Open Access Short Research Article

Effects of Different Manures on Quantity of Sulfur Compounds in the Garlic

O. Mahmutovic, A. Bahto, M. Pucarevic, S. Ibragic, E. Sofic

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1531-1537
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/12145

Aims: Study investigates relation of sulfur compounds content in garlic and different type of manures that were used for rearing of this vegetable. Measured parameter was total sulfur which could be a valid parameter of content of aromatic and medicinal sulfur compounds in garlic (alliin etc.).
Study Design: Quality of garlic mainly depends from content of sulfur compounds, there are articles related to influence of mineral fertilizer on the quality of garlic bulbs but effect of manures hasn’t been enough investigated. This research should give an estimation of effect of some manures on the quantity of sulfur compounds in garlic.
Place and Duration of Study: Sarajevo University - Department of Chemistry, Educons University - Department for Ecological Agriculture, Laboratory of Public Enterprise „Vodno podrucje sliva rijeke Save“, between Mart 2012 - June 2013.
Methodology: Garlic plants were treated separately with: sheep, poultry, cow manures and mineral fertilizer. Total sulfur analysis of garlic bulbs was performed by the Ion Chromatography method, with the sample first being treated in a strong oxidizing media by mixture of perchloric and nitric acid. Total sulfur quantity in the manures was quantified by ICP-OES, samples previously have been treated with nitric acid.
Results: The highest level of total sulfur was found in the fresh bulb of garlic that has been treated with poultry manure - it was 30% higher than in garlic which has been cultivated with cow manure and 40% higher compared with garlic that has been cultivated with sheep manure. The total sulfur content in the manures was different: The highest was in sheep manure, followed by poultry and the lowest level was found in cow manure.
Conclusion: Application of poultry manure has resulted in best quality garlic. The most important parameter that can increase the content of sulfur compounds in garlic is the possibility of mineralizing the manure.

Open Access Short Research Article

Effect of Alfalfa Inoculation with Associative Rhizobacteria Strains on Yield of Green Biomass and Soil Fertility in Central Yakutia

M. T. Yakovleva, A. L. Germogenova

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1538-1541
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/11386

The article gives long-term experimental data of studies on the effect of associative nitrogen-fixing microorganisms on alfalfa biomass yield, quality parameters, and soil fertility of permafrost soils of Central Yakutia.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study of β-galactosidase and Alanine Amino Transferase Enzymes during the Germination of Rice, Wheat, Ragi and Bajra

Chandra Kumari, Savitha Gujjaiah

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1524-1530
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/11665

Biomolecules are converted by the action of enzymes during the germination process and these are translocated to the growing seedlings serving as an enzyme source and for the synthesis of new biomolecules. The objective in the present study was to quantify the enzymatic activity of β-galactosidase and alanine amino transferase in rice, wheat, ragi and bajra on different days of germination. Germination was carried out for a period of 8 days. The enzymes activity increased differentially to an extent on the different days on germination in rice, wheat, ragi and bajra. This indicates the breakdown of molecules differs and the mechanism which is operating during the germination varies from species to species, depending on the requirement for the developing seedlings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mechanism of Salinity Tolerance in Oleaster and Cultivated Olive Tree: Physiological and Morphological Characterization of the Foliar System

Hassani Abdelkrim, Seddiki-gharabi Dhia, Kouadria Mostefa, Bounaceur Farid, Hellal Benchaben, Moulay Belkhodja

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1542-1551
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/11307

Aims: The olive tree has a positive impact on the environment and help to the conservation of the landscapes. Better adapted to aridity conditions around the Mediterranean, it is a fastening element for the rural population. Oleaster (the wild olive tree) represents a valuable phyto-resource for the improvement of the olive trees varieties. This work focuses on determining the physiological and morphological response of the foliar system in cultivated olive tree (variety Sigoise) and Oleaster in condition of different salinity level of the irrigation water (by increasing NaCl concentration).
Methodology: The experiment took place in a greenhouse with a well controlled condition. The experimental plan is in a complete randomization of two factors (salinity and species) and three salinity levels (treatments); plants without NaCl application were used as control. The plant material (young 2-year-old olive seedlings) was selected and brought from a crop nursery. The experimentation started by the irrigation of the control plant with a nutrient solution. About the other treatments, the tree seedlings received a nutrient solution fortified by the addition of the NaCl with increasing doses of 75,100 and 150mM of the NaCl. Four repetitions are being done according to the field capacity.
Results and Conclusion: The study covered the variation of the relative water content in leaves as well as the leaf surface, stomata density, the wax rate on the upper foliar epidermis and their internal anatomy. According to the achieved results, the relative water content of the treated plants decreased when compared to the control plants. The same was found for leave surface and stomata density. On the other hand, the wax rate increased in the salt stress situations compared to the control plant and to the bulbous form cells’ number and the wood vessels.

Open Access Original Research Article

The High Metal Macronutrients Selectivity over Na+ of Puccinellia chinampoensis Ohwi in the Rhizosphere of Sodic Soil

T. Yoshida, L. Zhao, H. B. Wang, A. Sato, A. K. Xu, M. Q. Zhao, B. L. Qi, X. M. Guo, S. Kawai

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1552-1566
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/12807

The uptake of metal macronutrients (K+, Ca2+, Mg2+) and Na+ of Puccinellia chinampoensis Ohwi (P. chinampoensis), a sodic tolerant plant, were investigated in both sodic and alkaline soil. In the first experiment, sodic soil was collected from Songnen Plain in Jilin Province in northeast China. P. chinampoensis, Festuca arundinacea Schreb. (F. arundinacea) and Dactylis glomerata L. (D. glomerata) were grown in the sodic soil in growth chamber under natural light, but the plants did not grow. Then, the plants were grown in sodic soil mixed with vermiculite (artificial soil). The plants grew, and P. chinampoensis and F. arundinacea showed better growth than D. glomerata in the artificial soil. P. chinampoensis showed higher K level than the other plants and maintained low Na level in the shoot. Besides, P. chinampoensis had tremendously low Na/K, Na/Ca, and Na/Mg ratios. In the properties of artificial soil, soil pH was similar to the original sodic soil which was over 10. However, the soil cation exchange capacity (soil CEC) was higher, and the soil electrical conductivity (soil EC) and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) were lower than the original sodic soil. In the second experiment, P. chinampoensis and Leymus chinensis [Trin.] Tzvelev (L. chinensis) were grown on natural alkaline area in the Songnen Plain. There were no significant differences of the Na, K, Ca, and Mg levels in the both plants. Especially, though the concentration of exchangeable K+ was more than double, K level of P. chinampoensis in the alkaline soil was about one-tenth of that in the artificial soil. It was concluded that P. chinampoensis had high selectivity of metal macronutrients over Na+ which functions in sodic soils. Besides, it seemed that high soil EC and exchangeable Na+ were more harmful than high soil pH for plant growth on sodic soils.

Open Access Original Research Article

Root Properties of Plants Used for Soil Erosion Control in the Usambara Mountains, Tanzania

S. B. Mwango, B. M. Msanya, P. W. Mtakwa, D. N. Kimaro, J. Deckers, J. Poesen, V. Massawe, I. Bethuel

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1567-1580
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/12102

Plant roots may have a strong erosion-reducing effect. However, little is known about root characteristics of tropical plants used for erosion control. A study was thus conducted in the Western Usambara Mountains, Tanzania to investigate rooting characteristics of Guatemala grass (Tripsacum andersonii), Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and Tithonia shrub (Tithonia diversifolia), also referred to as wild sunflower, and to evaluate their potential for erosion control. For each plant species, mean root diameter (D), root density (RD), root length density (RLD) and root area ratio (RAR) were assessed for six plants in each species and relative soil detachment rate (RSD) predicted. Mean RD values in the 0 - 0.4 m soil depth for Majulai village and Migambo village respectively were 50.9 and 58.6 kg/m3 for Guatemala grass, 30.4 and 31.3 kg/m3 for Napier grass and 22.1 and 23.0 kg/m3 for Tithonia shrub. RLD values were 35.9 and 45.0 km/m3 for Guatemala grass, 31.3 and 150.0 km/m3 for Napier grass and 10.5 and 6.4 km/m3 for Tithonia shrub. Predicted RSD values were 4.43*10-12 and 1.20*10-14 for Guatemala grass, 6.10*10-5 and 2.74*10-4 for Napier grass and 4.43*10-3 and 2.24*10-4 for Tithonia shrub in the 0 - 0.4 m soil depth. The results indicate that Guatemala grass has a higher potential to reduce soil erosion rates by concentrated flow as compared to Napier grass or Tithonia shrub in the 0 - 0.4 m soil depth. These findings have implications on the selection and use of appropriate plants for soil erosion control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Milletia ichthyochtona Drake Solution on Cabbage Production Components

Bui Lan Anh, Nguyen Minh Tuan, Bui Nu Hoang Anh

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1581-1589
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/11057

The study was performed to evaluate the efficiency of Milletia ichthyochtona Drake solution on control of insect pests in cabbage crop. Milletia ichthyochtona Drake solution, Soap 0.1% was sprayed at 15, 35 and 45 days after transplanting. The effect of all treatments on cabbage growth was measured. The leaf number, head diameter, head weight and quality of cabbage vegetable were recorded. The efficiency of Milletia ichthyochtona Drake solution, Soap 0.1% on cabbage insect pests was measured. Results showed that sprayed with Milletia ichthyochtona Drake solution, Soap 0.1% was markedly reduced the number of days required for the cabbage growth. Moreover, sprayed with Milletia ichthyochtona Drake solution greatly enhanced the leaf number, head diameter, head weight, and quality of cabbage. Furthermore, sprayed Milletia ichthyochtona Drake solution have positive effects on pest reduction, and improve growth, yield and quality of cabbage vegetable.

Open Access Review Article

Pesticidal Efficacy of Four Botanical Pesticides on Survival, Oviposition and Progeny Development of Bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus in Stored Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata

Prisila A. Mkenda, Patrick A. Ndakidemi

International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, Page 1504-1523
DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2014/12151

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) production is limited by various insect pests that attack and damage the crops both in the field and during storage. Cowpea bruchids, Callosobruchus maculatus are the major insect pests of cowpea which infest the cowpea grains in the field, and then carried into the store where the population builds up rapidly. Chemical insecticide application is one of the management options that has been used for many years to control the insect pests. However, due to the side effects associated with those insecticides, there has been a resurgence need of using botanical pesticides to control insect pests in the field as well as in storage. This review aims to increase an awareness of using selected botanicals (Tephrosia vogelii, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Tithonia diersifolia, Lippia javanica and Vernonia amygdalina) as the cheap, effective and environmental friendly insect pest management strategy against bruchids in stored cowpea. The bioactive compounds from these plants offer great potential of developing botanical pesticides against postharvest insects in stores.