0.908 and 0.957 for 2000 and 2012 years, respectively. Also, the existent of a relationship between mean temperature and adult numbers with a good fit to the data and the co-efficient of determination of R2=0.934 and 0.956 for 2000 and 2012 years, respectively. The nymph numbers for C. floridensis under two different climate change Scenario (A2 and B2) were also estimated. The results indicated that the increased in nymph numbers in 2012s & 2050s and 2012s & 2100s under A2, with average yearly increased, were 20.4% and 60.0%, respectively. While under B2 were 23.1% and 42.6%, respectively. Estimated adult numbers for C. floridensis under the two different climate change Scenario (A2 and B2). The results showed that the increased between nymph numbers in 2012s & 2050s and 2012s & 2100s under A2 with average yearly increased were 32.6 % and 103.0%, respectively. While under B2 were 37.9% and 72.5%, respectively. It is concluded that the increased temperatures during 2050 and 2100 will increased the population actively of C. floridensis in Egypt.

Open Access Conference Proceeding (Full Paper)

Increasing Soil Organic Matter Content as a Key Factor for Sustainable Production of Sweet Pepper

M. - Abul Soud, M. A. Abdrabbo, A. A. Farag

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 707-723
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/8173

Intensive agriculture under plastic houses need to increase organic soil matter for sustainable production to match demands of food security, especially under semi-arid Egyptian conditions. Climate change impacts on agricultural production and the need to mitigate green house’s gases (GHG’s) worked as a driving forces to pay more attention to soil organic matter content and to offer different methods (aerobic composting and vermicomposting) for recycling different organic wastes (agricultural residues and organic urban wastes). The study aimed to investigate increasing organic soil matter content in sandy soil by different rates and types of soil amendments as well as investigate their effects on vegetative growth and yield of sweet pepper using a split plot design with three replicates. The study was carried out during two growing autumn seasons of 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 at El-Bossily farm, CLAC, Agricultural Research Center, Behaira Governorate, Egypt. Sweet pepper (Capsicum annum L.) cv. Godion F1 was the test crop and vermicompost, compost and cattle manure at the rates of 2, 4 and 6% (1.8, 3.6 and 5.4 m3/plastic house of 540m2) were the soil amendment treatments. Results obtained indicate that increasing rate of the different soil amendments from 1.8 to 5.4 m3/plastic house led to increase in vegetative growth and significantly enhanced early and total yield of sweet pepper. The highest values of stem diameter, total leaf area, yield and N, P were recorded by vermicompost, while cattle manure recorded the highest plant height, number of leaves and K contents (%). Vermicomposting of organic urban wastes and composting of agricultural residues to produce organic fertilizers instead of burning or incineration compared to cattle manure led to the sequestrating of CO2 in the soil by 605, 430 and 286 kg/ton and conserved nitrogen fertilizer by 17.1, 11.4 and 16.9 kg/ton of vermicompost, compost and cattle manure respectively. The use of vermicompost as a soil amendment at the rate of 4% gave the highest economic sweet pepper yield. Organic urban wastes could create a good source for producing soil amendment. Increasing organic soil matter content played a vital role in crop production.

Open Access Conference Proceeding (Full Paper)

Improving Growth and Productivity of Faba Bean Plants by Foliar Application of Thiourea and Aspartic Acid

A. A. Amin, H. F. Abouziena, M. T. Abdelhamid, El-Sh. M. Rashad, A. E. Fatma Gharib

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 724-736
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/8227

Two field experiments were carried out at the Research and Production Station of the National Research Centre, Noubaria, Egypt, during the winter season of 2010/2011 and 2011/2012. This study aimed to investigate the response of vegetative growth, yield and some metabolic constituents of field bean (Vicia faba L. var minor) cv. Giza402 to foliar application of bio-regulator Thiourea (TU; 250, 500 or 1000 mg L-1), and amino acid Aspartic acid (AspA; 50, 100 or 150 mg L-1) either alone or in combination. Foliar application of TU and Asp A either alone or in combination significantly increased the values of number of branches, leaves and pods/plant, total dry weight/plant, leaf area index, specific leaf weight and crop growth rate criteria. Total photosynthetic pigments content in leaves were increased by increasing TU (up to 1000 mg L-1) and Asp A (upto150 mg L-1) singly or in combination. Straw, seed and biological yields of faba bean plants were significantly increased by increasing TU and Asp A concentrations up to 1000 and 150 mgL-1, respectively. Application of 1000 mgL-1 TU, singly and combined with Asp A at 150 mg L-1 caused significant increments in harvest index (2.9 and 25.5%) and seed yield ha-1 (46.4 and 101.9%), respectively, compared to their control plants. TU and Asp A, when applied alone, significantly improved the nutritional value and quality of faba bean seeds by increasing total carbohydrates, total crude protein, phosphorus, potassium, and calcium contents. In conclusion, foliar application of TU at 1000 mg L-1 and Asp A at 150 mg L-1, singly or combined could be recommended to improve the yield, nutritional value and quality of faba bean seeds.

Open Access Conference Proceeding (Full Paper)

Comparative Evaluation of Different Organic Fertilizer Effects on Soil Fertility, Leaf Chemical Composition and Growth Performance of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) Seedlings

Emmanuel Ibukunoluwa Moyin-Jesu, Ani Innocent Ogochukwu

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 737-750
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/4338

Aims: Planting healthy coconut seedlings will reduce cost of establishment and increase total yield of coconut fruits for high economic value. Therefore, two experiments were carried out in 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 cropping seasons to evaluate the effects of different fertilizers on the soil fertility improvement, leaf chemical composition and growth performance of coconut (Cocos nucifera L) seedlings in the nursery.
Design: The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design and replicated three times
Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was carried out at Akure in the rainforest zone of Nigeria, West Africa
Methodology: Four organic fertilizers[ 6t/ha] treatments were used namely: goat manure, poultry manure, oil palm bunch ash and wood ash .A control treatment(no fertilizer, no manure) and inorganic fertilizer applied at 400kg /ha NPK 15-15-15 were also used.
Twenty Coconut seed nut were sown at a spacing of 0.25m by 0.25m between and within rows per seed bed. Adequate watering daily both morning and evening continued till the commencement of the rainy season in the following year.
At 10th week after planting, sown coconut seed nuts were recorded for sprouting and emergence. Also, at 12 weeks after planting, growth parameters (plant height, stem girth, leaf area and leaf population) of the coconut seedlings were measured and this continued every 2 weeks till 38 weeks after planting.
Results: The result showed significant (P=0.05) increases of plant height, stem girth, leaf area, leaf number, shoot weight, the contents of soil and leaf N, P, K Ca and Mg, pH and organic matter (0.M) compared to the control treatment. For growth parameters, poultry manure increased the plant height, stem girth, leaf area, leaf number and shoot weight of coconut seedlings by 24.8%, 14%, 18%, 16.6% and 37.5% respectively compared to wood ash treatment. When compared to NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer, it also increased the growth parameters as well as the concentration of N, K, Ca and Mg in leaf than NPK 15-15-15 treatment whereas inverse case was observed for P concentrations.
For soil chemical composition, Oil palm bunch ash and wood ash had the highest values of soil pH, K, Ca and Mg compared to goat and poultry manures. However, poultry manure had the highest values of soil N and P. with relative increase of K[96%], Ca[95%], Mg[25%], pH[87%] and 0.M[74%] contents compared to NPK fertilizer which has decreased soil 0.M and pH because of high K.Ca, K/Mg and P/Mg ratios.
Conclusion: Poultry manure applied at 6t/ha showed the highest performance, leaf and soil chemical composition and growth parameters of coconut seedling.

Open Access Conference Proceeding (Full Paper)

Effects of Macro- and Nano-cobalt Oxide Particles on Barley Seedlings and Remediation of Cobalt Chloride Toxicity Using Sodium Hypochlorite

Sonia ., A. K. Thukral

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 751-762
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/8206

This study was undertaken to determine the comparative effects of cobalt (II, III) oxide (Co3O4) macro- and nano-particles and cobaltous chloride hexahydrate (CoCl2.6H2O) on seed germination, growth and some biochemical parameters of Hordeum vulgare L. seedlings. Macro- and nano-Co was added to the sand medium at four levels (50 to 200 mg kg-1 sand). Macro-Co was found to increase the growth of both shoots and roots at concentrations up to 200 mg Co kg-1 sand. Increase in concentration of nano-Co decreased the root length. Lipid peroxidation was maximum at 200 mg Co kg-1 sand for macro-Co in roots. Increase in the lipid peroxidation was found in nano-Co treated roots and shoots. Nano- and macro-Co3Obehaved differently with respect to effects on barley seedlings. The present study also demonstrated the ameliorative effect of NaOCl against CoCl2.6H2O toxicity in barley seedlings. NaOCl also decreased the lipid peroxidation induced by CoCl2.6H2O and increased chlorophyll content in seedlings.

Open Access Conference Proceeding (Full Paper)

Screening Wheat Landrace Varieties for Grain Yield under Water Deficit Conditions Using Drought Tolerance Indices

Zahed Khaledian, Bahram Heidari, Negar Daneshnia

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 763-776
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/8937

In order to evaluate the performance of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes under drought stress at heading stage, 100 Iranian landraces and two commercial cultivars were grown under well- watered irrigation and a drought stress treatment as 50% field capacity (FC) irrigation that started at heading stage in 2010-2011 growing season. Results showed that spike length (SL), grain number/spike (GN), thousand kernel weight (TKW)and grain yield (GY) were reduced by 8.2%, 14.6%, 17.5% and 52.5% due to drought stress at heading stage. GN had highest heritability (88%) compared to other grain yield related traits. The range for SL varied from 4.6 to 15.0 cm and some of landraces had higher SL than commercial varieties. KC4880 had the highest GN (40.6) in drought stress condition and it was in the second rank (42.3) after KC3885 (44.6) under well-watered treatment. The mean values for grain yield per square meter in well-watered plots varied from 586.1 to 811.1 g, while under drought stress conditions the range was from 217.0 to 546.3 g. The highest TKW (44.33 g) was observed in KC4502 in well-watered treatment while the lowest (23.08 g) belonged to the genotype KC4700. There were significantly positive correlations between grain yield under well-watered conditions (YP) and the indices tolerance (TOL) (r= 0.71), mean productivity (MP) (r= 0.31) and stress susceptibility index (SSI) (r= 0.55). Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that MP, geometric mean productivity (GMP) and stress tolerance index (STI) were more appropriate for prediction of Ys and based on biplot of two PCs genotypes were classified. Based on the positive correlation between stress tolerance index (STI) (r= 0.90) or geometric mean productivity (GMP) (r= 0.92) and grain yield, it can be concluded that the landraces such as KC4907, KC4863, KC4144, KC4779, KC4641, KC4880, KC4494, KC4502, with the highest GMP (ranged from 578.8 to 636.4) and STI (0.85-0.65) can be considered as drought tolerant in wheat breeding programs.

Open Access Conference Proceeding (Full Paper)

Genetic Studies on Some Earliness and Agronomic Characters in Advanced Generations in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

M. A. Aglan, W. Z. E. Farhat

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 790-798
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/8226

The early generation (F3 families) analysis measured the variance components of three crosses of five diverse parents. This work carried during three years 2010-13 at the experimental farm of Sakha Agricultural Research Station, Kafr El-Sheikh governorate, Egypt. The Data were recorded on days to heading, days to maturity, grain filling period and rate, plant height, number of spikes per plant, number of kernels per spike, 100-kernel weight and grain yield. The F3 families had highly significant differences in most cases. The ranges of the performance of the F3 families exceeded the limits of the minus and plus directions of their parents for most characters, showing the ability of selection for the desirable directions for these characters. The magnitude of genetic variance among the F3 families exceeded corresponding environmental variance, while the environmental variance was higher than or almost equal to the corresponding genetic variance among plants within families for most characters. The additive and dominance variances were important in all cases. The broad and narrow sense heritability and genetic advance estimates were relatively medium to high for most characters. 5% of plants for each cross were selected for ealry mature and high yielding to evaluate in sperate experment in the next season.

Open Access Original Research Article

Oxides and Heavy Metals Concentration around a Cement Plant at Yandev, Central Nigeria

Fanan Ujoh, Muhammad M. Alhassan

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 777-789
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/7462

Aims: To determine the level of concentration of oxides (chemicals) and heavy metals in 6 soil samples. To further compare the results with acceptable soil quality standards to ascertain the status of soil quality within the study area.
Study Design: Collection and analyses of soil samples from the vicinity of Dangote Cement factory, Yandev.
Place and Duration of Study: A total of 6 soil samples were collected: using a 2-kilometer interval, five samples were collected within the study area starting from the center of the Cement factory while the sixth soil sample was collected from a Control Community (Tarhembe) located 12 kilometers from the Cement factory in a part of Benue State, Nigeria. The total of six soil samples was collected in May 2013.
Methodology: Laboratory analyses were conducted for 27 soil parameters. Mean, maximum and minimum values and standard deviation, coefficient of determination (R2) and ANOVA for all 27 parameters was derived using SPSS Version 15 software. Using guidelines applied in various soil quality studies, the concentration levels of pollutants in soils samples were determined for all 27 parameters to establish whether or not their level of concentration at the study area constitute significant health problems.
Results: The mean values indicate high concentration levels above permissible limits for Iron (III) oxides, Calcium oxides, Magnesium oxides, Sodium oxides and Potassium oxides. Although the permissible limit values for other oxides could not be obtained, their mean concentration values appear to be generally higher in all soil samples closer to the factory than the Control sample. Heavy metals content in the 6 soil samples indicate that the mean values recorded for Iron, Lead, Manganese, Zinc, Copper and Conductivity exceed the permissible limits while the mean values for Organic Carbon, Calcium, Magnesium and pH occur below the permissible limit. Furthermore, the control sample reveals concentration below the permissible limits for Organic Carbon, Lead, Calcium and Magnesium, whereas samples 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 (2km, 4km, 6km, 8km and 10km from factory) contain concentration levels above the permissible limit.
Conclusion: Analysis indicates that the soils are polluted with some oxides and heavy metals originating from limestone mining and cement production. Therefore, the study concludes by recommending ameliorative strategies including consistent monitoring of the soil quality status, adoption of specialized technologies to curtail the rate of plume emission from stacks and the development of a phased environmental management plan (EMP) and/or impact mitigation plan (IMP) by local planning authorities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on Thermotherapy Treatment Effects on Seed Germination and Vigor of Tomato Cultivars

M. Divsalar, M. Shakeri, A. Khandan

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 799-809
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/8466

Hot water treatment presents great potential on the alternative control of seed pathogens. This research aimed to study the relation of hot water treatment to germination and vigor of tomato seeds of 3 varieties, to identify maximum combinations of temperature and exposure time of seeds with no detrimental effect on germination and vigor. The experiment was conducted as factorial based on complete randomized design in 3 replications. The treatments were cultivar at 3 levels (Super Star, Super Urbana and Queen), temperature in 5 levels (48, 52, 56, 60°C and control) and time of treatment in 4 levels (10, 20, 30 and 40 minutes). The measured traits were germination percent, germination rate, and some seed vigor aspects including seedling radicle length and shoot length and seedling dry weight. The analysis of variance showed seeds treatment in temperatures of 56°C and 60°C for 30 and 40 min had detrimental effect on germination and vigor. There was a significant difference among cultivars in germination percent and germination rate, especially at higher temperatures. Queen cultivar showed better germination ability and Super Star was the most sensitive to high temperatures (56 and 60°C) and had the lowest germination ability and vigor.