Open Access Conference Proceeding (Full Paper)

Micropropagation and Production of Rondeletia odorata Jacq from In vitro Technique

Salwa S. Sakr, Afaf M. Habib, M. A. El-Shamy, Heba B. Soliman

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1167-1181
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/8194

The objective of this study was to investigate the most suitable treatments for micropropagation of Rondeletia odorata Jacq. Rondeletia are of slow growth, and not many cultivator of plants care to give time and space to raise them.
The explants were sterilized by immersion in a Clorox solution at 5, 10, 15, 20 or 25% at 20 min plus 3 drops of Tween 20 and Hg2Cl at 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 mg/l at 1 min. Shoot tips and auxiliary buds survived after surface sterilization were cultured on MS-strength medium (full, half and quarter salt strength), supplemented with NAA at 0.0, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/l and their combination. For multiplication stage, 2iP at 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 3.0 or 4.0 mg/l and IBA at 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg/l. The second experiment BA at 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg/l and Kin at 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mg/l were used. Shoot was cultured on MS-strength medium at full, half or quarter salt strength with activated charcoal at 0.0 or 3.0 g/l and different concentrations of NAA at 0.0, 0.1, 0.5 or 1.0 mg/l. In the same time, IBA and IAA at 0.0, 0.1, 0.5, or 2.5 mg/l was added alone for rooting. All rooted shoots were acclimatized on peat moss and sand with 1:1, 1:2 or 1:3 (v/v) under plastic tunnel under plastic house conditions.
Study results, 15 % Clorox plus 0.5mg/l Hg2Cl gave good results for surface sterilization. For the explants were collected gradually from the mother plants at establishment stage, the shoots were tallest at August and June. MS at half strength and 0.5 mg/l NAA induced the highest shoot length and number of leaves in establishment stage. In the multiplication stage at the first experiments, the highest shoot length and number of leaves was recorded on MS medium supplemented with 2.0mg/l IBA. At the second experiments, the highest number of shoots was found at 1.5mg/l BA. The highest number of roots; root length and callus formation was formed at quarter strength of MS medium and 0.5mg/l NAA. A high percentage of plant survival (22.22%) was achieved at pots containing only peat moss.
This study was achieved to the most suitable protocol for micropropagation of Rondeletia odorata Jacq. This Acclimatization, however, need further work to increase establishment at greenhouse.

Open Access Conference Proceeding (Full Paper)

Economic Feasibility Study on the Use of Certain Amendments in the Bioremediation of Sewaged Soil

A. Frag, H. F. Abouziena, M. Saber, E. M. Hoballah, Fatma Abd-El-Zaher, A.M. Zaghloul

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1182-1199
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/8570

Cairo is now served by six large wastewater treatments works which produce significant quantities of sewage water. The preferred option is to use this in agriculture, particularly in reclaimed desert land which is inherently deficient in organic matter, nutrients and trace elements. The aim of this study was to assess economic feasibility of a novel biotechnology for remediation of sewaged soils on a long term basis. A field study was carried out at Abu-Rawash Sewage Farm where the soil has been irrigated with water sewage for 32 years and the site provides a possible model of the potential long-term effects of heavy metals and other pollutants on crops in the contaminated sewaged soils in Egypt. The high contaminated sewaged soil was bioremediated for 60 days with sole or combined remediative amendments in different treatments including uncultivated control, cultivated control, inoculation with AM, inoculation with a mixture of Thiobacillus thiooxidans & Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, treated with probentonite or treated with combined mixture of all the aforementioned remediative amendments before sowing. Canola was sowing in winter season as a hyperacumulator plants after remediative periods. Save grains, seeds and oil yield were determined after canola and maize harvest. The costs for land preparation, bioremediation materials and processing, cultivation operation and requirements for growing and harvesting canola and maize (summer season) were calculated. Three scenarios have been conducted i.e. rent the land and buying the variable and fixed production factor, without yield useful, the second scenario similar to the first one but take a yield from maize in the first year, and the third scenario is rent all production factors with sold a maize yield in the first year. The final results indicate that the internal rate of return for the first, second and third scenarios were 21.1%, and 44.2%, and 38.3% respectively. Accordingly, the 2nd scenario was the best one under our experimental conditions after bioremediation of contaminated soils, and may also be applied by the farmers whom do not have a large capital for the purchase the fixed assets.

Open Access Conference Proceeding (Full Paper)

Improving Pollination Process of Samani Date Palm Cultivar Using the Bio-Activator Milagro Stimcrop

Malaka A. Saleh, M.S. El- Shamma, Omaima M. M. Hafez, Essam A. Mostafa, M. M. Naguib

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1200-1209
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/8086

This study was carried out during two successive seasons 2011 & 2012 for improving pollination process of Samani date palm cultivar grown in sandy soil of private orchard located at Abo-Rawash region, El-Giza Governorate, Egypt. Uniform date palms 20 years old were treated for three times i.e. (i) pollen grains, (ii) Millagro Stimcrop and (iii) Pollen grains with Milagro Stimcrop. The first was applied in dust form as soon as female inflorescence opened. The second and third were applied after month and two months from initial treatment using the same rates. Effect of the bio- activator Milagro Stimcrop on improving pollination process, yield and fruit quality was assessed.
Results showed the different treatments markedly improved pollination process, yield and fruit quality of Samani date palm. The best results were achieved as 1g pollen grain was combined with 1g Milagro Stimcrop which recorded the highest significant values for fruit set and retained fruits. Also, the physical and chemical characteristics of fruits expressed by fruit shape, weight, volume, flesh value, bunch weight and yield/tree as well as SSC %, reducing sugars and total sugars were markedly enhanced. This means that the bio-activator Milagro Stimcrop has a good stimulant action for improving pollination process, yield and fruit quality of Samani date palm cultivar as combined with pollen grains in dust form at rate (1g+1g), besides its environmentally safe effect as non-chemical tool.

Open Access Conference Proceeding (Full Paper)

An Investigation of the Relationship between Climate Change, Water Demand and Price of Wheat and Maize Crops in Egypt

I. I. Sadek, Fatma S. S. Moursy, M. A. M. Heggi, A. A. Farag

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1210-1235
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/8134

The objective of this work was to estimated crop yield production, water demand and prices for wheat (Triticum aestivum vulgar. L) and maize (zea maiz. L), under two climate change scenarios (A1 and B1) and compare this results to the current statues. Fluxes of production, water demand and prices were evaluated in three different climatic areas (Lower, Middle and Upper Egypt) through 25 years from 1988 to 2012. Estimations for the production, water demand and prices were done for both crops at years 2025, 2050 and 2100.
Concerning the estimated yield production, obtained results presented a negative relationship between both wheat and maize yield and climate change circumstances in the studied areas. However, a positive relationship were found between water demand and prices in a side and increasing air temperature under climate change conditions on the other side. On other hand, the results lead to reduction of water use efficiency (WUE) and return of water unit at three areas. Also, the greatest shortage was indicated in estimated year 2100.

Open Access Conference Proceeding (Full Paper)

Evaluation and Preservation of Some Longan Cultivars

M. R. M. Masoud, Fatma H. M. El–Massry, Lobna A. M. Hareedy

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1236-1253
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/8724

Aims: This study was performed to choose or select the best cultivars of longan fruit (Wuyuan, "Wu" and Kohala, "Ko"). Longan is an untraditional new crop fruits recently grown in new reclaimed areas. Besides, to investigate the possibility of preserving those aforementioned fruits
Study Design: About 20Kg of longan cultivars namely Wuyuan (Wu) and Kohala (Ko) were used in this study which has been recently performed by (HRI), harvest at suitable stage of maturity. Cultivars were obtained from Horticultural Research Institute (HRI). The cultivars were peeled and put in glass jars, then covered with high fructose corn syrup plus sucrose to obtain final concentration of 40%.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of horticulture research. Food Technology Research Institute. Agriculture Research Center, between June 2011 and November 2013.
Methodology: Soaking in different concentrations of High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS) plus sucrose, then stored at ambient temperature (25±2ºC) in glass jars for six months. As well as studying the influence of storage at ambient temperature (25±2ºC) on chemical and physical properties of the processed product. The effect of preservation using (HFCS and sucrose) solution to final concentration (40%) on the quality attributes during storage was investigated.
Results: The obtained results revealed that longan (Wu) cultivar soaked in (HFCS and sucrose by 1: 3, 3: 1 and 40% HFCS) solution were found to be the best products. The obtained data also revealed that longan cultivar (Wu) had the highest palatability of sensory attributes scores especially color, taste, texture, odor and overall palatability when treated as follows: (HFCS): sucrose (3:1) (treatment No. 3) and 1 : 3 (treatment No. 1) and HFCS 40% (treatment No. 4), respectively. The results also ascertained that fresh as well as stored longan cultivars (Wu) had the highest values for qualitative characteristics, sugars, T.S.S., ascorbic acid, hunter color measurements and cyaniding 3 glucoside, compared to the other studied cultivar (Ko). This could be attributed to the addition of HFCS syrup to longan fruit. Dehulled of (Wu) cultivar were found to have the most amounts of (ascorbic acid, T.S.S. and attractive lightness color measurements) after soaking in HFCS plus sucrose solution as well as during storage in glass jars up to 6 months at ambient temperature (25±2°C). So, "Ko" and "Wu" longan cultivars packed in glass jars covered with the aforementioned sugar HFCS solution retained their quite palatable, qualities during storage at ambient temperature for up to 6 months. All investigated samples maintained their original sensory properties up to 6 months.
Conclusion: Thus, the technological trend for utilization of large quantities cultivated of longan fruits in new reclaimed areas is a matter of great importance. This would lead to produce new untraditional products passing high nutritional value plus high quality of sensory attribute greeting new work opportunities by establishing a factory to produce those aforementioned new products either for local or abroad consumption must be put in consideration through that investigation. Also, the utilization of high fructose corn syrup for the production of canned longan could be recommended to replace sucrose. This replacement would reduce sucrose consumption as well as the cost of production

Open Access Conference Proceeding (Full Paper)

In vitro Propagation of Polyscias fruticosa Plant

Salwa S. Sakr, Saad S. Melad, M. A. El-Shamy, Asmaa E. Abd Elhafez

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1254-1265
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/8225

The aim of this work was to develop a well defined protocol for in vitro propagation of Polyscias fruticosa plant.
A factorial experiment in a complete randomized design was employed in all experiments. Analysis of variance as described to compare statistical differences between treatments using L.S.D at 5% probability level by Snedecor and Cochran.
This study was carried out during the period from 2008 to 2011 aiming to achieved the most suitable protocol for micro propagation of Polyscias fruticosa Harms in Laboratory of Tissue Culture, Zohria Botanical Garden, Horticulture Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center.
The young shoots were sterilized by immersion in a clorox (commercial bleach 5.25% sodium hypochlorite) solution at the rates of 20, 25 and 30 % for 10, 15, 20 and 25 min. Shoot tips were cultured on (Murashige and Skoog) MS medium supplemented with (Benzylaminopurine) BA at 0.0, 1.0, 3.0, or 5.0 mg/l and (Kinetin) kin at 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 or 4.0 mg/l, and 3 g/l (activated charcoal) AC. The shoots obtained from establishment stage were cultured on multiplication media. Three sets of experiments with combination of different phytohormones for shoot regeneration were performed. The first experiment multiplication media consisted of MS medium supplemented with BA at 0.0, 1.0, 3.0 or 5.0 mg/l and kin at 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 or 4.0 mg/l, and their combinations. In the second experiment multiplication media consisted of (Woody Plant medium) WPM basal nutrient medium supplemented with BA at 0.0, 1.0, 3.0 or 5.0 mg/l and kin at 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 or 4.0 mg/l, and their combinations. In the third experiment multiplication media consisted of (Gamborg medium) B5 basal nutrient medium supplemented with BA at 0.0, 1.0, 3.0 or 5.0 mg/l and kin at 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 or 4.0 mg/l, and their combinations. Shoots were cultured on MS basal rooting medium supplemented with (Naphthalene acetic acid) NAA at 0.0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg/l or (Indole butyric acid) IBA at 0.0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg/l for 45 days. Rooted plantlets were singly picked out into 5 cm plastic pots filled with 1:0, 1:1, 1:2 or 1:3 (v:v) peatmoss and sand, respectively.
The interaction between 25% clorox for 15 minutes resulted in the highest value for survival. For the establishment stage, 3.0 mg/l BA and 2.0 mg/l kin showed the tallest shoots. For multiplication stage, the highest shoot length, number of shoots, number of leaves and callus formation was obtained at B5 medium supplemented with 5.0 mg/l BA and 2.0 mg/l kin. For NAA on rooting, the highest number of roots and root length was obtained on medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l NAA. The highest percentage of plant survival was achieved by transplanting of the plantlets to pots containing sand and peatmoss at the ratio of 1:1(v/v).
This study was carried to develop the most suitable protocol for micropropagation of Polyscias fruticosa Harms, while ex vitro acclimatization need further work to increase establishment at greenhouse.

Open Access Conference Proceeding (Full Paper)

The Use of Remote Sensing Data and GIS to Determine and Detect Land Use/Land Cover Change in the Eastern Part of the Tripoli, Libya

Akeel Ellafi, Julia Meaton

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1266-1289
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/8439

Many areas of the Middle-east and North Africa (MENA) are experiencing land use change. The causes of this vary but include urbanisation, deforestation, and the greater issue of climate change. The implications of such land use change are broad but key problems include desertification and loss of land productivity.
In Libya, there is plenty of anecdotal evidence regarding changes in land use, but very little empirical evidence exists to quantify these changes. This paper is one of the first to quantify land use change in the eastern part of Tripoli. It shows how rapid urbanisation has affected the land use and land cover. Multi-temporal Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery has been used to determine and detect land use/ land cover changes from 1986 to 2009 with the help of land sat images based on remote sensing data. The remote sensing data used the Image Classification method is applied to classify the study area into four categories including urban area, forest land, bare land and irrigated farmland. Between 1986 and 2009, the urban area almost doubled in size from 4,997 ha in 1986 to 9,653ha in 2009 while forest land dropped by 1,793ha during the same period. Bare land, however, increased in size by 2,353 ha and irrigated farmland had reduced by nearly 65% in size during the study period. The outcomes revealed a significant increase in urban expansion alongside a significant decrease in agricultural land use over the 23 years period. The analysis indicated that this trend has emerged due to a direct exchange of agriculture, forest and bare land, for urban development.
The implications of such massive changes, in a relative short space of time, indicate that there is a significant and growing problem for Libya. If this pattern of land use change is happening throughout Libya the potential impacts on food productivity and water availability could undermine the sustainability of the whole nation. More research needs to be undertaken to find out how communities are affected by these changes and how they are responding to these challenges. This issue needs to be a priority policy area for the new Libyan government.

Open Access Conference Proceeding (Full Paper)

The Synergistic Effect of Spraying Some Plant Extracts with Some Macro and Micro Nutrients of Thompson Seedless Grapevines

Maher Kh. U. Armanious

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1290-1301
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/8610

During 2012 and 2013 seasons, Thompson seedless grapevines were treated three times with turmeric, garlic and onion extracts each at 0.05 to 0.1% as well as Zn, Fe and Mn in chelated form at 0.05 % and Cu in sulphate form at 0.025 % and NPKMg each at 0.1% either applied singly or in all possible combinations. the study focused on the effect of these treatments on growth, vine nutritional status, yield and fruit quality.
The results revealed that using turmeric extract was preferable than using the other two plant extracts (garlic and onion) in improving the leaf area, nutrients status, yield and fruit quality. In addition, spraying the four macronutrients surpassed the use of the four micronutrients in this respect.
For promoting yield of Thompson seedless grapevines quantitively and qualititively ,it is advised to spray the vines with turmeric extract at 0.05% besides all nutrients namely, NPKMg each at 0.1% , Mn, Zn, Fe at 0.05 % and Cu at 0.025% , three times.

Open Access Conference Proceeding (Full Paper)

Water-Use Efficiency and Ammonium-N Source Applied of Wheat under Irrigated and Desiccated Conditions

Emad M. Hafez, Adel Y. Ragab, Tohru Kobata

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1302-1316
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/9075

Pot experiment laid out to study the effects of watering, nitrogen fertilization, and their interactions on the growth, dry matter production and water use efficiency of two cultivars(Egyptian Sakha94 cultivated in 2009/2010 season and Turkish Adana99 cultivated in 2010/2011 season) of wheat. The experiment laid out in randomized complete design. Cultivars were grown in pots at the greenhouse of the Faculty of Life and Environmental Science, Shimane University during 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 growing seasons. Two watering levels started after booting stage (well-watered and desiccated) and five nitrogen fertilization levels0.0, 0.24, 0.48, 0.72 and 0.96g pot-1 (0.0, 75, 150, 225, 300kg N h-1) respectively, were designed. Our objective was to determine the effect of nitrogen (N) from ammonium sulfate split-applied at different rates before anthesis on water use efficiency under well-watered and desiccated conditions in the recent Egyptian cultivarSakha94 and Turkish Adana99 used in pots. The results showed that the leaf area, shoot dry matter production at anthesis, total dry matter production, number of spikelet’s spike-1, number of spikelet’s pot-1, number of spikes pot-1, spad value after sowing to anthesis time, consumptive use and water use efficiency of wheat increased with increasing level of nitrogen under well-watered conditions for both cultivars, but the stomatal conductance and transpiration rate decreased under desiccated conditions. No significantly difference among N levels under desiccated conditions. It was considered that under our experimental condition applied 0.96 g N pot-1 (300 kg N ha-1) led to significantly increase in WUE in both cultivars under irrigated and desiccated conditions. However, WUE was significantly higher in desiccated conditions than irrigated conditions in in Sakha94 than Adana99. May the primary cause of increased WUE, decreasing leaf chlorophyll concentration, photosynthesis rate and stomatal conductance (gs).

Open Access Conference Proceeding (Full Paper)

Effect of Foliar Spraying With 5- Aminolevulinic Acid and Different Types Amino Acids on Growth of Date Palm of Plantlets after Acclimatization in the Green House

S. S. Darwesh Rasmia, Abeer H. E. Abd-El Kareim, H. M. Mona

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1317-1332
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/8436

This study aimed to evaluation the effects of 5- aminolevulinic acid which is the precursor of chlorophyll, in addition to glutamine, asparagine, arginine, proline, tyrosine and tryptophan on the date palm plantlets (Phoenix dactylifera L.) which produced by tissue culture in the green house after acclimatization to increasing the growth parameters of this plantlets. Complete randomized block design was used. to conduct the experiment at three treatments 100,200 and 300mg/l with three replicates and control treatment (without spraying), these treatments was subjected as weekly spraying one time/week, all plantlets received 3g/l NPK with irrigation water one time/week, vegetative growth parameters of plantlets were estimated (plant height cm, leaves number/plantlet, stem thickness cm and fresh and dry weight of leaves (g), also chemical leaves contents as, Indoles, chlorophyll a and b, total amino acids and total sugars. Results showed the response of growth parameters increased with foliar application of all amino acids treatment, lowest mean value was found with tyrosine application, maximum response for growth parameters was observed at the level of 300 mg/l of all treatments of amino acids as compared to (control treatment) non-sprayed plants. Leaves contents of indoles mg/g f.w., chlorophyll a and b mg/g f.w., total amino acids mg/g d.w. and total sugars % were greater rising with spraying of different types of amino acids; the results showed that highest interaction was found between all types of amino acids with the concentration 300mg/l.So from results the application of 5- aminolevulinic acid and different types of amino acids was to be useful to promote growth of date palm plantlets in the greenhouse.

Open Access Conference Proceeding (Full Paper)

A Comparative Study for the Effect of Green Tea Extract and Some Antioxidants on Thompson Seedless Grapevines

Mohamed A. M. Abada

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1333-1342
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/8611

Leaf area, plant pigments, leaf content of N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Zn, Fe and Mn, yield and berry quality of Thompson seedless grapevines in response to spraying green tea extract, ascorbic acid and citric acid each at 250 to 1000 ppm as well as salicylic acid at 50 to 200 ppm were investigated during 2012 and 2013 seasons.
Spraying green tea extract or any one of the three antioxidants was very effective in stimulating the leaf area, plant pigments, all nutrients in the leaves, yield as well as physical and chemical characteristics of the grapes in relative to the check treatment. The promotion was associated with using ascorbic acid, green tea extract, salicylic acid and citric acid, in descending order. In all cases, no clear effect was detected on all the investigated parameters among the higher two concentration of green tea extract and the three antioxidants.
Treating Thompson seedless grapevines three times with ascorbic acid at 500 ppm or green tea at the same concentration is suggested to be beneficial for promoting yield quantitively and qualitively.

Open Access Conference Proceeding (Full Paper)

Evaluation the Efficacy of Baker Yeast (Saccaromyces cerevisiae) and Chitosan to Controlling Penicillium digitatum Sacc that Cause Green Mold Decay of Kumquat Fruits

M. A. Abd-Allag, Nadia G. El-Gamal

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1343-1354
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/9021

The commercial backing yeast of Saccharomyces cereivisae [Meyen ex E. C. Hansen] and/or chitosan was evaluated for their in vitro activity against the fungal growth of P. digitatium the causal agents of kumquats fruit decay. Baker yeast S. cerevisiae at 2% resulting a highly and significantly reduction of P. digitatum linear growth by 32.4% if compared with control treatment. All chitosan concentrations were tested result a significant reduction of P. digitatium linear growth, chitosan at 2% resulting highly reduction of pathogen growth by 78.3% followed by 71.5% at 1% concentration. Chitosan at 2% was mixed with backer yeast (B.Y) at 2% resulting significant and highly reduction of P. digitatium linear growth by 82.5% followed by chitosan 1% mixed by baker yeast (B.Y) 2% by 77.5% reduction of pathogen linear growth if compared with control treatment. Under application trials, kumquat fruits were coated with chitosan ½% decreased the green mold incidence by 83.6% while, fruits were coated with chitosan at 2% and 1% resulting a highly reduction of green mold disease incidence by 80.3% and 78.4%, respectively. Kumquat fruits were coated with baker yeast (S. cerevisiae) at 2% concentration reducing the green mold disease incidence by 79.5% and the same concentration was reducing the percentage of disease severity by 72.3% if compared with un-coated fruits. In combination treatments, kumquat fruits were coated with chitosan at 2% combined with baker yeast (B.Y) at 2% resulting a highly and, significant reduction of green mold incidence and disease severity by 75.1% and 90.0%, respectively. The combination of baker yeast (B.Y) at 2% and chitosan at 2% could be a promising a safe and cheep method for the control of green mold disease of kumquat fruits.

Open Access Conference Proceeding (Full Paper)

Using Silica Nanoparticles and Neemoil Extract as New Approaches to Control Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) in Tomato under Field Conditions

M. F. M. El-Samahy, Asmaa M. El-Ghobary, I. F. Khafagy

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1355-1365
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/8435

Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of silica nanoparticles and neem oil extract at different concentrations compared with recommended chemical insecticide (imidacloprid) against T. absoluta under field conditions.
Study Design: Seven treatments plus control in randomized complete block design (RCB) at four replicates.
Place and Duration of Study: This experiment was carried out at El-Ryiad region, Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate under field conditions during two tomato growing seasons; 2012 and 2013.
Methodology: About 0.14 hectar (1400 m2) was transplanted with Star variety seedlings as one of the most common variety cultivated at Kafr El-Sheikh region. Recommended agricultural practices were adopted normally. The nano silica size was 20 nm with a purity of 99.99% at three concentrations and neem oil at three concentrations also compared with chemical insecticide with recommended dose. To calculate the percentage of T. absoluta reduction, Henderson Tilton's formula was used. Also, the number and the weight of tomato fruits at harvest from 20 plants (5 plants/replicate) were recorded and estimating the Vitamin C (mg/100 g of sample) and Total Soluble Solids percentage (TSS %) as a quality parameters.
Results: Using silica nanoparticles reduced significantly the numbers of T. absoluta larvae followed by neem oil extract compared with check (without any treatments). There were not significant differences between using silica nanoparticles and imidacloprid (p>0.05) in control T. absoluta. There were not significant differences when analyzing the content of tomato fruits resulting from the different treatments compared to the check, however, must be taken into account the residual impact of the chemical pesticide. The results also showed a significant increase in the weight and size of tomato fruits as a result of the silica nanoparticles treatment.
Conclusion: Silica nanoparticles was effective in control T. absoluta under field condition with high yield in tomato. Also, we need more study to showed the side effects on natural enemies during using silica nanoparticles.

Open Access Conference Proceeding (Full Paper)

Antimicrobial Activity of Some Plant and Algal Extracts

Moustafa A. Abbassy, Gehan I. Kh. Marei, Selwan M. H. Rabia

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1366-1373
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/8440

The use of advanced, effective and less toxic antimicrobial agents are required for the treatment of plant pathogens. In this study, hexane and ethanol extracts of two plants (Sesbania sesban and Cymbopogon citratus) and two algae species (Spirulina platensis and Scendusmus sp.) were screened for their antifungal and antibacterial activity on eight fungi (Rhizoctonia solani, Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger, Alternaria solani, Pythium debarianum, Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium digitatum) and two species of bacteria (Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Erwinia carotovora var. carotovora). Extracts of these plants and algae showed varied levels of antifungal and antibacterial activity. It was found that, the ethanol extracts of S.sesban plant and S. platensis alga had a high activity on tested fungi. On the other hand, the ethanol extracts of Scendesmus sp. alga and S. sesban plant showed the highest antibacterial activity against tested bacteria. The ethanol extract of S. sesban was the most potent fungitoxic extract against both A. niger and A. solani fungi with effective concentration (EC50) values of 0.135 and 0.011mg/L, respectively. On contrary, Scendesmus sp. ethanol extract revealed the highest inhibitory effect against E. carotovora var. carotovora bacteria.